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GREAT BRITAIN, with 16 Maps, 30 Plans, and a Panorama. 

Third Edition. 1894. 10 marks. 

LONDON and its ENVIRONS, with 3 Maps and 1 8 Plans. 

Ninth Edition. 1894. 6 marks 

THE UNITED STATES, with an Excursion into Mexico. 

With 17 Maps and 22 Plans. 1893. 12 marks. 

THE DOMINION OF CANADA, with Newfoundland and 

Alaska, wi 

Eleventh Editi 


Maps and 21 I 


Eleventh Editi 


30 Plans. Sev 


oramas. Sevei 

GREECE , with : 

Second Editioi 


VENNA, with 


a Panorama oi 


5 marks. 

s and 21 Plans- 

6 marks. 
ITANCE, with 39 

7 marks. 

and 56 Plans. 

8 marks. 

ith 15 Maps and 

8 marks . 

ans, and 7 Pan- 

8 marks. 

irama of Athens. 

;" '8 marks. 

Floren^ Ra- 

Dn. 1895. 8 marks. 
is, 33 Plans, and 

G marks. 

SOUTHERN ITALY, SICILY, etc., with 25 Maps and 16 Plans. 

Eleventh Edition. 1893. 6 marks. 

NORWAY, SWEDEN, and DENMARK, with 26 Maps, 

15 Plans, and 2 Panoramas. Fifth Edition. 1892. 10 marks. 

PARIS and its ENVIRONS, with Routes from London 

TO PARIS. With 12 Maps and 33 Plans. Eleventh Edition. 1894. 6marks. 

NORTHERN FRANCE, with 9 Maps and 27 Plans. Second 

Edition. 1894. 7 marks. 

SOUTHERN FRANCE, with 14 Maps and 19 Plans. 1891. 

9 marks . 

SWITZERLAND, with 39 Maps, 12 Plans, and 12 Panoramas. 

Fifteenth Edition. 1893. 8 marks. 

LOWER EGYPT, with the Peninsula of Sinai, with 14 

Jlaps, 32 Plans, and 7 Views. Third Edition. 1895. 12 marks. 

UPPER EGYPT, and Nubia as far as the Second Cata- 
ract. With 11 Maps and 26 Plans. 1892. 10 marks. 

PALESTINE and SYRIA, with 17 Maps, 44 Plans, and a 

Panorama of Jerusalem. Second Edition. 1894. 12 marks. 

CONVERSATION DICTIONARY in four languages. Eng- 

lish, French, German, Italian. 3 marks. 


English, Gekman, Fkench, and Italian. 3 marks. 





(Comp. p. xvi.) 






Akabic Name. 
























Gold Coins. 

Gineh Masri (Egypt, pound £E) 
Nusseh Gineh (half €E) .... 










Silver Coins. 













3 /io 










Ghinhen (double piastre) 

Nickel Coins. 

2 /io 










In Coppek there are also pieces of 1 fe a nd '/ 4 millieme (called also 
2jPara and I Para pieces, from the old system), but these are used bv 
tourists only for bakshish. 

The Pound Sterling (Gineh inglisi) is worth 97 piastres 5 milliemes; 
the French Twenty Franc Piece (Bint, derived from Napoleon Bonaparte) 
77 pias. IV2 mill. ; the Turkish Pound (Mejidiyeh) 87tyi piastres. A 'purse' 
is equivalent to 500 piastres or about 103«. 

Weights and Measures. 

1 Dirhem — 3.93 grammes = 60. 6 s grains troy; 1 Rotl = 445. 46 gram- 
mes = l.oi3i lbs. avoirdupois (about lib. Vsoz.); 1 Okka = 1. 237 kilo- 
grammes = 2.7274 lbs. (about 2 lbs. II1/2OZ.); 1 Kantar 
kilogrammes = IOI.31 lbs. (about 101 lbs. 5 oz.). ' 

1 Rub' a = 7.50 litres = 13Vs pints; 1 Webeh = 30 litres = 
22/5 qts. ; 1 Ardeb = 6 webeh = 180 litres = 46 gals. l 3 /s qt. 

1 Pik = 0.67 metre = 26.37 inches; 1 Pik, land measurement, = 29. 527 
inches ; 1 Kasabeh = 3.55 metres = 11 ft. 7.763 inches. 

1 Fedddn = 4200 square metres = about 5082 sq. yds. = IV20 acre. 

='100 roll = 44.546 
6 gals. 



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All rights reserved 

'Go little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this he thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after theirhelp to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all. 


The present volume, like the Editor's European hand- 
books and the companion- volume on Upper Egypt, is designed 
to supply the traveller with the most necessary information 
regarding the history and culture of the people he is about 
to visit, to protect him against extortion, and to render him 
as independent as the nature of the case admits of outside 
assistance. As Oriental life, customs , and scenery differ so 
widely from European, the Editor believes that the tourist 
will not take exception to the unusual voluminousness of the 
preliminary information. 

The materials from which the first edition of the Hand- 
book for Lower Egypt was compiled were mainly furnished 
by Professor G. Ebers of Leipsic, while articles on special 
subjects, as well as many additions and emendations , were 
contributed by a number of other writers. Among the con- 
tributions specially prepared for the English version, the 
Editor wishes to particularize those of the distinguished 
Egyptologist, Dr. Samuel Birch. The third edition, which 
appears herewith, has been carefully revised and augmented 
with the kind assistance of several Egyptologists and other 
competent visitors to the places described. The notes on 
Arabic art and the ground-plans of the various mosques are 
due to the well-known architect, Franz Pasha of Cairo. 

The Editor has also repeatedly visited Lower Egypt for 
the purpose of obtaining the most recent practical infor- 
mation, of the kind most likely to be useful to travellers. 
As, however, a tour in the East is attended with far greater 
difficulty than in Europe, and as sources of information are 
far less abundant, the Handbook must necessarily contain 
many imperfections, and the Editor will therefore gratefully 
avail himself of any communications which his readers may 
kindly contribute, as many of them have so generously done 
in the case of his European handbooks. 


The Maps and Plans have been an object of the Editor's 
special care , as he knows by experience how little reliance 
can be placed on information obtained from the natives, even 
when the traveller is conversant with their language. They 
are based upon the most recent material available, in part as 
yet unpublished, and have been carefully corrected on the spot. 

Heights above the sea-level and other measurements are 
given in English feet , from the latest and most trustworthy 
English and other sources. 

The Prices and various items of expenditure mentioned 
in the Handbook are given in accordance with the Editor's 
personal experience, but they are liable to very great fluctu- 
ation , in accordance with the state of trade , the influx of 
foreigners, the traveller's own demeanour, and other circum- 
stances. In some cases the traveller's expenditure may be 
within the rate indicated in the Handbook, but as many un- 
expected contingencies may arise on so long a journey, an 
ample pecuniary margin should always be allowed. 

Hotels, etc., see p. xix. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 
mendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly 
excluded from his Handbooks. Hotel- keepers are also warned 
against persons representing themselves as agents for Bae- 
deker's Handbooks. 


R. = room; B. = breakfast; D. = dinner; S. = supper; L. = light; 
A. = attendance; Pens. = pension, i.e. board and lodging. — N. = north, 
northern, etc. ; S. = south, southern, etc. ; E. = east, etc. ; W. = west, etc. 
— r. = right; 1. = left; min. = minute; hr. = hour. — M. = English 
mile; ft. = Engl, foot; fr. = franc; c. = centime; £E. = Egyptian pound ; 
pias. = piastre (comp. Table before the title-page). 

The letter d with a date, after the name of a person, indicates the 
year of his death. The number of feet given after the name of a place 
shows its height above the sea-level. The number of miles placed before 
the principal places on railway-routes and high-roads indicates their 
distance from the starting-point of the route. 


are used as marks of commendation. 



Introduction x iii 

I. Preliminary Information xiv 

(1). Plan and Period of Tour. Expenses. Money. Equip- 
ment. Travelling Companions xiv 

(2). Coinage. Passports. Custom House xvi 

(3). Conveyances xvii 

(4). Hotels xix 

(5). Post and Telegraph Offices xix 

(6). Public Safety. Consulates. Courts of Justice . . xx 

(7). Dragomans. Bakshish xxi 

(8). Health . . . xxiii 

(9). Cafe's. Story-Tellers, Musicians, Singers, etc. . xxiii 

(10). Baths xxvii 

(11). Intercourse with Orientals xxix 

(12). Tobacco xxxi 

II. Geographical and Political Notice xxxii 

a. Boundaries and Area of Egypt xxxii 

b. Divisions and Administration xxxiii 

c. Population xxxvi 

d. Origin and Present Condition of the Egyptians (by 

Dr. G. Schweinfurth of Cairo) xxxvii 

(1). The Fellahin xxxix 

(2). Copts xlii 

(3). Beduins . . • xiv 

(4). Arabian Dwellers in Towns xlviii 

(5). Berbers xlix 

(6). Negroes li 

(7). Turks Hi 

(8). Levantines Hi 

(9). Armenians and Jews Hi 

(10). Europeans liii 

e. The Nile liv 

Extent of the River liv 

Its Sources lv 

Alluvial Soil. Nile Mud lvi 

Inundation lvii 

Civilising Effects of the River lviii 

Embouchures of the Nile Hx 

f. Geology of Egypt and Notice of the Desert ... lix 

g. The Oases (by Prof. P. Ascherson) lxiii 

h. Climate lxvi 

Atmosphere lxvi 

Rain lxvii 

Winds lxvii 

Temperature lxvii 

Thermometers lxix 


• . Page 

1. Agriculture and Vegetation Ixx 

(1). Capabilities of the Soil ] xx 

(2). Irrigation ]xx 

(3). Agricultural Periods (Winter, Summer, and Autumn 

Seasons). Agricultural Implements . . . lxxii 

fi« S arm Pr ° d " ce ot E SyPt lxxiii 

(0). Trees and Plantations l xxv 

Trees in Ancient Times '.'.'.' lxxv 

Fruit-Trees .'.'.':.' lxxvi 

Decorative Plants lxxvi 

j. The Animal Kingdom in Egypt (by Dr. M. Th. 

v. Heuglin) lxxvii 

Domestic Animals lxxvii 

Wild Animals lxxviii 

Birds of Passage lxxix 

Other Mammals and Birds ... ixxx 

Reptiles '.'.'.'.'"' lxxxi 

Fish of the Nile (by Dr. C. B. Klunzinger) ... ' lxxxii 

Insects '. lxxxiii 

III. Doctrines of El-Islam (by Prof. Socin) lxxxiv 

Remarks on Mohammedan Customs xcvii 

Religious and Popular Festivals of the Mohammedans c 

IV. Outline of the History of Egypt civ 

Chronological Table \ cv 

Primaeval Monarchy cv 

Middle Monarchy cv j 

Period of the Hyksos .....'' cvii 

New Empire [ cix 

Persian Period '.'.'.'"' cxii 

The Ptolemies . . . cxv 

The Romans '.'.'.'' cxvii 

The Byzantines cxix 

Mohammedan Period .... ™" 

Khalifs ^ 

Mamelukes .' ; cxxUi 

Osmans rvtvii 

The French - . . . . cktu 

Mohammed 'AH and his Successors cxxviii 

V. Hieroglyphics cxxxii 

VI. Frequently Recurring Names of Egyptian Kings . . cxl 

VII. Religion of the Ancient Egyptians C xM 

VIII. History of Egyptian Art clxiii 

IX. Greek (Alexandrian) Art in Egypt (by Prof. Th. Schrei- 

ber of Leipzig) clxxx 

X. Buildings of the Mohammedans (by Franz Pasha of 

Ca i r( clxxxyiii 

Mosques „__ .. 

Tombs ...:::::::•• f° c v £ 

Dwelling-Hou3es ' ~~„] x 

* CXC1X 

XI. The Arabic Language cc j, 

Arabic Vocabulary ccy . 

XII. Works on Egypt ccxiy 


Route Pa 6? 

1. Alexandria 5 

1. Approaches to Egypt (Steamship Lines. Arrival at Alexan- 
dria and at Port Sa'id) 1 

a. Steamers from England direct i 

b. Steamers from Mediterranean Ports j 

Preliminary Information •» 

Situation. Harbours. Climate ? 

History and Topography of Ancient Alexandria .... a 

Modern Alexandria ** 

Environs of Alexandria ^ 

3. From Alexandria to OaiTO ** 

Lake Mareotis *o 

From Teh- el-Barud to Embabeh and Cairo ...... j£ 

From Tanta to Meniif via Shibin el-Kom ...... £> 

The ancient Athribis. From Kalyfib to the Barrage du Nil 2b 

4. Cairo ..'....' li 

Preliminary Information. 

a. Railway Stations. Hotels and Pensions. Restaurants and 

CafeS ^' 

b. Consulates. Police. Bankers. Post & Telegraph OfBces. 
Tourist Agents j° 

c. Cabs. Donkeys. Commissionnaires. Dragomans . . <!» 

d. Physicians. Chemists. Hospitals. Baths. Hairdressers . oj 

e. Shops oi 

f. Theatres. Clubs. Churches. Schools >j;j 

g. Sights and Disposition of Time ** 

Remarks on the Situation of the City. Population . . a4 

History of the City '&* 

Street Scenes y 

Bazaars T?. 

1 . The Ezbektyeh and the New Isma'iliya Quarter ... 45 

1. The Muski and the Bazaars 4 ' 

3. The Sonth-Eastern Quarters & l 

Boulevard Hlhe'met Ali ; Place and Gami'a Sultan Hasau ; 
Citadel with the Mosque of Mohammed 'Ali ; Gami'a lbn 
Tulun ; Gami'a Kait Bey and Es-Seiyideh Zenab ; Viceregal 

Library ..." 01 " b . 1 

4. The East Central Quarters 01 

Bab ez-Znweleh ; Mosques of El-Muaiyad , El-Ghuri, and 

El-Azhar (University) pn 

5. The Northern Quarters b < 

Gami'a el-Hasanein ; Muristan Kalaiin ; Tomb of Mohammed 
en-Nasir ; Barkukiyeh ; Bab en-Nasr ; Bab el-Futuh ; Mosque 

of El-Hakim ;' Arabian Museum 7R 

5. The Immediate Environs of Cairo • ^ 

1. The Tombs of the Khalifs and the Mamelukes . ... 75 

2. The Island of K6da and Old Cairo 81 

3. Bulak and the Island of Bulak °° 

4. Sh'ubra and the 'Abbasiyeh »- 

6. The Museum of Gizeh 94 

I. The Ground Floor with the Heavier Stone Monuments : 

a. Monuments of the E rly Empire . . . ■•••■• ,?£ 

b. Monuments of the Middle Monarchy and the Hyksos Period UU 

c. Monuments of the New Empire " Jno 

d. Monuments of the Ptolemaic, Roman, and Coptic Periods 1UB 


Route Page 

II. The Staircase, with the Collection of Alexandrian 

Terracottas and Graco-Roman Glass Ill 

III. The Upper Floor, -with the Smaller Antiquities : 

. a. Graeco-Roman Objects Ill 

b. Coptic Objects , . . 114 

c. Objects of foreign origin, found in Egypt 114 

d. Egyptian Weights, Measures,Tool8, Domestic Utensils, etc. 115 

. e. Drawing and Sculpture 116 

. f. Manuscripts, etc 116 

g. .Worship of the Dead and Historical Objects .... 116 

h. Domestic Utensils and Clothing 118 

i. Ornaments, Painted Portraits, Masks, etc 118 

k. Worship of the Gods 118 

1. Botanical and Mineralogical Division 120 

m. Mummies found at Der el-Bahri near Thebes in Upper 

Egypt ' 120 

n. Anthropological Collection 125 

o. Objects illustrating the Worship of the Dead .... 125 

7. Outer Environs of Cairo to the North and East .... 127 

1. Heliopolis ' 127 

2. The Mokattam Hills 129 

3. Spring of Moses and the Petrified Forest 130 

8. The Pyramids of Gizeh . 133 

Route to the Pyramids 133 

History of the Pyramids 134 

Construction of the Pyramids 140 

The Three Great Pyramids 144 

The Sphinx 151 

The Granite Temple and the Lesser Tombs .... 154 

Circuit of the Pyramids Plateau 156 

The Pyramids of Abusir 158 

9. Site of Ancient Memphis and the Necropolis of Sakkara . 159 

Colossal Statues of Ramses II 161 

Step-Pyramid of Sakkara. Pyramid of King Unas . .164 

Tombs of the- Apis Bulls (Egyptian Serapeum) . . . 167 

Structure and Ornamentation of the Mastabas .... 170 

MastabaofTi " 173 

Mastabas of Ptahhotep, Sabu, and Mera 185 

Other Tombs and Smaller Pyramids 187 

Pyramids of Dahshur 187 

10. -Baths of Helwan and Quarries of Turra 188 

11. From Cairo to Suez via Isma r iliya 191 

The Ancient Bubastis 192 

The Freshwater or Isma'iliyeh Canal 193 

The Biblical Land of Goshen 193 

From Isma'illya to Port Sa'id 195 

12. Suez and its Environs 195 

Excursion to the Springs of Moses ('Ain Musa) . . . 198 

The Bed Sea and its Coasts 200 

Natural History of the Bed Sea 202 

Submarine Coral Reefs 203 

13. From Suez to Port Sa'id. The Suez Canal 204 


Route Page 

a. The Isthmus of Suez and History of the Canal . . 204 

b. Passage of the Suez Canal 209 

Isma'iliya 211 

Port Sa'id 213 

14. Towns of the Central and Northern Delta 214 

a. From Cairo to Mansura 215 

b. From Talkha (Mansura) to Damietta 218 

c. From Damietta to Tanta 221 

From Mahallet Riih to Zifteh 221 

From Mahallet Riih to Desuk 221 

d. Sais ...'...'.... ' 222 

e. Kailway from Alexandria to Rosetta 223 

Canopus 223 

From Damanhur to Rosetta 224 

f. San(Tanis) 227 

' From Port Sa'id to Tanis. The Ancient Tennis . . 229 

15. The Peninsula of Sinai 230 

Preparations. Contract with Dragoman. Camels, etc. 230-233 

Routes 233 

Formation of the Peninsula. Group of Mt. Sinai . . . 234 

Inhabitants 235 

History 236 

Exodus of the Israelites 237 

1. From Suez to Mt. Sinai by Maghara and Wadi Firan . 241 

2. Monastery of St. Catharine onMt. Sinai and its Environs 259 

The Jebel Musa and Ras es-Safsaf. 266 

The Wadi el-Leja. Der el-Arba'in 269 

The Jebel Katherin 270 

3. Sea- Voyage to Tur and thence by land to Mt. Sinai via 

the Wadi es-Sleh or the Wadi Hebran 271 

4. Return-Route from the Monastery of Mt. Sinai to Suez 

through the Wadi esh-Shekh and via Sarbut el- 
Khadem '...'.. 275 

5. From the Mt. Sinai Monastery to 'Akaba and Petra . . . 279 

Index ' 281 


1. Map of the Delta, before the Title Page. 

2. General Map of Egypt, between pp. xxxii, xxxiii. 

3. Map of the Envieons of Alexandria, between pp. 20, 21. 

4. Map of the Environs of Cairo (as far as the Barrage on the N. and 

Dahshur on the S.), between pp. 75, 76. 

5. Special Map of the Environs of Cairo, Sheet I, between pp. 126, 127. 

6. Special Map of the Environs of Cairo, Sheet II, between pp. 132, 133. 

7. Map of the Pyramids of GSzeh, between pp. 144, 145. 

8. Map of the Ruins of Memphis, between pp. 161, 162. 

9. The Pyramids and Tombs of Saekara and AbdsIr, between pp. 170, 171. 

10. Map of the Gulf of Suez, with Springs of Moses, between pp. 196, 197. 

11. Map of the Suez Canal, between pp. 210, 211. 

12. Map of the Peninsula of Sinai, between pp. 230, 231. 

13. Map of the Environs ofMt. Sinai and Mt. Serbal, between pp. 256, 257. 

14. Map of the Environs of the Monastery of Mt. Sinai and of Jebel 

Mosa, between pp. 260, 261. 

xii MAPS, PLANS, etc. 


1. Aeabian Bath, p. xxviii. 

2. Arabian Dwelling House: Ground Floor, p. cc. 

3. - - - First Floor, p. coi. 

4. Plan of Alexandria, p. 4. 

5. Plan of Ancient Alexandria, 100 B.C. -100 A.D., p. 7. 

6. Plan of Ancient Alexandria in the 3rd -5th cent, after Christ, p. 8. 

7. Plan of Cairo, p. 26. 

8. Mosque of Sultan Hasan, p. 52. 

9. - Mohammed 'Ali, p. 54. 

10. - Ibn' Tdlun, p. 57. 

11. - El-Azhar (Arabian University), p. 65. 

12. Muristan Kalaun, p. 69. 3 

13. BarkukIyeh (Medreseh of Sultan Barkuk), p, 70. 

14. Bab 'en-Nasr and Bab el- FutCh, p. 72. 

15. Tombs of the KhalIfs, p. 76. 

16. Tomb Mosque of Sultan Barkuk,' p. 77. 

17. - - of Kait Bet, p". 79. 

18. Hosh el-Pasha, p.'81, 

19. Church of Abu Sergeh, at Old Cairo, p. 84. 

20. Mosque of c Amru, at Old Cairo, p. 88. 

21. Museum of GIzeh: Ground Floor, p. 110. 

22. - - - First Floor, p. 111. 

23. Section of a Pyramid, showing the structure, p. 142. 

24. The Great Ptramid of Gizeh, p. 144. 

25. The Third Pyramid of GIzeh, p. 150. 

26. Granite Temple, adjoining the Great Sphinx, p. 155. 

27. Tombs of the Apis Bulls at Sakkara, p. 168. 

28. Mastaba of Ti, p. 174. 

29. Mastaba of Mera, p. 186. 

30. Suez' and Port Ibrahim, p. 196. 

31. IsMA'iLSyA, p. 210. 

32. Port Sa'id, p. 211. 

33. Mines of Maghara, p. 249. 


1. General View of the Tombs of the KhalIfs, from the S.E., p. 76. 

2. View of the Tombs of the Mamelukes and the Citadel, p. 80. 

3. View of the Tombs of the KhalIfs, from the E., p. 80. 

4. View of the Granite Temple, the Sphinx, and the Great Pyramid 

of GiZEH, p. 151. 

5. View of the Sphinx, p. 152. 

6. View of the Step-Pyramid of Sakkara, p. 165. 

7. View of the Interior of the Apis Tombs at Sakkara, p. 165. 


1. Mohammedan Postures of Prayer, p. xcii. 

2. Dancing Dervishes, p. xcv. 

3. Names of 150 Egyptian Kings, pp. cxl-cxlvi. 
4-29. Mythological Illustrations, pp. cxlix-clx. 

30-47. Art Illustrations, pp. clxiv-clxxviii. 

48. Lady in Walking Dress, p. 39. 

49. Woman and Child, p. 40. 

50,51. Water-carriers (Sakka, Hemali), pp. 40, 41. 

52. Public Kitchen, p. 42! 

53. Arabian Barber, p. 42. 

54. The Great Sphinx, at the time of its excavation, p. 152. 

55. Apis Sarcophagus at Sakkara, p. 169. 

56-75. Reliefs in the Mastaba of Ti, at Sakkara, pp. 175-184. 
76. 'Sketch of the Pyramids as seen from Hel wan, p. 189. 


'/ shall'now speak at greater length of 
Egypt, as it contains more wonders than 
any other land, and is pre-eminent above 
all the countries in the world for works 
that one can hardly describe.'' 

Herodotus (B.C. 456). 

At the close of last century Egypt was in a great measure re- 
discovered by the French savants attached to Bonaparte's Egyptian 
expedition. Since that period it has attracted the ever-increasing 
attention of the scientific ; its historical and archaeological marvels 
have been gradually unveiled to the world ; it is the most ancient, 
and was yet at one time the most civilised country of antiquity ; 
and it therefore cannot fail to awaken the profoundest interest in 
all students of the history and development of human culture. 

Like other countries of the far East, Egypt possesses for the 
'Frank' traveller the twofold attraction of scenery and history. To 
the first category belong the peculiar charms of its Oriental climate, 
the singularly clear atmosphere, the wonderful colouring and effects 
of light and shade, such as are unknown in more northern climates, 
the exuberant fertility of the cultivated districts contrasted with the 
solemn, awe-inspiring desert, and the manners, customs, and ap- 
pearance of a most interesting, though not always pleasing, popu- 
lation. At the same time Egypt is pre-eminent among the coun- 
tries of the East, and indeed among those of the whole world, as the 
cradle of history and of human culture. At every step we en- 
counter venerable monuments which have survived the destructive 
influences of thousands of years and the vandalism of invaders and 
conquerors, and which are executed on so grand a scale, with so 
much artistic skill, and with such historical consistency, as at 
once to excite our highest admiration and command our most pro- 
found respect. 

Owing to its distance from the homes of most travellers, and to 
the expense involved in exploring it, Egypt will never be overrun 
by tourists to the same extent as Switzerland or Italy ; but it is now 
reached without difficulty by one of the numerous Mediterranean 
steamboat lines, and increased facilities are afforded to travellers 
by the recent construction of railways (p. xviii) within the country 
itself, while its unrivalled attractions abundantly reward the enter- 
prising traveller and supply him with a subject of life-long interest. 

I. Preliminary Information. 

(1). Flan of Tour. Season. Expenses. Money. Equipment. 
' Travelling Companions. 

Plan. The facilities for travel in Lower Egypt are now such 
that the intending visitor may make an outline of his tour at home 
with almost as great ease as for most of the countries of Europe. 
During the travelling season , moreover, the weather is always fine 
(comp. below), and never causes disappointment and derangement 
of plans as in most other countries. A glimpse at Lower Egypt, i.e. 
Alexandria, Cairo, and the Suez Canal, may be obtained in three 
weeks (exclusive of the journey out) as follows: 2-3 days may be 
devoted to Alexandria and the journey thence to Cairo, 10-12 days 
may be spent in Cairo and its neighbourhood in the manner sug- 
gested at p. 33, and 4-5 days may be occupied by the Suez Canal 
and excursions from it and by resting. These three weeks, however, 
might very pleasantly be spent at Cairo alone , the most interesting 
point in the tour. The journey to Ml. Sinai is now seldom made 
(see R. 15). For the Voyage up the Nile (3-6 weeks), see the second 
volume of this Handbook (Baedeker's Upper Egypt). 

Season. From the beginning of November till the middle or 
end of April there are but few days of bad weather in the interior 
of Egypt ; the prevalent temperature is that of a delicious spring or 
moderate summer, and the few drops of rain that occasionally fall 
will hardly be observed by the European traveller. The fertilising 
inundation of the Nile (p. Mi) has by this time subsided, and the 
whole face of the country smiles with fresh verdure. About the 
end of April, and sometimes as early as March, begins the period 
of the Khamsin (p. lviii), a sultry, parching, and enervating wind 
from the desert, prevailing at longer or shorter intervals for about 
fifty days (whence the name), though in some seasons it does not 
make its appearance at all. Winter is therefore the proper season 
for a tour in Egypt, although the heat of summer, owing to the 
coolness of the nights, is less oppressive than in some parts of 
Southern Europe. (Compare also p. Ixxiii.) 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Egypt, and in Oriental coun- 
tries generally, is greater than that of a visit to most parts of Europe 
and the traveller should estimate his average daily expenditure at 
not less than 25-30s. (Steamboat- fares are of course extra; pp. 1-5.) 
The traveller whose time is very limited, or who is accompanied by 
ladies, will also require the services of a guide, or 'dragoman', as 
they prefer to style themselves (5-10s. per day). 

Monet. A small sum of money for the early part of the journey 
may be taken in English or French gold, or in English banknotes 
(these usually at a discount of Y4-I per cent), but large sums should 
always be in the form of circular notes. These notes, which if kept 
separate from the 'letter of indication' cannot be cashed by a thief 


or a dishonest finder, are issued by the principal London banks 
and by Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son. Fresh supplies may be forwarded 
from England by post-office order, in sums not exceeding 500 fr. 
European bankers in Alexandria and Cairo, see pp. 6, 29. 

> Equipment. It is less important now than it formerly was to 
purchase every requirement for the journey before leaving home, as 
the traveller can easily supplement his outfit at some of the modern 
shops of Alexandria or Cairo. For all ordinary purposes a couple 
of light tweed suits, a few flannel and soft cotton shirts, a supply 
of thin woollen socks, one pair of light and easy boots, one of shoes, 
and one of slippers, a moderately warm Ulster or long travelling cloak, 
a pith-helmet and a soft felt hat, together with the most necessary 
articles of the toilet, will amply suffice. It is advisable, for the pre- 
vention of colds and chills, to wear a woollen fabric next the skin ; 
but light underclothing, with an Oxford shirt, will be found more 
suitable to the climate than a heavy flannel shirt. Those who intend 
making a prolonged stay at the principal towns may add a dress-suit 
and a few white shirts. If a muslin 'puggaree' be used for covering 
the hat, it should be made to fall over the back of the neck and ears 
as broadly as possible. This favourite European headdress, however, 
invariably attracts hosts of importunate candidates for 'bakshish'. 
Some travellers prefer the fez or tarbush, a red cloth skull-cap 
with black-silk tassel (4-15 fr.), over which, in native fashion, they 
tie a silk keffiyeh (manufactured in Egypt, 15-20 fr.), falling down 
behind in a triangle. This headdress protects the neck and cheeks 
admirably against the scorching Egyptian sun, especially when a 
folded handkerchief or a white skull-cap (taktyeh) is worn under 
the tarbush. In prolonged riding tours, a sun-shade is a fatiguing 
encumbrance. All articles should be new and strongly made, 
as it is often difficult and troublesome to get repairs properly exe- 
cuted in Egypt. White shirts, collars, and wristbands, which require 
frequent and skilful washing, should be as far as possible eschewed, 
as good laundresses are rare and expensive (2-4 fr. per dozen articles, 
irrespective of size). Few travellers walk in Egypt, except for very 
short distances, but sportsmen should add a stout pair of waterproof 
shooting-boots to their equipment. 

Among the most important extras to be brought from Europe are a 
drinking cup of leather or metal, a flask, a strong pocket-knife, note-books, 
writing-materials, straps and twine, a thermometer, a pocket-compass of 
medium size , and a magnesium lamp for lighting caverns and dark 

Companions. The traveller can hardly be recommended to start 
alone for a tour in a country whose customs and language are so 
entirely different from his own ; but, if he has been unable to make 
up a suitable party at home, he will probably have an opportunity 
of doing so at Alexandria or Cairo, or possibly at Suez or Port Sa'id. 
Travelling as a member of a party is, moreover, much less ex- 
pensive than travelling alone, many of the items being the same for 


a single traveller as for several together. — In spring and autumn 
Tourist Pabties are organized for a visit to Egypt and the East, 
by the tourist-agents Messrs. Thos. Cook fy Son (Ludgate Circus, 
London) and Messrs. Henry Oaze $ Sons (142 Strand, London), pro- 
grammes of which, with full information, may be obtained on appli- 
cation. Travellers who join such parties are enabled to inspect the 
principal points of interest with the minimum expenditure of time 
and trouble, but must naturally surrender, to a great extent, both 
their freedom of choice of companions and the disposal of their 
time. The expenses are not much below that of an independent tour. 

(2). Coinage. Passports. Custom House. 

Coinage (comp. the table before the title-page). The confusion 
that formerly reigned in the Egyptian currency has been removed 
by the introduction of a new national coinage. The Egyptian Pound 
('Livre Egyptienne' ; ^E.)is worth 20s. 6d., and is divided into 
100 Piastres, worth 10 Milliemes each. The Arabic name for the 
piastre is Ohirsh (pi. OhurtisK), but the European name is every- 
where current. Egyptian gold coins are seldom met with, their 
place being taken by the British sovereign (Ginth ingltsi = 97 pias. 
5 mill.), the French Napoleon (20 fr.; Bint = 77 pias. 1 ^ mill.), and 
the Turkish pound (Mejidlyeh = 87 pias. 7V2 mi U- = 18*.), all of 
which are legally current. At Alexandria and Suez, and a few other 
points, reckoning in francs is still common. Where British influence 
is strong, as in places with large garrisons, the word Shilling is used 
for the Rub'a Riyal, which is equivalent to about Is. ^fed. 

Counterfeit and obsolete coins are as yet rare in Egypt ; but as 
they are more likely to be offered to foreigners than to natives, trav- 
ellers should be on their guard against them when obtaining change. 
A liberal supply of small change is more essential in the East than 
anywhere else (comp. pp. xxii, xxiii, 29). 

Passports are usually asked for at all the Egyptian ports, and if 
the traveller is unprovided with one he is liable to detention and 
great inconvenience. The passport is given up at the custom-house 
and reclaimed at the traveller's consulate or at Cairo. Bankers fre- 
quently require strangers to establish their identity by some such 
document; and the countenance and help of consuls (p. xx) must also 
depend upon the proof of nationality offered to them by the traveller. 
A British Foreign Office Passport (price 2s. ; agent's fee Is. 6<j.) may 
be obtained in London through W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street; 
E. Stanford, 26 Cockspur Street ; Lee & Carter, 440 West Strand ; 
C. Smith & Sons, 63 Charing Cross ; etc. 

Custom House. The custom-house examination at Alexandria 
is generally carried out with great thoroughness, though with per- 
fect politeness, and no article of luggage is allowed to escape un- 
opened. One of the objects chiefly, sought for is cigars, on which 75 


per cent of the estimated value is charged (comp. p. xxxi). Consid- 
erable difficulty is also made about admitting firearms, and the 
importation of cartridges is now prohibited (comp. p. lxxviii). The 
exportation of antiquities is forbidden, except with a special certi- 
ficate of permission ; and luggage is accordingly examined again as 
the traveller quits the country. The custom-house is now under 
European management, and it is advisable to refrain from an attempt 
to facilitate matters by bakshish (p. xxi). If luggage be forwarded 
across the frontier, the keys must be sent with it ; but it is very 
desirable to superintend the custom-house examination in person. 

(3). Conveyances. 

Steamers. Egypt may be reached from England either by 
steamer direct or by overland route to one of the principal Mediter- 
ranean ports and thence by steamer. Particulars of the various routes 
are given in R. 1. Whether the traveller returns westwards on leav- 
ing Egypt, or intends to proceed to Syria or elsewhere, it is import- 
ant that he should be familiar with the principal steamboat services. 
The vessels of the principal lines are nearly on a par with regard to 
comfort and speed, the British and German steamers being perhaps 
slightly superior, and the Italian steamers slightly inferior to the 
others. In autumn and winter vessels bound for Egypt, and in spring 
those returning westwards are apt to be crowded. 

The time-tables of the Peninsular it Oriental Steam Navigation Co. may 
be obtained in London at 122 Leadenhall St., E.C., or at 25 Cockspur St., 
S.W. ; and those of the Orient <b Pacific Co. ('Orient Line' 1 ) at 5Fenchurch 
Avenue, E.C., or at 16 Cockspur St., S.W. The North German Lloyd Co. 
has agencies at 65 Gracechurch St., E.C. and 32 Cockspur St., S.W., and 
the Navigazione Generate Italiana at 38Fenchurch St., E.C. Those who pur- 
pose including Syria, Greece, and Constantinople in their Oriental tour 
should also, before leaving home, write to the '■Administration des Services 
des Messagevies Maritimes, IS Rue Cannebiire, Marseilles'' for a 'Livrel des 
Lignes de la Miditerranie et de la Mer Noire'', and to the ' Oesterreich- 
ische Lloyd, Trieste' 1 for 'Information for Passengers by the Austrian 
Lloyd's Steam Navigation Company'' (published in English). With the aid 
of these time-tables, the traveller will have little difficulty in making out 
his programme. See also 'Baedeker's Palestine and Syria' (sold at the book- 
shops of Alexandria and Cairo). 

The Food , which is included in the first-class fare and usually in 
the second also, is always abundant and of good quality. Wine is not 
included in the fare except on board the French and Italian steamers. 
Many travellers prefer the cookery on board the French and Austrian 
Steamers as being lighter and better suited to the climate than that of 
the English vessels. Passengers who are prevented by sickness from 
partaking of the regular repasts are supplied with lemonade and other 
refreshments gratis. 

The Steward's Fee , which the passenger pays at the end of the 
voyage , is generally from '/a fr. to 1 fr. per day ; but more is expected 
if unusual trouble has been given. 

The Baths provided for the use of passengers in the English and 
some of the other vessels may be used without extra charge , but the 
attendant expects a fee at the end of the voyage. 

Tickets should never be taken at foreign ports through the medium 
of commissionaires or other persons who offer their services , but the 
traveller should, if possible, purchase them at the office in person. The 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. ft 

xviii RAILWAYS. 

tickets bear the name of the passenger and the name and hour of depar- 
ture of the vessel. Return or circular tickets (to Syria and Constantinople) 
and family tickets for three or more persons are generally issued at a 
reduced rate, but no reduction is made on the charge for food. A child 
of 2-10 years pays half-fare , but must share the berth of its attendant ; 
for two children a whole berth is allowed. 

Luggage of 150-220 lbs. is allowed to first-class, and of 85-135 lbs. to 
second-class passengers. 

Embarkation. Passengers should be on board an hour before the 
advertised time of starting. At Marseilles, Trieste, and Brindisi the 
vessels start from the quays, so that passengers can walk on board ; but 
at Venice and Naples passengers are conveyed to the steamers in small 
boats, for which the charge at all the Italian ports is 1 franc or lira for 
each person , including luggage. Good order is kept at these ports by 
the police. Payment of the boat-fare should not be made until the 
passenger and his luggage are safe on deck. Before the heavier luggage 
is lowered into the hold, the passenger should see it properly labelled. 

All complaints should be addressed to the captain. On board the 
foreign steamers a kind of military precision is afl'ected , and questions 
addressed to the officers or crew are apt to be answered very curtly. 

Steamboats on the Suez Canal, see R. 13. 

Railways. A network of railways constructed by the Egyptian 
government now connects all the important places in Upper Egypt. 
The engineer of the oldest of these lines, that from Alexandria to 
Cairo, was Mr. Stephenson, and the others were planned by Faid- 
Bey. The carriages resemble those of other countries, but the third 
class is insufferably dirty. The dust and heat render railway 
travelling in Egypt exceedingly unpleasant in hot weather. The 
management of the traffic, except in the case of express-trains, is 
not very satisfactory. The process of booking luggage is especially 
slow and troublesome. The traveller should therefore be at the 
station fully half-an-hour before the hour for starting, as the ticket- 
clerks are entitled to close the office 10 minutes before the departure 
of the train. The personal tickets are printed in English and Arabic, 
the luggage tickets in Arabic only. 

Donkeys (Arab, homdr) still form the best means of conveyance 
both in the narrow streets of the towns and on the bridle-paths 
in the country , though in Alexandria and Cairo the use of Cabs is 
steadily on the increase. Egyptian donkeys are of a much finer, 
swifter, and more spirited race than the European, and at the same 
time patient and persevering. Those in the towns are generally well 
saddled and bridled in Oriental style. The attendants are either 
men or boys, who contrive to keep up with their beasts at what- 
ever pace they are going, and often address long sentences to them 
in their Arabic patois. As the gait of the donkeys is sometimes very 
uneasy when they break into a trot, care should be taken not to 
engage one with this defect for an excursion of any length. As the 
stirrups are often in bad condition they had better not be used at 
all. The donkey-boys (Arab, hammdf) are fond of showing off the 
pace of their beasts, and often drive them unpleasantly fast. The 
rider who prefers a slower pace shouts 'ala mahlak or 'alamahlakum ; 
if a quicker pace is wanted, yalla, yalla, or mtishi, or suk el-homar; 

HOTELS. xix 

if a halt is to be made, osbur, or the English word 'stop'. The 

donkey-boys, especially at Cairo, are usually active and intelligent. 

The Camel is generally used for the Mt. Sinai tour only ; see K. 15. 

(4). Hotels. 
The large hotels at Cairo are among the best in the world, com- 
bining western comfort with eastern luxury. They are managed 
mainly on the American system, the usual arrangement being to 
pay a fixed sum daily (p. 5) for lodging and board, the latter consist- 
ing of breakfast, luncheon, and dinner. Wine, beer, and other liq- 
uors, which are extras, are dear, the cheapest wine costing 10-15 pias. 
per bottle, and British beer about the same. The waiter's fee should 
be calculated at about 5 per cent of the bill. — In other towns and 
even in Alexandria the hotels are much inferior. The more remote 
a place is from the ordinary track of European travellers, the poorer 
the inns are according to European ideas; and houses bearing most 
pretentious names are often nothing more than miserable inns. 

(5). Post and Telegraph Offices. 

The Egyptian Postal System (pp. 6,29) is admirably organised 
in all the principal towns, and now also in many smaller ones. The 
officials are civil and attentive. The addresses of letters destined 
for Egypt should always be written very distinctly (particularly the 
initial letters), and they had better be directed to the hotel at which 
the traveller intends to stay, or to the consulate. Registered Letters 
not addressed to a hotel are not delivered to the addressee unless he 
gets a resident to testify to his identity; those addressed to a hotel 
are delivered on presentation of the official notification of their ar- 
rival, bearing the stamp of the hotel. The Postage for letters within 
Egypt is 5 milliemes; to other countries in the Postal Union 10 mil- 
liemes; foreign Post-Cards, 5 milliemes. Parcelsnot exceeding 11 lbs. 
in weight may be sent to the countries of the union for 1 1 piastres, 
and must be accompanied by two declarations (one in French, one 
in the language of the country of destination). Parcels not exceed- 
ing 2lbs. may be sent fromEngland via, P. & 0. steamer for is. 3d., 
and 5d. for every additional lb. up to 1 1 lbs. : or not exceeding 3 lbs. 
via Brindisi for 2*. 6d., over 3 lbs. but not exceeding 7 lbs., 3s. 2d. — 
Post Office Orders are issued in Great Britain for payment in Egypt at 
the following rates of commission: for sums not exceeding 1l., 6tf.; 
bl., Is.; 71., Is. 6d.; 10?., 2s. 

Telegbaphs. There are two telegraph-systems in Egypt, the 
Egyptian und the English. Messages within Egypt may only be sent 
by the former, which has about 175 stations, of which about 30 are 
open day and night. The tariff is 4 pias. for 8 words or less, and 
Y2Pi a s. for each additional word. Telegrams may be sent in any 
European language. — Telegrams to Europe should be seut by the 



English wires, via Malta, and certainly not by the Egyptian, via 
Constantinople, a provokingly dilatory route. The following is the 
tariff of the English telegraph : each word (not exceeding ten letters ; 
if longer, it is reckoned as two words) to Great Britain 83 mill. ; to 
North America 120-200 mill. ; to Austria 73 mill. ; to France 74 mill. ; 
to Italy 65 mill. ; to Switzerland 69 mill. ; to Germany 76 mill. ; to 
Russia 88 mill. — A telegram from Great Britain to Alexandria costs 
Is. Id. per word; to other parts of Egypt is. 10d.-2s. 6d. per word. 

(6). Public Safety. Consulates. Courts of Justice. 

Public Safety. The authority of the Khedive is so well estab- 
lished throughout the whole of Egypt that travellers, even on the Si- 
nai journey, are as safe as in Europe. Weapons for self-defence are 
an unnecessary encumbrance. — Guns for sport, see pp. lxxviii, 31. 

Travellers, however, who have scientific objects in view, and 
who require the co-operation of the natives or of the pasha or mudir 
of a district, or those who have reason to apprehend any difficulty 
or danger, may obtain through their consulates a viceregal recom- 
mendation (firman or teskireh), which will often be found very useful. 

Consulates. Consuls in the East enjoy the same privilege of 
exterritoriality as ambassadors in other countries. On public occas- 
ions they are attended by kavasses, or armed consular officers. A 
distinction is sometimes made between professional ('consules 
missi') and commercial consuls ; and there are consuls general (who 
act also as political agents) , consuls, vice-consuls, and consular 
agents, possessing various degrees of authority. In all cases of em- 
ergency the traveller should apply for advice to the nearest consul 
of his country ; and courtesy as well as his own interest should 
prompt him to take the earliest possible opportunity of entering 
into friendly relations with these most useful officials. 

Courts op Justice. In place of the exclusive consular juris- 
diction to which foreigners were formerly liable, a system of Mixed 
Tribunals was established in 1876. The judges consist of natives 
and foreigners (the latter generally appointed by the Khedive from 
qualified officials nominated by the Great Powers), who give their 
verdicts in accordance with Egyptian law, founded on that of France 
and Italy. Cases in which the Khedive himself and the Egyptian 
government are concerned are also tried before this tribunal, which 
includes courts of first and second instance. The courts of the first 
instance are at Cairo, Alexandria, and Mansura, and there is a dele- 
gation atPortSa'id. The appeal-court is at Alexandria. — Cases be- 
tween natives, and all criminal cases, are tried by the Native Courts 
established in 1884. Courts of the first instance are situated at Cairo 
Alexandria, Beni Suef, Siut, andKeneh, and also (with a more lim- 
ited jurisdiction) at Tanta and Mansura (Zakazik). The appeal-court 
is at Cairo ; about half the number of its judges are Europeans. The 
procedure is based upon the Code Napole'on. 


(7). Dragomans. Bakshish. 

Travellers about to make a tour of any length may avoid all the 
petty annoyances incident to direct dealings with the natives by 
placing themselves under the care of a Dragoman (Arab. Tur- 
gemdn). The name is also appropriated to themselves by the ordinary 
commissionaires in Cairo, Alexandria, Port Sa'id, etc., whose services 
will be found sufficient for these towns (comp. pp. 6, 31). A drago- 
man proper is usually employed for the longer tours only, such as 
the voyage up the Nile, the journey to Mt. Sinai, the excursion to 
the Fayum, and a visit to the less frequented towns in the Delta. 

The word dragoman is derived from the Chaldsean targem, 'to explain', 
or from targUm, 'explanation'. The Arabic targam also signifies 'to inter- 
pret'. The dragoman was therefore originally merely a guide who ex- 
plained or interpreted. Since the 7th cent. B.C., when Psammetikh I. 
threw open the country to foreign trade, against which it had previously 
been jealously closed, this class, which is mentioned by Herodotus as a 
distinct caste , has existed in Egypt. That author informs us that 
Psammetikh caused a number of Egyptian children to be educated by Greeks 
in order that they might learn {he Greek language; and it was these 
children who afterwards became the founders of the dragoman caste. 
The great historian himself employed a dragoman, from whom he fre- 
quently derived erroneous information. A dragoman, who was employed 
by the governor ^lius Gallus to accompany him up the Nile, is accused 
by Strabo of absurdity, conceit, and ignorance. The ignorant Arabian, 
Nubian, or Maltese dragomans of the present day do not attempt to ex- 
plain or translate the ancient inscriptions. 

The dragomans , who speak English , French , and Italian, 
undertake for a fixed sum per day to defray the whole cost of 
locomotion , hotel accommodation, fees , and all other expenses , so 
that the traveller is enabled to obtain , as it were, a bird's eye view 
of the country without being concerned with the cares of daily life. 
On the other hand the traveller is frequently imposed upon by 
the dragoman himself. The charge made by the dragoman varies 
very greatly according to circumstances, such as the number and the 
requirements of the travellers, the length of the journey, and the 
amount of the demand for the services of such a guide. Dragomans 
of the better class usually consider it beneath their dignity to escort 
their employers through the streets of the towns, and are apt to con- 
sign them to the guidance of the local cicerones. They are inclined 
also to assume a patronising manner towards their employers, while 
they generally treat their own countrymen with an air of vast sup- 
eriority. The sooner this impertinence is checked, the more satis- 
factory will be the traveller's subsequent relations with his guide. 

On the successful termination of the journey travellers are too apt 
from motives of good natura to write a more favourable testimonial for 
their dragoman than he really deserves; but this is truly an act of in- 
justice to his subsequent employers, and tends to confirm him in his faults. 
The testimonial therefore should not omit to mention any serious cause 
for dissatisfaction. 

Bakshish. The word bakshish, which resounds so perpetually in 
the traveller's ears during his sojourn in the East, and haunts him 
long afterwards, simply means 'a gift' ; and, as everything is to be 


had in return for gifts, the word has many different applications. 
The average Oriental regards the European traveller as a Crcesus, 
and sometimes too as a madman, — so unintelligible to him are 
the objects and pleasures of travelling. Travellers are often tempted 
to give for the sake of affording temporary pleasure at a trifling cost, 
forgetting that the seeds of insatiable cupidity are thereby sown, to 
the infinite annoyance of their successors and the demoralisation of 
the recipients themselves. Bakshish should never be given except 
for services rendered, and every attempt at extortion should be firmly 
resisted, as compliance only makes the applicants for bakshish 
doubly clamorous. Payment should never be made until the service 
stipulated for has been rendered, after which an absolutely deaf ear 
should be turned to the protestations and entreaties which almost 
invariably follow. Thanks, it need hardly be said, must never be ex- 
pected from such recipients (comp. p. ccxiii). Even when an express 
bargain has been made, and more than the stipulated sum paid, 
they are almost sure to pester the traveller in the wry indicated. 
"When no bargain has been made, the fees and prices mentioned in 
the Handbook, all of which are ample, should be paiu without re- 
mark ; and if the attacks which ensue are not silenced by an air of 
calm indifference the traveller may use the word ruh or imshi (be off!) 
in a quiet but decided and imperative tone. At the same time it 
must be admitted that the increasing number of visi tors to Egypt 
tends to raise prices during the chief travelling season, so that a 
larger bakshish than is mentioned in the Handbook is sometimes 
necessary. The Egyptians, it must be remembered, occupy a much 
lower grade in the scale of civilisation than most of the western 
nations, and cupidity is one of their chief failings ; but if the trav- 
eller makes due allowance for their shortcomings, and treats the 
natives with consistent firmness, he will find that they are by no 
means destitute of fidelity, honesty, and kindliness. 

Notwithstanding all the suggestions we have ventured to offer, 
the traveller will to some extent have to buy his experience. In 
most cases the overcharges to which he will be exposed will be 
comparatively trifling; but if extortion is attempted on a larger 
scale, he had better refer the matter to his consul. 

Beggars are exceedingly numerous in Egypt, especially in the 
country-districts. In every village ragged children pursue the trav- 
eller with their ceaseless cry of 'bakshish, bakshish, yd khawageh' 
(oh, sir 1 a gift 1 ; comp. p. 40). The best reply to such applica- 
tions is l mti fish, ma fisK (I have nothing for you) , which will 
generally have the effect of dispersing the assailants. Charity should 
be given only to the sick or the aged. A beggar may be silenced 
with the words ' Allah ya'tik' 1 (may God give thee !). 

The traveller should take care to be amply supplied with small 
Change at all times, and especially before taking an excursion into 
the country (comp. pp. xvi, 29). 

HEALTH. xxiii 

(8). Health. 

Fine as the climate of Egypt generally is, the chilly mornings 
and evenings are often treacherous , and if cold is caught it is apt 
to result in a tedious intermittent or other fever. There are good 
chemists at Alexandria and Cairo , from whom small medicine- 
chests adapted for the climate may be purchased. In serious cases 
of illness a European doctor, when procurable, should always be 
consulted, as the traveller's own experience acquired at home is of 
little avail in the climate of Egypt. 

Fits of shivering are the usual prelude to an attack of fever. Qui- 
nine is the best remedy, of which 1-3 doses should he taken on the days 
when the patient is free from fever. Rest and copious perspiration will 
also afford relief. 

Diarrhoea, which is apt to turn to dysentery, is a very common com- 
plaint in this climate, and is generally the result of eating unripe fruit 
or of catching cold. The patient should first take a slight aperient, and 
afterwards tincture of opium or concentrated tincture of camphor. A 
simple farinaceous diet (such as well-boiled rice), with tea or well 
matured, unfortified, and unsweetened red wine, will he beneficial, while 
fruit, meat, and fatty substances should be avoided. In cases both of 
diarrhoea and fever all remedies are sometimes unavailing except change 
of climate, especially if the patient is in a marshy or unhealthy locality. 

Sprains, which often result from exploring ruins and caverns, are 
most effectually treated with cold compresses, while the injured limb 
should be tightly bandaged and allowed perfect rest. 

The sting of a scorpion (seldom dangerous) or bite of a snake is 
usually treated with ammonia. 

Sunstroke is very common in Egypt, even in spring when the air is 
still cool. The head and neck should therefore always be carefully 
shielded in one of the ways above indicated. The usual remedies are 
rest and shade, cold compresses, and warm baths with cold douches 
applied to the head and neck. 

Grey (better than blue) spectacles or veils may be used with advan- 
tage when the eyes suffer from the glare of bright weather. Zinc eye- 
wash, or some other innocuous lotion, should be used in such cases. 

The sticking-plaster, lint, as well as all effervescing powders, and 
other medicines carried by the traveller should be carefully kept from 
exposure to moisture. 

(9). Arabian Caf6s. Story-tellers. Musicians. Singers, etc. 

Arabian Capes (kahwa) abound everywhere, even in the 
smallest villages. In the country they usually consist of wooden 
booths , with a few seats made of plaited palm-twigs (gerid), and 
even in the large towns, like Cairo, they are very small and unin- 
viting. The kahwas are frequented by the lower classes exclu- 
sively. The front generally consists of woodwork with a few open 
arches. Outside the door runs a mastaba, or raised seat of stone or 
brick, two or three feet in height and of about the same width, 
covered with mats , and there are similar seats on two or three 
sides of the interior. Coffee is served by the kahwegi at */i-l pias. 
per cup (fingdn), and several nargllehs and shtshehs or gdzehs (water- 
pipes) are kept in readiness for the use of customers. The tumbtik 
(p. xxxii) smoked in the latter is sometimes mixed with the intoxi- 
cating hashish (hemp, Cannabis Indica) , the strong and unmis- 

xxiv CAFfiS. 

takable smell of which is often perceptible even in the street. The 
sale of hashish is now nominally prohibited in Egypt. 

'The leaves and capsules of hemp, called in Egypt hasheesh, were 
employed in some countries of the East in very ancient times to induce 
an exhilarating intoxication. Herodotus (iv. 75) informs us that the 
Scythians had a custom of burning the seeds of this plant in religious 
ceremonies, and that they became intoxicated with the fumes. Galen 
also mentions the intoxicating properties of hemp. The practice of 
chewing the leaves of this plant to induce intoxication prevailed, or 
existed, in India in very early ages ; thence it was introduced into Persia ; 
and about six centuries ago (before the middle of the thirteenth century 
of our era) this pernicious and degrading custom was adopted in Egypt, 
but chiefly by persons of the lower orders. . . . The preparation of hemp 
used for smoking produces boisterous mirth. Few inhalations of the 
smoke, but the last very copious, are usually taken from the gdzeh. After 
the emission of the last draught from the mouth and nostrils, commonly 
a fit of coughing , and often a spitting of blood, ensues, in consequence 
of the lungs having been filled with the smoke. Hasheesh is to be 
obtained not only at some of the coffee-shops: there are shops of a smaller 
and more private description solely appropriated to the sale of this and 
other intoxicating preparations: they are called mahsheshehs. It is some- 
times amusing to observe the ridiculous conduct, and to listen to the 
conversation, of the persons who frequent these shops. They are all of 
the lower orders. The term hashshdsh, which signifies a smoker, or an 
eater, of hemp, is an appellation of obloquy: noisy and riotous people 
are often called hashshdsheen, which is the plural of that appellation, and 
the origin of our word assassin ; a name first applied to Arab warriors in 
Syria, in the time of the Crusades, who made use of intoxicating and 
soporific drugs to render their enemies insensible'. 

'The use of opium and other drugs to induce intoxication is not so 
common in Egypt as in many other countries of the East: the number of 
Egyptians addicted to this vice is certainly not nearly so great in pro- 
portion to the whole population as is the relative number of persons in 
our own country who indulge in habitual drunkenness'. . . . 

i Boozeh or boozah, which is an intoxicating liquor made with barley- 
bread, crumbled, mixed with water, strained, and left to ferment, is 
commonly drunk by the boatmen of the Nile , and by other persons of 
the lower orders'. — Lane (1833-35). 

Numerous taverns now exist exclusively for the sale of buzeh, kept 
chiefly by Nubians. It is usually dispensed immediately from a large 
boiler with a wooden ladle, which is passed from mouth to mouth, the 
customers being of both sexes. The liquor is intoxicating in a very 
slight degree. 

Many of the kahwas are frequented, especially on the eves of 
festivals (p. c), by story-tellers and musicians. The performances 
range from those of a very simple character to gorgeous entertain- 
ments with dancing, music, and fireworks ; and these 'fantasiyas', 
as they are called by the modern Arabs, afford unbounded delight. 

Story-tellers (who in private domestic circles are generally 
women) still form a characteristic Oriental institution. "Wherever 
they make their appearance, whether in the public streets or the 
coffee-house, in the densely peopled alleys of the large towns, or in 
the smallest country villages, or among the tents of the wandering 
Arabs, they are sure to attract an attentive*, easily pleased, and ex- 
ceedingly grateful crowd. The more sensational the tale, the better, 
and the oftener is the narrator applauded with protracted cries of 
'Aah', or 'Allah', or 'Allahu akbar I '. 


Most of the story-tellers belong to the so-called Sho'ara (sing. 
Shd'if), literally 'singers'. They are also known as 'Anatireh (sing. 
'Antari) or Abu-Ztdiyeh, according as their theme consists of tales 
and romances from the history of ' Antar , a Beduin hero, or from 
that of Abu Zed. Others again are called Mohaddittn, i.e. narrators 
of history, their province being the recital in prose of passages from 
the history of Sultan Ez-Zahir Bebars , who reigned over Egypt in 
1260-79 (p. cxxiii). The entertainments of the 'alf leleh u lileh' 
(thousand and one nights) are, however, no longer heard, as popular 
superstition has branded this collection of tales as 'unlucky'. There 
are also professional improvisors and travelling singers, whose per- 
formances are very popular ; but the themes of the whole fraternity 
are too often of an immoral character.^ A 

Musicians by profession, called Aldttyeh (sing. Aldti), are in- 
dispensable on every festive occasion. The usual instruments are 
the rekk or tambourine with little bells, the nakkdreh, or semi- 
spherical tambourine, the zemr or hautbois, the tabl beledi or 
drum, the tabl shdmi or kettle-drum , and the darabUkeh , a kind 
of funnel-shaped drum (generally made of earthenware, but some- 
times of mother-of-pearl and tortoise-shell, with a fish-skin stretch- 
ed over the broad end), which last is accompanied by the zummdra, 
a kind of double flute. A better class of instruments, used for 
chamber music, consists of the ndi, a kind of flute, the kemengeh or 
two-stringed violin, the body of which consists of a cocoa-nut shell, 
the rebdbeh, or one-stringed violin with a square wooden body, the 
kdnun, a kind of zither with strings of sheep-gut, and lastly the 
'ud, the lute or mandoline, the oldest of all the instruments. 

The Egyptians consider themselves a highly musical people, and the 
traveller will indeed often be struck by the frequency of their singing. 
The Egyptian sings when indulging in his kSf (p. xxviii), whether sitting 
on his heels or stretched out on his mat, when driving his donkey, when 
carrying stones and mortar up a scaffolding, when working in the fields, 
and when rowing. He sings whether alone or in company, regarding his 
vocal music as a means of lightening his labour and of sweetening his 
repose. A peculiarity of the Egyptian songs, however, is that they have 
no tune, though they have a certain rhythm, which is always dependent 
on the text. They are sung through the nose on seven or eight different 
notes, on which the performer wanders up and down as he feels in- 
clined, f The character of this so-called music is exceedingly monotonous, 
and to a European ear displeasing. The songs (maww&l or shughl) are all of 
a lyrical description, most of them are erotic and often grossly obscene, 
and many are at the same time pointless and meaningless. Some of 
them, however, extol the pleasures of friendship and rational enjoyment, 
or express derision of an enemy, or contempt for the rustic fellah. Thus 
a favourite song of the donkey-boys derides a young fellah called r Ali, the 
favourite of his village, and is usually sung in mockery of some one of 
the name. 

+ In the large work entitled the 'Book of Songs'' an endeavour is 
made to reduce Arabic music to a system, and the notes are divided 
into seven different keys, each having the same notes, differently arranged ; 
but the popular songs are sung without the least regard to these artificial 


Shu/twm 'Ali yd nds Shu/tum 'Alt fikum 

L&bis *amis wilbds Walldhtaf tawdHkum 

WaHf 'ala-l-'abbds Wdhruh bel'ed min d6l 

Yil'ab el-birgds Wd"ud teldtin y6m 

Wal 'antaret ethaddil Kulluh 'ala shdn 'Alt 

Nus il b'eled haggit Ya'ni ya'ni 

Kulluh 'ala shdn 'Alt Kulluh 'ala shdn 'Alt. 

Ya'ni ya'ni 
Kulluh 'ala shdn 'AH. 

1. Have you seen 'Ali, ye people, in shirt and drawers, standing on 
the bridge of 'Abbas and showing off his equestrian tricks? But the bridge 
is now destroyed, and half the village has flown away. And all this for 
'Ali's sake, yes, for 'Ali's sake. 

2. Have you seen 'AH among you? If not, I will run off with your 
skull-caps (p. xv) and will go into one of the villages and remain there 
thirty days. All this for 'Ali's sake, yes, for 'Ali's sake. 

The pleasures of hashish-smoking are thus extolled : — 
Odzeh min el-hind wumrakkeb 'aUha ghdb 
Wumdandisheh Ml wa' wumgamm'a el ahbdb 
Akhatteh minhd nefes el-'akl minni ghdb 
Ba?U abaldam zei el gamal guwwa 'Ighdb 
Tub 'aUya yd taww&b 
Min shurb el gdzeh wal ghdb. 

ha hd ha t 
Min shurb el gdzeh wal ghdb. 
Oh cocoa-nut tt of India, in which is fixed the stem inlaid with shells, 
that collects friends around it. 1 have taken a whiff from it — and my 
understanding fled. I drew so that the tube gurgled like a camel. Oh ! 
forgive me, thou Blotter out of sins ! that I smoke out of the cocoa-nut 
with its stem. 

Thwarted love is another favourite theme. One of these songs begins 
— H6i, hdi, yd habibil H6i, hdi, kun tabibit (came, come, oh beloved ! come 
and be my physician !). These songs also frequently describe the charms 
of the beloved object with great minuteness. 

Female Singers QAwalim, sing. 'Almeh or 'Alimeh; i.e. 
'learned women') of a good class are now very rare, and those who 
still exist perform only in the harems of wealthy natives , so that 
the traveller will seldom or never have an opportunity of hearing 
them. Others of a low class are frequently seen in the streets ac- 
companied by one or two musicians, who are generally blind. 

The Female Dancers, or caste of the Ohawdzi (sing. OhdziyeK), 
which is quite distinct from that of the 'Awalim, were formerly one 
of the chief curiosities of Egypt, but for some years past they have 
been prohibited from performing in the streets. Really good dancers 
are said to be now rare, but on the Nile voyage the traveller will have 
an opportunity at Keneh, Luksor, and Esneh of seeing very curious 
and elaborate, though to his taste often ungraceful performances. 
Most of the dancers congregate at the fair of Tanta (p. 25), but 
the most skilful decline to exhibit unless paid with gold. The 
Hawed, or men in female attire, who frequently dance at festivities 
instead of the Ghawazi, present a most repulsive appearance. 

t These syllables represent the coughing caused by the great quantity 
of smoke inhaled by the hashish smoker at intervals of W'A hour after 
which he gradually becomes intoxicated and insensible. ' 

+t The water-pipe out of which the hashish is smoked has usually a cocoa- 
nut (gozeh) as a receptacle for the water through which the smoke passes. 

BATHS. xxvii 

The Snake Charmers (Rifd'iyeh, sing. Rifd'i), who form an- 
other distinct caste , exhibit performances of a very marvellous 
character, as credible European residents in Cairo have testified ; 
but the traveller will rarely come in contact with them. The ordinary 
exhibition of dancing snakes may, however, occasionally be seen 
in the Ezbekiyeh. The boys who exhibit small snakes at the hotels 
must of course not be confounded with the Rifa'iyeh. 

The Jugglers (Hdwi) of Egypt are similar to those of other 
countries. The performances of the Buffoons (Kur&d&ti or Mohab- 
bazi), which are chiefly intended for the amusement of the young, 
are disgracefully indelicate. 

(10). Baths. 

The baths of Egypt, with their hot-air chambers, are those com- 
monly known as Turkish, but they are neither so clean nor so well 
fitted up as some of those in the larger cities of Europe. A Turkish 
bath is particularly refreshing after a long journey, and is an ad- 
mirable preventive of colds and rheumatism. The baths are always 
cleanest in the early morning. Fridays are to be avoided, as numerous 
Muslims bathe early on that day, which is their Sabbath. When a 
cloth is hung up at the entrance to the baths , it indicates that 
women only are admitted. 

The hardra (see Plan), as well as the maghtas and hanafiyeh, 
have flat ceilings in which are openings covered with stained 
glass. The maghtas and the hanafiyeh contain marble basins for 
washing, provided with taps for warm water ; the maghtas contain 
besides a bath sunk in the pavement. Cold water is brought 
in ewers. The hardra, or general bath-chamber, is less heated than 
the separate rooms, and is filled with steam. All the chambers 
are paved with marble slabs and heated by flues under the pavement 
and behind the walls. 

The visitor first enters a large vaulted chamber covered with a 
cupola (hosh el-hammdm) , having a fountain of cold water in the 
centre (fasklyeh), and the bathing towels hung around on strings, 
these last being swung into their places or taken down with bamboo 
rods according to requirement. Having taken off his shoes and 
given them to the attendant, the visitor is next conducted to one 
of the raised llwdns (PL 4) that are still unoccupied, where 
he proceeds to undress. Valuables may, if desired, be entrusted to 
the bath owner. "Wrapping a cloth round his loins, he leaves his 
liwan, is provided with pattens or wooden shoes (kabkdb), and is 
conducted to the hot room (hardra) iti the interior of the establish- 
ment. Near one of the basins here a linen cloth is spread for the 
bather, and he is now left to perspire. As soon as the skin is 
thoroughly moist, he calls for the attendant (comp. Arabic vocabu- 
lary, p. ccxi), who pulls and kneads the joints till they crack, a 
process to which Europeans are not generally subjected. This is 



followed T>y the pleasanter operation of shampooing, which is per- 
formed by the abu his or abu sdbun, who is requested to do his duty 
with the word 'keyyisni' (rub me) , and who then rubs the bather 
with the lets, a rough piece of felt. The attendant next thoroughly 
soaps the bather, and concludes the operations by pouring bowls of 
warm water over his head. If the water is too hot the bather may 
ask for cold ('hat moyeh bdrideh'), or say 'enough' (bes). After this 
process douches of hot or cold water may be indulged in according 
to inclination, but the most refreshing plan is to change the temper- 
ature gradually from hot to cold, the direction to the attendant being 

1. Entrance. 2. H6sh el-hammdm (a kind of antechamber, used also by the 
poorer classes as a dressing-room). 3. FasMyeh (fountain). 4. Liwdn (better 
dressing-rooms, generally consisting of two divisions : the el-Hwan el-falldsi, 
with straw-mats, and the el-ltwdn el-'&l, with cushions, for the richer 
bathers). 5. Coffee-seller. 6. Bet-el-awwel (warmed dressing-room for cold 
weather). 8. Latrines. 7. Entrance to the — 9. Bardra (or 'sudatorium'). 
10. Liwdn. 11. Maghtas (cabinets with basins). 12. Hanafiyeh (chambers 
with basins and' taps for hot water). 13. Furnaces. 14. Boilers. 

l mdyeh b&rideh!' When desirous of leaving the hot room, the bather 
says to the attendant 'hat /ftta' (bring a towel) , whereupon he is 
provided with one for his loins, another for his shoulders, and a 
third for his head. The slippers or pattens are then put on, and the 
antechamber re-entered. When the kabkdbs are removed, cold water 
is sprinkled over the feet , fresh towels are then provided, and the 
bather at last throws himself down on his divan, wonderfully re- 
freshed , yet glad to enjoy perfect repose for a short time. This 
interval of tranquil enjoyment is the favourite Oriental 'kef (i.e. 
luxurious idleness). Every bath contains a coffee and pipe establish- 
ment. Coffee and hot eau sucree are the favourite beverages. Before 

BATHS. xxix 

dressing , the bather is generally provided with two or three more 
relays of fresh towels. The whole of these operations need not oc- 
cupy much more than an hour, hut Orientals often devote a whole 
morning to the bath. ■ — Many of the baths are charitable founda- 
tions, where the natives pay little or nothing. Europeans are generally 
expected to pay 8 piastres or more (including coffee and nargileh), 
and a fee of about 1 pias. is given to the 'soap man'. 

'The women who can afford to do so visit the hammam frequently ; 
but not so often as the men. When the bath is not hired for the fe- 
males of one family, or for one party of ladies exclusively, women of all 
conditions are admitted. In general all the females of a house, and the 
young boys, go together. They take with them their own seggadehs, and 
the napkins, basins, etc., which they require, and even the necessary 
quantity of sweet water for washing with soap, and for drinking; and 
some carry with them fruits, sweetmeats, and other refreshments. A lady 
of wealth is also often accompanied by her own telldueh or mas/i'tah, 
who is the washer and tire-woman. Many women of the lower orders 
wear no covering whatever in the bath, not even a napkin round the 
waist ; others always wear the napkin and the high clogs. There are 
few pleasures in which the women of Egypt delight so much as in the 
visit to the bath, where they frequently have entertainments ; and often, 
on these occasions, they are not a little noisy in their mirth. They avail 
themselves of the opportunity to display their jewels and their finest 
clothes, and to enter into familiar conversation with those whom they 
meet there, whether friends or strangers. Sometimes a mother chooses 
a bride for her son from among the girls or women whom she chances 
to see in the bath. On many occasions, as, for instance, in the case of 
preparations for a marriage, the bath is hired for a select party, con- 
sisting of the women of two or more families , and none else are ad- 
mitted ; but it is more common for a lady and a few friends to hire a 
Khilweh: this is the name they give to the apartment of the hanafiyeh. 
There is more confusion among a mixed company of various ranks ; but 
where all are friends, the younger girls indulge in more mirth and 
frolic. They spend an hour or more under the hands of the bellaneh, 
who rubs and washes them, plaits their hair, applies the depilatory, 
etc. They then retire to the beyt-owwal or meslakh, and there, having 
put on part of their dress, or a large loose shirt, partake of various re- 
freshments, which, if they have brought none with them, they may pro- 
cure by sending an attendant of the bath to the market. Those who 
smoke take their own pipes with them. On particular occasions of fes- 
tivity, they are entertained with the songs of two or more 'Al'mehs, hired 
to accompany them to the bath.' — Lane. 

(11). Intercourse with Orientals. 

Orientals reproach Europeans with doing everything the wrong 
way, such as writing from left to right, while they do the reverse, 
and uncovering the head on entering a room, while they remove 
their shoes, but keep their heads covered. 

The following rules should be observed in paying a visit at an 
Oriental house. The visitor knocks at the door with the iron knocker 
attached to it, whereupon the question 'mtra' (who is there?) is 
usually asked from within. The visitor answers, Hftah' (open). In 
the case of Muslim houses the visitor has to wait outside for a few 
minutes in order to give the women who happen to be in the court 
time to retire. He is then conducted into the reception-room, where 


a low divan or sofa runs round three sides of the room, the place 
of honour always being exactly opposite the door. According to the 
greater or less degree of respect which the host desires to show for 
his guest he rises more or less from his seat , and approaches one 
or more steps towards him. The first enquiries are concerning 
the health (see p. ccxiii) ; the salutation 'Salam aleikum' is re- 
served for Muslims. The transaction of business in the East always 
involves a prodigious waste of time, and as Orientals attach no 
value whatever to their time, the European will often find his pa- 
tience sorely tried. If a visitor drops in and interrupts the business, 
it would be an unpardonable affront to dismiss him on the plea of 
being engaged. Again, when a visitor is announced at meal-time, 
it is de rigueur to invite him, at least as a matter of form, to partake. 
At all other hours of the day visitors are supplied with coffee, 
which a servant, with his left hand on his heart, presents to each 
according to his rank. Under the coffee-cup (fingdn) there is 
generally a zarf, or kind of saucer of egg-cup shape. To be passed 
over when coffee is handed round is deemed by the Beduins an 
insult of the gravest kind. Having emptied his cup, the visitor 
must not put it down on the ground, which is contrary to etiquette, 
but keep it in his hand until it is taken from him by the servant, 
after which he salutes his host in the usual Oriental fashion by 
placing his right hand t on his breast and afterwards raising it to his 
forehead , and pronouncing the word 'daimari (i. e. 'kahweh 
daiman', may you never want coffee). This custom originated 
with the Beduins, who only regard the persons of their guests as 
inviolable after they have eaten or drunk with them. "When vi- 
sited by natives, the European should in his turn regale them 
liberally with coffee. It is also usual to offer tobacco to the visitor, 
the cigarette being now the ordinary form. The long pipe (shibuk) 
with amber mouth-piece, and its bowl resting on a brazen plate on 
the gTound, is more in vogue with the Turks. Visits in the East 
must of course be returned as in Europe. Those who return to a 
place after an absence receive visits from their acquaintances before 
they are expected to call on them. 

Europeans, as a rule, should never enquire after the wives of a 
Muslim, his relations to the fair sex being sedulously veiled from 
the public. Even looking at women in the street or in a house is 
considered indecorous, and may in some cases be attended with 
danger. Intimate acquaintance with Orientals is also to be avoided, 
disinterested friendship being still raTer in the East than elsewhere. 
Beneath the interminable protestations of friendship, with which the 
traveller is overwhelmed, lurks in most cases the demon of cupidity, 
the sole motive of those who use them being the hope of some 

+ The right hand is alone used in greeting and as much as possible 
in eating, stroking the heard, and the like, the left hand being reserved 

fn_ Iama knnnnvaMa fn Yi fit r\n a 

for less honourable functions. 

TOBACCO. xxxi 

gain or bakshish. The best -way of dealing with persons who 'do 
protest too much' is to pay for every service or civility on the spot, 
and as far as possible to fix the price of every article beforehand, a 
plan which is usually effectual in limiting their mercenary designs. 

On the other hand the most ordinary observer cannot fail to be 
struck with the fact that the degraded ruffianism so common in the 
most civilised countries is unknown in Egypt. The people of the 
country, even the poorest and the entirely uneducated, often possess 
a native dignity, self-respect, and gracefulness of manner, of which 
the traveller's own countrymen of a far more favoured class are 
sometimes utterly destitute. Notwithstanding their individual self- 
ishness, too, the different native communities will be observed to 
hold together with remarkable faithfulness, and the bond of a 
common religion, which takes the place of 'party' in other coun- 
tries, and requires its adherents to address each other as l yd 
akhtiya' (my brother), is far more than a mere name. 

While much caution and firmness are desirable in dealing with 
the people, it need hardly be added that the traveller should avoid 
being too exacting or suspicious. He should bear in mind that 
many of the natives with whom he comes in contact are meTe 
children, whose waywardness should excite compassion rather than 
anger, and who often display a touching simplicity and kindliness 
of disposition. He should, moreover, do his utmost to sustain the 
well established reputation of the 'kilmeh frengtyeh', the 'word of a 
Frank', in which Orientals are wont to place implicit confidence. 

(12). Tobacco. 

Cigar-smokers will find it very difficult to become accustomed 
to the Oriental tobacco, but they will find tolerable cigar-shops at 
Alexandria and Cairo, most of which have been established quite 
recently. As a general rule smokeTS are recommended to carry with 
them, both in going to and returning from Egypt, as little tobacco 
as possible, especially if they travel by the overland route, as a 
rigorous search is often made and a heavy duty exacted, both at 
the Egyptian, and at the French, Austrian, and Italian frontiers. 
Travellers returning to England direct, with their luggage booked 
through, are allowed half-a-pound of tobacco or cigaTS free of Eng- 
lish duty, or they may bring three pounds on payment of the duty 
(5s. per lb.) and a small fine. 

Tobacco (dukhdn) is kept in good condition by covering it with 
a moist cloth, with which, however, it must not come in contact. 
Strong (Kami) or mild (bdrid) may be asked for according to taste. 
Stambuli is a long and fine cut tobacco, the best qualities of which 
(40-60 fr. per okka = 2lbs. 11 V2 oz.) come from Eoumelia and Ana- 
tolia, and the inferior from the Greek islands. The Syrian tobacco 
(15-20 fr. per okka), which is cut less regularly, and contains parts 
of the stalk, is considered less drying to the palate than the Turkish. 


It is of two kinds, the kHrdni, or light-brown, and the gebeli, 
or dark-brown, a mixture of which may be used. The latter, which 
derives its colour from being dried in the smoke of resinous woods, 
is known in Europe as 'Latakia', from the region of N. Syria where 
it is chiefly grown (Ladikiyeh), but that name is not applied to it 
in the East. The native Egyptian tobacco (dukhdn beledi, or akhdar, 
green tobacco) is of very inferior quality (about 15 piastres per okka). 
The natives often gather the leaves from the plant, dry them in the 
sun, rub them to pieces, and smoke them quite fresh. Tumbdk, or 
Persian tobacco, is used in a moistened condition in the long nargi- 
lehs or water-pipes only, and is lighted with a particular kind of 
charcoal. The smoke of these pipes is drawn into the lungs. 

II. Geographical and Political Notice. 

a. Boundaries and Area (comp. Map, p. xxsii). Egypt proper, 
the country between the mouth of the Nile and the First Cataract, 
is a small region with well denned natural boundaries on three sides. 
On the N. is the Mediterranean Sea, on the E. the Arabian Desert 
and the Red Sea, and on the W. the Libyan Desert. The S. bound- 
ary is not marked by any natural feature, and has therefore at all 
ages been liable to alteration. Its fluctuations, sometimes to the N., 
sometimes to the S., form a kind of standard of the fluctuating poli- 
tical power of Egypt, and the causes of the fluctuations involve a 
great part of Egyptian history from the most ancient times down to 
the present day. 

When Mohammed 'Ali, the founder of the modern vassal king- 
dom of Egypt, died in 1848, he bequeathed to his successor a power 
extending far to the S. of the First Cataract, and including not only 
the Nubian Valley of the Nile, with the Nubian desert regions, but 
also the so-called Egyptian Sudan , consisting of the districts of 
Tdka, Senndr, and Kordofdn. The Khedive Isma'il extended his 
boundaries still farther to the S., S.E., and S.W. Thus he purchased 
Sudkin and Masau'a on the Red Sea, and Zela' and Berlera on the 
Gulf of 'Aden, four important seaports and commercial places, 
together with the coast districts adjoining them, which formerly 
belonged directly to the Turkish government ; and in the same way 
he acquired part of the Somali coast. The districts of the Bogos 
and Qalabat on the frontiers of Abyssinia were occupied and 
together with the Somali territory of Harar were annexed to the 
Egyptian empire, while Ddr-Fur , once an entirely independent 
principality in the Mohammedan Sudan, and the terror of its neigh- 
bours, was also conquered by the Egyptians. 

The boundaries of Egypt in a due S. direction were still more 
boldly extended by Isma'il, until they comprised the whole course 
of the White Nile and the greater part of the river region of the 
Bahr el-Ohazdl, and finally extended to about 2° N. latitude. But 

Divisions. GEOGRAPHICAL, NOTICE. xxxiii 

these territories were lost again even more rapidly than they had 
heen won. The rebellion of the Arab tribes that broke out in 1883 
under the Mahdi (p. cxxxi) not only utterly destroyed the new 
Egyptian power on the White Nile, but also wrested the entire 
Sudan as far as Lower Nubia from the Khedive. Thus, while Egypt 
at the beginning of 1883 was, nominally at least, as extensive as 
two-thirds of Russia in Europe, it has now shrunk to a district 
which, in its productive and inhabited part, is no larger than Bel- 
gium. Its nominal boundary, indeed, which embraces the great 
Libyan Desert with five Oases (p. lxiii), and the greater part of the 
Sinai Peninsula, still encloses an area officially estimated at nearly 
390,000 square miles. In 1882 the inhabited territory as far S. as 
Wadi Haifa was estimated at 12,830 sq. M., of which only 9460 
sq. M. were actually under cultivation. 

b. Divisions and Administration. The ancient prehistoric 
Egyptians were at first subdivided into numerous tribes, who 
formed a number of distinct small and independent states , with 
their own laws and their peculiar tutelary gods. These states were 
afterwards gradually united into the two large principalities of 
Lower Egypt or the Northern Country (To Mera, or To Meh), and 
Upper Egypt or the Southern Country (To Res, or To Kema). At 
a later period these two larger states , united under one sceptre, 
formed the empire of the Pharaohs, or the land of Kemi. The 
smaller states then constituted provinces or nomes (Egyptian hesoph ; 
Greek nomoi). The ancient Egyptians divided each nome into four 
principal parts : — (1) The capital (Nut), the religious and admin- 
istrative centre of the province; (2) The cultivated land (Un), 
subject to the annual inundation; (3) The marshy land which re- 
mained in a moist condition after the inundation ; (4) The district 
traversed by canals conducted out of the Nile. The civil and mili- 
tary administration of the nome was presided over either by here- 
ditary governors (hik), or by nomarchs (mer-nat-t'dt-to) appointed 
by the king. Under the Ptolemies these governors were called stra- 
tegoi (nomu) or nomarchoi, and over a group of these presided an epi- 
strategos. The chief authority in religious matters was the high priest 
of the temple, whose appointment was sometimes hereditary and 
sometimes elective ; and his staff consisted of a prophet, a temple- 
scribe, a stolistes or custodian of the vestments, and an astrologer. 

The number of the nomes varied at different periods. Most of 
the classical authors (thus Diodorus, liv. 3 ; Strabo, xxviii. 1, 3) 
enumerate thirty-six. The Egyptian lists, such as that of Edfu, 
mention forty-four, half of them being in Upper and half in Lower 
Egypt (but two of those in Upper Egypt and three in Lower Egypt 
are counted twice). The Greeks and Romans sometimes divided 
Egypt into three parts — Upper, Central, and Lower Egypt, or the 
Thebai's, Heptanomis, and Delta. 

The following is a list of the ancient Egyptian nomes: — 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed, C 














ABU (Elephan- 
tine - Gez!ret- 

OMBUS (Egypt. 

k6m ombu 





TEB (Copt. Atbo) 















Diospolis magna 







QEFTI (Copt. 




? EMSUH ? 


RER (Ta Notbi ; 
Copt. Pi Tent- 












TIN (Teni), after- 
wards AB-TU 

TIS (Tinis), 






(Copt. Khmin, 








' KEBfR 




(Copt! Shotp) 


























Northern part of 

' Tdho) 












1 TES 

PA MAZA (Copt. 















' (Copt. Hn$s) 
























































. . . ABOT 


PI-TUM (Sukot) 































































xxxvi GEOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. Administration. 

Lower and Upper Egypt are now each divided into seven Pro- 
vinces or Mudlflyeh. Upper Egypt , known as Sa'id, beginning a 
little to the N. of Beni Suef, formerly extended to the First Cata- 
ract only, but is now prolonged to the S. to Wadi Haifa. The pro- 
vinces of Lower Egypt are : (1) Kalyub, at the head of the Delta ; 
(2) Sharkiyeh, i.e. 'the eastern', with Zakazik as its capital; (3) 
Dakahliyeh, with Mansura as its capital ; (4) Menuf; (5) OharMyeh, 
i.e. 'the western', with Tanta as its capital ; (6) Behereh, i.e. 'of the 
lake', with Damanhiir as its capital ; (7) Gizeh, opposite to Cairo. 
The following capitals and commercial towns are presided over by 
governors of their own, and are independent of the provincial ad- 
ministration : Cairo , Alexandria, Suez, Port Sa'id, Damietta, Ro- 
setta, Isma'iliya , and lastly the small seaport of Koser on the Red 
Sea. The seven Upper Egyptian provinces are those of Beni-Suef, 
Minyeh, Siut, Girgeh (Siihag), Keneh, Esneh, and Wadi Haifa. 
The Fayum forms a mudiriyeh by itself. 

The chief official in every province is the Mudir, or governor, 
who is assisted by a council, or'diwan', of other officers. This coun- 
cil consists of a Wektl, or vice-governor ; a chief clerk, tax-gatherer, 
and accountant, who is always a Copt ; a Kadi, or supreme judge, 
and the chief authority in spiritual matters; sometimes the president 
of a chamber of commerce and chief authority in civil affairs ; a 
superintendent of police ; an architect for the supervision of canals 
and other public works ; and lastly the chief physician of the pro- 
vince. The sub-governors in the smaller towns, who are under the 
jurisdiction of the Mudir, are sometimes called Kdshif, or Nazir 
el-Kism. Subordinate to the nazir again is the Shekh el-Beled, 
or chief magistrate or mayor of the village, usually known simply as 
shekh (plur. shiukK). 

In the larger towns there is a magistrate of this kind in each 
quarteT (at Cairo fifty-three), over whom are placed prefects of larger 
sections (shekh et-tumn). Over the whole of these presides the Mu- 
dir, and lastly over the latter in some cases a Hokmdar with very 
extensive powers. Other provinces again are governed by specially 
appointed inspectors, who occupy the highest rank in their respective 

c. Population. The population of Egypt has been ascertained to 
have been greater in ancient than in modern times ; for, disregard- 
ing the exaggerated calculation of Theocritus , based on a mere as- 
sumption, it appears to have numbered at least 7 1 / 2 million souls in 
the time of Josephus and the Emperor Nero. This numbeT is quite 
reasonable in itself, as it is estimated that the country could sup- 
port 8-9 million inhabitants. 

According to the enumeration made by Amici Bey in 1882 the 
population of Egypt proper as far as Wadi Haifa is 6,811,448, or 
about 600 per square mile, and is therefore denser than that of most 
European states. The thickest population is found in the province 

Population. GEOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. xxxvii 

of Esneh, the thinnest in the Fayum and in Behereh. The sexes 
occur in almost equal proportions. The number of houses enumerated 
in the same census is 1,090,000, distributed among 12,876 towns, 
villages, and hamlets. 

d. Origin and Present Condition of the Egyptians (by Dr. 
O. Schweinfurth of Cairo). For thousands of years the banks of the 
Nile have been occupied by the Egyptians, the oldest nation 
known to history, and still exhibiting many of their ancient 
personal characteristics unaltered. Notwithstanding the interm- 
inable series of immigrations and other changes affecting the 
character of the inhabitants, the Egyptian type has always predom- 
inated with marvellous uniformity. As Egypt is said to be the 
'gift of the Nile', so has the character of its inhabitants been ap- 
parently moulded by the influences of that river. No country in 
the world is so dependent on a river which traverses it as Egypt, 
and no river presents physical characteristics so exceptional as the 
Nile ; so, too, there exists no race of people which possesses so 
marked and unchanging an individuality as the Egyptians. It is 
therefore most probable that this unvarying type is the product of 
the soil itself, and that the character of the peoples who settled at 
different periods on the bank of the Nile , whatever it may origin- 
ally have been , has in due course of time been moulded to the 
same constant form by the mysterious influences of the river. In 
all countries, indeed, national characteristics are justly regarded 
as the natural outcome of soil and climate , and of this connection 
no country affords so strong an illustration as Egypt, with its sharply 
defined boundaries of sea and desert , and in its complete isolation 
from the rest of the world. These considerations tend to throw 
serious doubts on all the current theories as to the origin of the 
Egyptians. According to the Bible, Mizraim (Misraim) was the son 
of Ham and brother of Canaan and the Ethiopian Cush; and, as his 
name was applied by the Hebrews to Egypt, it is probable that he 
migrated with his sons from Asia to the banks of the Nile. The name, 
moreover, of Ludim, his eldest son, corresponds to the word Rotu, 
or Lotu , the hieroglyphic name for the Egyptians. Philologists, 
who have discovered points of resemblance in the roots and inflec- 
tions of the ancient Egyptian and the Semitic languages, likewise 
come to the conclusion that the Egyptians originally came from 
Asia, eitheT by way of Suez, or across the Red Sea from Arabia. The 
ethnographer + , on the other hand, who observes that many of the 

+ No inference can legitimately be drawn from the fact that the 
skulls of the ancient and modern Egyptians , which are very similar in 
form, have no affinity with those which are usually described as of the 
negro type, as our craniological collections are very incomplete, and our 
knowledge of the negro races imperfect. The fact is, that several negro 
races, such as the Nubians and the Shilluk , might be named, whose 
characteristics undoubtedly belong to the negro type, while their skulls 
are just as little prognathous as those of the Egyptians. 

xxxviii GEOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. Population. 

domestic utensils employed by the ancient Egyptians , as well as 
many of their customs , are similar to those of the dwellers on 
the banks of the Zambezi and Niger, but totally different from 
those seen on the banks of the Indus or Euphrates, will always 
maintain an opposite view. The considerations already mentioned, 
however , tend to show that the truth lies between these extremes. 
Even those who most strongly maintain the Asiatic origin of 
the Egyptians will probably admit that the immigrants found 
an aboriginal race already settled on the banks of the Nile, which 
in its persistent opposition to all foreign influences was doubtless 
similar to the race usually known as the Egyptian. We start with 
the cardinal fact , that , although the country has been at various 
periods overrun by Hyksos, Ethiopians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, 
Romans , Arabs , and Turks , and although the people were tyran- 
nised over , ill-treated , and in most cases compelled to intermarry 
with these foreigners , the Egyptians have for thousands of years 
retained the same unvarying physical types , while their character 
has been but slightly modified by the introduction of Christianity 
and Mohammedanism. If it now be borne in mind that these 
foreigners generally invaded the country in the form of an army, 
that they formed but a small body compared with the bulk of the 
population , and that they either married native women or sought 
wives in other countries , it is obvious that they would either con- 
tinue to exist for a time as a foreign caste , a condition apparently 
repugnant to nature and necessarily transient , or that they would 
gradually succumb to the never-failing influences of the soil and 
be absorbed in the great mass of the aboriginal inhabitants. An 
excellent illustration of this process is afforded by the Arabian in- 
vasion , with the circumstances and results of which we are better 
acquainted than with the history of the other foreign immigrations ; 
for, disregarding the Beduin tribes, who are entirely distinct from 
the Egyptian population , we now find that the Arabian element 
has entirely disappeared , and we meet with genuine Arabs in the 
towns only , where the merchants , pilgrims , and other members of 
that people form a class entirely distinct from the natives , and 
where their existence is only maintained by means of reinforce- 
ments from abroad. Another proof of the transforming influences 
of the Egyptian climate is afforded by the uniform character of the 
domestic animals. The oxen , in particular (which , however , are 
gradually being replaced by the buffalo), though they have often 
been repeatedly exterminated in a single century by murrain , and 
have been succeeded by foreign races from every quarter of the 
globe , invariably after a few generations assume the well-known 
Egyptian type with which the representations on the ancient temples 
render us so familiar. 

The Modern Egyptians. The population of Egypt is composed 
of the following ten different elements. 


(1). The Fbllahin (sing, fellah), the 'tillers' or 'peasants', 
form the bulk of the population, and maybe regarded as the sinews 
of the national strength. They are generally slightly above the 
middle height; their bones, and particularly their skulls, are strong 
and massive ; and their wrists and ankles are powerful and some- 
what clumsy. In all these respects the fellahin , as well as their 
domestic animals , contrast strongly with the inhabitants of the 
desert, the fellah and the Beduin differing from each other precisely 
in the same points as their respective camels. Notwithstanding this 
largeness of frame , however , the fellah never grows fat. The 
woman and girls are particularly remarkable for their slender build, 
and they often speak of each other as 'zei el-habl', or slender as a 
rope. The men generally keep their heads shaved , but the hair 
of the soldiers and the long tresses of the girls, though always black 
and often curly , is by no means of the short , woolly negro type. 

The chief peculiarity of the Egyptians is the remarkable close- 
ness of their eyelashes on both lids, forming a dense, double, black 
fringe, which gives so animated an expression to their almond- 
shaped eyes. The very ancient and still existing custom of blacken- 
ing the edges of the eyelids with antimony ('kohl'), which is said 
to serve a sanitary purpose , contributes to enhance this natural 
expression. The eyebrows are always straight and smooth , never 
bushy. The mouth is wide and thick-lipped , and very different 
from that of the Beduin or inhabitant of the oases. The high cheek- 
bones, the receding forehead, the lowness of the bridge of the nose, 
which is always distinctly separated from the forehead , and the 
flatness of the nose itself, are the chief characteristics of the 
Egyptian skull; but, as the jaws project less than those of most 
of the other African coloured Taces , it has been assumed that the 
skull is Asiatic, and not African in shape. The Egyptian peasantry 
have a much darker complexion than their compatriots in the towns, 
and their colour deepens as we proceed southwards , from the pale 
brown of the inhabitant of the Delta to the dark bronze hue of the 
Upper Egyptians. There is also a difference between the tint of the 
Nubians and that of the Upper Egyptians, even where they live in 
close contiguity , the former being more of a reddish-brown. 

The dwelling of the fellah is of a miserably poor description, 
consisting generally of four low walls formed of crude bricks of 
Nile mud, and thatched with a roof of dura straw, rush, rags, or old 
straw-mats. In the interior are a few mats, a sheep's skin , several 
baskets made of matting , a copper kettle , and a few earthenware 
pots and wooden dishes. Instead of using the crude bricks, the 
fellahin in Upper Egypt often form the walls of their huts of a 
mixture of mud and straw. The dark , windowless interior is en- 
tered by a small opening, in front of which the proprietor usually 
forms an enclosure of circular shape , with a wall of mud about 
5 ft. in height. This is the court-yard of the establishment, and the 


usual resoit of the family and their domestic animals in summer. 
The -walls of the yard generally contain round hollows, used as re- 
ceptacles for the grain which forms the food of the family. Within 
the yard are usually placed a square pillar, about 5 ft. in height, 
■with openings in its sides as receptacles for objects of value, and a 
thick column of the same height, terminating in a platform shaped 
like a plate, with the edges bent upwards, which is used by the 
proprietor as a sleeping-place in hot weather. The fact is, that 
beneath an Egyptian sky, houses are not of the same paramount 
importance as in more northern regions , all that is wanted being 
shelter for the night. 

The poorer peasant's mode of life is frugal in the extreme. 
The staple of his food consists of a peculiar kind of bread made of 
sorghum flour in Upper Egypt, or of maize in the Delta, wheaten 
bread being eaten by the wealthier only. This poor kind of bread 
often has a greenish colour, owing to an admixture of bean-flour 
(Foenum Graecum). Next in importance in the bill of fare are broad 
beans (ful). For supper, however, even the poorest cause a hot 
repast to be prepared. This usually consists of a highly salted 
sauce made of onions and butter, or in the poorer houses of onions 
and linseed or sesame oil. Into this sauce , which in summer 
acquires a gelatinous consistency by the addition of the universal 
bamia (the capsular fruit of the Hibiscus) and various herbs , each 
member of the family dips pieces of bread held in the ringers. 
Both in town and country, goats', sheeps' , or buffaloes' milk also 
forms a daily article of food , but always in a sour condition or half 
converted into cheese , and in very moderate quantities only. In 
the height of summer the consumption of fruit of the cucumber 
and pumpkin species, which the land yields in abundance, is 
enormous. In the month of Ramadan alone, when a rigorous fast 
is observed during the day , and on the three days of the great 
Beiram festival (Korban Beiram), even the poorest members of the 
community indulge in meat , and it is customary to distribute that 
Tare luxury to beggars at these seasons. 

The dress of the Egyptian peasant calls for little remark, espe- 
cially as he usually works in the fields divested of everything. The 
chief articles of his wardrobe at other times are an indigo-dyed cot- 
ton shirt (harms), a pair of short and wide cotton breeches, a kind 
of cloak of brown, home-spun goats' wool (za'but, 'abdyeh, or 'aba), 
or simply a blanket of sheep's wool (hiram), and lastly a close- 
fitting felt skull-cap (Ubdeh). He is generally barefooted, but occa- 
sionally wears pointed red (zerbun), or broad yellow shoes (balgha). 
The shekhs and wealthier peasants, when they go to market wear 
wide, black woollen cloaks and the thick red 'Tunisian' fez (tarbush) 
with a blue silk tassel, round which they coil a white or red turban 
('immeh). In their hands they usually carry a long and thick stick 
(nabbUt), made of ash imported from Caramania. 


The agricultural population of Egypt does not exceed two million 
souls, an unnaturally low proportion when we consider the nature of 
the country. The sole wealth of Egypt is derived from its agriculture, 
and to the fellahin alone is committed the important task of tilling 
the soil. They are, indeed, neither fitted nor inclined for other work, 
a circumstance which proves how completely the stationary character 
of the ancient Egyptians has predominated over the restless Arab- 
ian blood , which has been largely infused into the native popula- 
tion ever since the valley of the Nile was conquered by the armies 
of El-Islam. The modern Egyptians, moreover, resemble the ancient 
in the lot to which they are condemned. In ancient times the 
fellah , pressed into the service of the priests and the princes, 
was compelled to yield up to them the fruits of his toil , and his 
position is nearly the same at the present day, save that the names 
of his masters are changed, and he has obtained some relief ow- 
ing to the almost entire abolition of compulsory work. 

In early life the Egyptian peasant is remarkably docile, active, 
and intelligent, but at a later period this freshness and buoyancy is 
crushed out of him by care and poverty and his never-ceasing task 
of filling the pitcher of the Danaides. He ploughs and reaps, toils 
and amasses , but he cannot with certainty regard his crops as his 
own, and the hardly earned piastre is too frequently wrested from 
him. His character, therefore, becomes like that of a gifted child, 
who has been harshly used and brought up to domestic slavery, but 
at length perceives that he has been treated with injustice, and 
whose amiability and intelligence are then superseded by sullenness 
and obstinacy. Thus, as in the time of Ammianus Marcellinus, the 
fellah will often suffer the most cruel blows in dogged silence rather 
than pay the taxes demanded of him. 

In his own fields the fellah is an industrious labourer, and his 
work is more continuous than that of the peasant of more northern 
countries. He enjoys no period of repose during the winter, and the 
whole of his spare-time is occupied in drawing water for the irriga- 
tion of the land. Notwithstanding his hard lot, however, he is an 
entire stranger to any endeavour to better his condition or to im- 
prove his system of farming. As soon as he has accomplished the 
most necessary tasks he rests and smokes, and trusts that Allah will 
do the remainder of his work for him. 

The fellah is a believer in the religion of Mohammed, although 
he knows but little of the prophet's doctrines and history. Fol- 
lowers of all other religions he believes to be doomed to eternal per- 
dition ; but travellers are not on that account disliked by him. We 
serve rather to confirm his belief in eternal justice , for he is con- 
vinced that all the comforts and luxuries we now enjoy will be 
counterbalanced by torments hereafter. At the same time he admires 
and overrates our knowledge, which is so superior to his own. Every 
well-dressed European is in the estimation of the natives a prodigy 


of -wisdom ; and , as their ideas of a scholar and a physician are 
identical , they place implicit reliance on our ability to heal the 
sick and to save the dying. The traveller who comes in contact 
with the fellahin will often he applied to for medicine, and will 
often find drugs more effective than money in securing their good will . 

(2). Copts (kubt, iibt). While we have regarded the fellahin as 
genuine Egyptians in consequence of their uninterrupted occupation 
of the soil, the religion of the Copts affords us an additional guarantee 
for the purity of their descent. The Copts are undoubtedly the most 
direct descendants of the ancient Egyptians, there being no ground 
for the assumption that their ancestors were foreign immigrants who 
embraced Christianity after the conquest of the country by the 
Mohammedans, while on the other hand the obstinacy with which 
they defended their monophysite Christianity for several centuries 
against the inroads of the creed of Byzantium affords another 
indication of their Egyptian character. The Coptic population is 
officially stated as 250,000, but these figures are obviously too low, 
and the number is more probably about 400,000, i.e. about a fifth 
of the purely indigenous population of the valley of the Nile. + They 
are most numerous in the towns of Northern Egypt, around the 
ancient Coptos, at Negada, Luksor, Esneh, Dendera, Girgeh, Tahta, 
and particularly at Siut and Akhmim. A large proportion of the 
population of all these places is Coptic. 

The Coptic Patriarch is elected from their own number by the monks 
of the five chief monasteries of Egypt. These are the monasteries of St. 
Anthony and St. Paul in the western desert, the two in the valley of the 
Natron Lakes, and the large convent of Marrag, near Monfalut. 

Most of the Copts are dwellers in towns, and are chiefly engaged in 
the more refined handicrafts (as watchmakers, goldsmiths, jewellers, 
embroiderers, tailors, weavers, manufacturers of spurious antiquities, 
etc.), or in trade, or as clerks, accountants, and notaries. Jfceir 
physique is accordingly materially different from that of the fellah- 
in. They are generally somewhat below the middle height, and of 
delicate frame, with small hands and feet ; their skulls are higher 
and narrower than those of the peasantry, and with less protruding 
cheek-bones ; and, lastly, their complexion is fairer. These dif- 
ferences are sufficiently accounted for by their mode of life ; for, 
when we compare those Copts who are engaged in rustic pursuits, 
or the Coptic camel drivers of Upper Egypt, with the fellahin, we 
find that the two races are not distinguishable from each other. The 
two distinct types have also been recognized in the skeletons of the 
ancient mummies. 

Few nations in the East embraced the Gospel more zealously 
than the dwellers on the Nile. Accustomed as they had long been 
to regard life as a pilgrimage to death, as a school of preparation for 

t The total number of Christians in Egypt, including Europeans, Ar- 
menians, and Syrians, is about 600,000, or one tenth of the entire popu- 


another world, and weary of their motley and confused Pantheon 
of divinities , whose self-seeking priesthood designedly disguised 
the truth, they eagerly welcomed the simple doctrines of Christianity, 
which appeared so well adapted to their condition and promised 
them succour and redemption. Like Eutyches, they revered the 
divine nature of the Saviour only, in which they held that every 
human element was absorbed ; and when the Council of Chalcedon 
in 451 sanctioned the doctrine that Christ combined a human with 
a divine nature, the Egyptians, with their characteristic tenacity 
adhered to their old views, and formed a sect termed Eutychians, or 
Monophysites , to which the Copts of the present day still belong. 
The name of the Copts is an ethnical one, being simply an Arabic cor- 
ruption of the Greek name of Egyptians. The theory is now exploded that 
they derive their name from a certain itinerant preacher named Jacobtis, 
who according to Makrizi was termed El-Beradi'i, or 'blanket-bearer', from 
the old horse-cloth worn by him when he went about preaching. This 
Jacobus promulgated the monophysite doctrine of Eutyches, which had 
found its most zealous supporter in Dioscurus, a bishop of Alexandria, 
who was declared a heretic and banished after the Council of Chalcedon ; 
and his disciples were sometimes called Jacobites. If this name had ever 
been abbreviated to Cobit or Cobt, it would probably have occurred 
frequently in the writings of Monophysites ; but there we find no trace 
of it. It is, on the other hand, quite intelligible that the word Copt, 
though originally synonymous with Egyptian, should gradually have come 
to denote a particular religious sect; for, at the period when the valley 
of the Nile was conquered by c Amr, the native Egyptians, who almost 
exclusively held the monophysite creed, were chiefly distinguished by 
their religion from their invaders, who brought a new religious system 
from the East. 

These Egyptian Christians strenuously opposed the resolutions of 
the Council of Chalcedon, and thousands of them sacrificed their 
lives or their welfare in the fierce and sanguinary conflicts of the 
6th century, the causes of which were imperfectly understood by 
the great majority of the belligerents. The subtle dogmatic dif- 
ferences which gave rise to these wars aroused such hatred among 
these professors of the religion of love, that the defeated Monophys- 
ites readily welcomed the invading armies of El-Islam, or perhaps 
even invited them to their country. 

After the conquest of Egypt by 'Ami the Copts were at first 
treated with lenity, and were even appointed to the highest govern- 
ment offices ; but they were soon doomed to suffer persecutions and 
privations of every description. These persecutions were mainly 
due to their unbounded arrogance and their perpetual conspiracies 
against their new masters, and their Mohammedan contemporaries 
even attributed to them the disastrous conflagrations from which the 
new capital of the country so frequently suffered (p. 36). Accus- 
tomed for many ages to regard themselves as the most civilised of 
nations, and the Greeks as their inferiors, they perhaps imagined, 
that, if they succeeded in throwing off the yoke of the barbarous 
children of the desert, they could prevent the revival of the hated 
Byzantine supremacy. Their hopes, however, were doomed to bitter 


disappointment, and their national pride to utter humiliation. Their 
conquerors succeeded in maintaining their position, and though 
apparently at first inclined to moderation, were at length driven by 
the conduct and the previous example of the Copts themselves to 
persecute and oppress them to the uttermost. 

In spite, however, of all these disasters, a numerous community 
of Copts has always existed in Egypt, a fact which is mainly to he 
accounted for by the remarkable tenacity and constancy of the 
Egyptian character. Owing, however, to the continual oppres- 
sion and contempt to which they have been subjected, the grave 
disposition of the subjects of the Pharaohs has degenerated into 
tullen gloom, and their industry into cupidity. The rancour which 
they have so long cherished has embittered their character, while 
the persecutions they have suffered have taught them to be at one 
sime cringing, and at another arrogant and overbearing. They are 
in very few respects superior to their Mohammedan countrymen. 
They generally possess an hereditary aptitude for mathematical 
science, and are therefore in great request as book-keepers and 
accountants, but on the other hand they are entirely destitute of the 
generous and dignified disposition of the Arabs. They obey their 
law which forbids polygamy, but constantly abuse that which per- 
mits them to indulge in spirituous liquors, drunkards being fre- 
quently met with, even among their priests. Their divine worship 
will strike the traveller as strange, and anything but edifying or 
elevating (comp. p. 84). 

The traveller may distinguish the Copts from the Arabs by their 
dark turbans, which are generally blue or black, and their dark- 
coloured clothes. This costume was originally prescribed by their 
oppressors, and they still take a pride in it as a mark of their origin, 
though now permitted to dress as they please. A practised eye will 
also frequently detect among them the ancient Egyptian cast of 
features. Towards strangers the Copt is externally obliging, and 
when anxious to secure their favour he not unfrequently appeals to 
his Christian creed as a bond of union. Many Copts have recently 
been converted to Protestantism by American missionaries, partic- 
ularly in Upper Egypt, chiefly through the foundation of good 
schools and the distribution of cheap Arabic Bibles. Even the 
orthodox Copts have a great reverence for the sacred volume, and it 
is not uncommon to meet with members of their sect who know the 
whole of the Gospels by heart. The Roman propaganda, which was 
begun by Franciscans at the end of the 17th and beginning of the 
18th cent., has been less successful among the Copts, and there 
now exist a few small Roman Catholic communities in Upper Egypt 
only (atGirgeh, Akhmim, andNegada). To the Romanists, however, 
is partly due the preservation of the old Coptic language, into which 
they caused the gospels to be translated by the most learned scholars 
of the day (accompanied by a preface asserting the supremacy of 


the pope) for circulation in Egypt. Notwithstanding the serious 
defects to which we have alluded, the Coptic community boasts of 
a number of highly respectable members, and in spite of the frequent 
heavy contributions levied from the sect by previous governments, 
it contains several wealthy landowners and merchants, some of 
whom we shall hereafter have occasion to name. 

3. Beduins. Bedu (sing, bedawi) is the name applied to the 
nomadic Arabs, and 'Arab to those who immigrated at a later pe- 
riod and settled in the valley of the Nile. They both differ mate- 
rially from the dwellers in towns and from the fellahin, who 
usually call themselves 'Sons of the Arabs' (Ibn el- Arab). The 
subdivisions of the Beduin tribes are called Kablleh (whence 
the name Kabyles , applied to some of the Algerian Beduins). 
Though differing greatly in origin and language , the wandering 
tribes of Egypt all profess Mohammedanism. Again, while some 
of them have immigrated from Arabia or Syria , partly in very 
ancient, and partly in modern times, and while others are sup- 
posed to be the aboriginal inhabitants of the territories claimed 
by them (as the Berbers of N. Africa and the Ethiopians or Blem- 
myes of Nubia), or former dwellers on the Nile expelled from their 
homes by foreign invaders, they all differ greatly from the stationary 
Egyptian population; and this contrast is accounted for by the 
radical difference between the influences of the desert and those of 
the Nile valley. The Beduins may be divided into two leading 
groups : (1) Beduins in the narrower sense, i. e. Arabic speaking 
tribes, most of whom have probably immigrated from Arabia or Sy- 
ria, and who occupy the deserts adjoining Central and Northern 
Egypt, or who are to be found in different regions of Southern Nubia 
as a pastoral people ; (2) 'Bega', who range over the regions of Upper 
Egypt and Nubia situated between the Nile and the Red Sea, and 
extending to the frontiers of the Abyssinian mountains (their ter- 
ritory being known as 'Edbai'). To these last the name of Ethiopi- 
ans may as accurately be applied as that of Arabs to the first 
group ; and they are believed by Dr. Lepsius to be the descendants 
of the Blemmyes, who occupied the Nubian part of the valley of the 
Nile down to the 4th cent, after Christ, when they were expelled 
by 'Nubian' invaders from the south. The second group consists of 
three different races, the Hadendoa, the Bishartn, and the Ababdeh. 
The last-named, who are widely scattered in the valleys of the 
desert between the tropics and the latitude of Keneh and Koser, 
and who lead a poverty-stricken life with their very scanty stock of 
camels and goats, are those with whom alone we have to deal as 
inhabitants of Egypt. Though closely resembling the other Bega 
tribes in appearance, the Ababdeh (sing. Abadi, the Gebadei of 
Pliny) possess an original language of their own ('to-bedyawiyeh'), 
which, however, they have long since exchanged for bad Arabic. 
Besides the girdle round their loins they wear a kind of long white 


shirt, and in winter a light-coloured striped woollen mantle, while 
the Bisharin and Hadendoa tend their large flocks of sheep and 
herds of camels in a half-naked condition, girded with a leathern 
apron and wrapped in a kind of blanket (melayeh). All these 'Ethiopi- 
ans' are Dolichocephalic with orthognathons skulls, and are re- 
markable for their fine and almost Caucasian cast of features, their 
very dark, bronze-coloured complexion, and their luxuriant growth 
of hair, shading their heads like a cloud, or hanging down in num- 
berless plaits over their necks and shoulders, while in front it is 
short and curly. Their figures are beautifully symmetrical, and 
more or less slender in accordance with their means of subsistence, 
and their limbs are gracefully and delicately formed. In other re- 
spects they resemble all the other children of the desert, as in the 
purity of their complexion, the peculiar thinness of their necks, 
and the premature wrinkling of the skin of their faces. Com- 
pared with their bold and quarrelsome neighbours the Bisharin, the 
Ababdeh, who are armed with a dagger worn in a sheath attached 
to the upper part of the left arm, or with a long, straight sword, 
but never with a gun, are exceedingly gentle and inoffensive. The 
Egyptian government has put an end to the old feuds between the 
Bisharin and the Ababdeh by entrusting to the latter the superin- 
tendence of the great commercial route through the Nubian desert 
(from Korusko to Abu Hammed), and by placing the nine tribes of 
the Bisharin under the jurisdiction of the chief shekh of the Abab- 
deh, who is personally responsible for the safety of the routes through 
the desert, and is therefore obliged to reside in the valley of the 
Nile. (Hispresent headquarters are at the small village of Behereh, 
at the foot of the hill of Redesiyeh, opposite to Edfu.) The total 
number of the Ababdeh amounts to about 30,000. The chief 
shekh whose dignity is hereditary , appoints oveT the principal vil- 
lages a number of sub-chiefs, who are appealed to as judges in family 
quarrels which the head of the family has been unable to settle. 
The dwellings of the Ababdeh consist of low and miserable hovels 
constructed of stakes covered with ragged straw-mats, and placed in 
groups of not more than 4-8 together. They also sometimes live in 
caves, like genuine Troglodytes , although exposed to danger from 
snakes. Like the other Bega tribes, they are chiefly occupied as 
shepherds and camel-drivers. The wealthier purchase a little sorgh- 
um grain , which they eat either raw, or roasted , or in the form of 
unleavened cakes, but the poorer seem to have a marvellous power of 
sustaining life on homoeopathically minute quantities of goats' milk 
and the game which they occasionally capture. The Bisharin also live 
exclusively on milk and a little meat , while the Arabian Beduins 
of the North till the soil to some extent when an opportunity of- 
fers. A considerable number of the Ababdeh and Bisharin who 
live near the coast and possess no cattle or other property, subsist 
precariously on the produce of the sea. They are not fishermen, as 


they possess no boats or other appliances, -with the exception of 
spears and landing-nets, hut merely 'Ichthyophagi', who pick up 
shell-fish, octopoda, or small fish thrown up on the beach. Occasion- 
ally they make a prize of turtle's eggs , and sometimes succeed in 
reaching the sandy islands of the Red Sea where the sea-swallow 
(sterna) lays its eggs. This poor mode of life of course has an in- 
fluence on their mental capacity, which is not of a very high order; 
but they are intelligent in their own affairs, and remarkably skilful 
trackers, so much so that they are often employed by the government 
in pursuing criminals. They are nominally Mohammedans, but 
they do not pray, or keep the fast of Ramadan, or make pilgrimages, 
except on rare occasions. Nor do they, like orthodox Mohammedans, 
fear 'ginn' and 'ghuls', but they permit polygamy, observe the rite 
of circumcision, and worship saints. 

Besides the Bega, there are numerous Beduins who inhabit the 
steppes and deserts belonging to the region of the Nile, but beyond 
the limits of Egypt, and range as far as the confines of the heathen 
negro-races on the left bank of the Nile, nearly to 9° N. latitude ; 
but with these we have not at present to deal. Among the Arabian 
Beduins of the North, there are three important tribes in the pen- 
insula of Mount Sinai: the Terdbiyin, who carry on a brisk caravan 
traffic between Suez and Cairo, and claim territorial rights as far as 
the banks of the Nile near Basatin above Cairo ; the Tthdya, who 
occupy the heart of the peninsula, between Suez and 'Akaba ; and 
the Sawdrkeh or El-'Arayish, to the north of the latter. In Upper 
Egypt, besides the Ababdeh , the only Beduins who occupy the 
eastern bank of the Nile are the Beni Wasel and the Atuni , or 
Hawdddt, who, however, have now settled on both banks of the 
Theban Nile valley and are gradually blending with the fellahin, 
and the Md'azeh (about 3000 in number), who dwell in groups 
among the limestone mountains between Suez and Keneh, where 
there aTe good pastures at places. Most of the Arabian Beduins, 
on the other hand, who belong to Egypt, confine themselves to the 
westernbank of the Nile. They occupy the whole of this side of the 
river from the Fayum as far as Abydus nearGirgeh, and it is mainly 
with their aid that communication is maintained with the western 
oases, peopled by a totally different race (p. lxv), who till the ground 
and possess no camels, being probably allied to the Berbers of 
Northern Africa (one of the numerous Libyan tribes mentioned 
in ancient inscriptions). 

The Beduins of the North have inherited with comparative purity 
the fiery blood of the desert tribes, who achieved such marvellous 
exploits under the banner of the prophet, but the traveller will 
rarely come in contact with them unless he undertakes a journey 
across the desert. The loiterers who assist travellers in the ascent 
of the pyramids and pester them to buy antiquities, which are 
generally spurious, call themselves Beduins, but, even if originally 

xlviii THE MODERN EGYPTIANS. Dwellers in Towns. 

of that race, they have entirely lost all its nohler characteristics in 
consequence of their intercourse with strangers and their debasing 
occupations. Genuine Beduins are to be found nowhere except in 
their desert home, where to a great extent they still retain the spirit 
of independence, the courage, and the restlessness of their ancestors. 
As in the time of Herodotus, the tent of the Beduin is still his 
home. Where it is pitched is a matter of indifference to him, if 
only the pegs which secure it be firmly driven into the earth , if it 
shelter his wife and child from the burning sunshine and the chilly 
night ah, and if pasturage-ground and a spring be within reach. In 
consequence of the frequent wars waged between the different 
tribes, every Beduin is a warrior. Most of them, too, as might be 
expected, are extremely poor. Thus at Ramleh on the coast, near 
Alexandria, the traveller will have an opportunity of seeing a whole 
colony of the poorest class encamped in their tents, where they 
live in the most frugal possible manner, with a few miserable goats 
and the fowls which subsist on the rubbish in their neighbourhood. 
Though professors of El-Islam , they are considerably less strict in 
their observances than the fellahin of the valley of the Nile, who 
are themselves sufficiently lax , and above all they sadly neglect 
the religious duty of cleanliness. They do not observe the practice 
of praying five times a day, and they are as a rule but slightly ac- 
quainted with the Koran. Relics of their old star-worship can still 
be traced among their customs. 

The traveller will occasionally observe Beduins in the bazaars 
of the armourers and leather-merchants, and will be struck with 
the proud and manly bearing of these bronzed children of the desert, 
whose sharp, bearded features and steady gaze betoken firmness and 
resolution. In Egypt the traveller need not fear their predatory 
propensities, but they have frequently attacked travellers in Turk- 
ish Tripolitania and in the eastern part of Arabia Petraea. 

(4"). Arabian Dwellers in Towns. Those Arabs with whom the 
traveller usually comes in contact in towns are shopkeepers, officials, 
servants, coachmen, and donkey-attendants, or perhaps these last 
only, as most of the best shops are kept by Europeans, while in of- 
ficial and legal matters his intercourse with the natives is carried 
on through the medium of his consul. The indolence and duplicity 
of these Arabs, which proceed to some extent from the character of 
their religion, have often been justly condemned, while their in- 
telligence, patience, and amiability are too often ignored. They are 
generally of a much more mixed origin than the fellahin, as the va- 
rious conquerors of Egypt usually made the towns their head- 
quarters. Alexandria, for example, was chiefly favoured by the 
Greeks and Arabs, and Cairo by the Arabs and Turks. It thus hap- 
pens that the citizens of the Egyptian towns consist of persons of 
every complexion from dark brown to white, with the features of 
the worshippers of Osiris or the sharp profile of the Beduins, and 


■with the slender figure of the fellah or the corpulence of the Turk. 
Among the lower classes frequent intermarriage with negro women 
has darkened the complexion and thickened the features of their 
offspring ; while the higher ranks , being descended from white 
slaves or Turkish mothers, more nearly resemble the European type. 
As the inhabitants of the towns could not be so much oppressed by 
their rulers as the peasantry, we find that they exhibit a more in- 
dependent spirit, greater enterprise, and a more cheerful disposition 
than the fellahin. At the same time they are not free from the 
dreamy character peculiar to Orientals, nor from a tinge of the apathy 
of fatalism ; and their indolence contrasts strongly with the industry 
of their European rivals in political, scientific, artistic, and all 
business pursuits. A glance at the offices of the ministers, the 
bazaars of the merchants, the schools of the Arabs, and the building- 
yards and workshops constructed by natives will enable the traveller 
to observe with what deliberation and with what numerous inter- 
vals of repose they perform their tasks. From such workers it is 
in vain to expect rapidity, punctuality, or work of a highly finished 
character, and the caustic remark of Prince Napoleon that the Egypti- 
ans are 'capable of making a pair of pantaloons, but never of 
sewing on the last button', was doubtless founded on experience. 
The townspeople profess Islamism, but, in their youth particularly, 
they are becoming more and more lax in their obedience to the Koran. 
Thus the custom of praying in public, outside the house-doors and 
shops, is gradually falling into disuse. The European dress, more- 
over, is gradually superseding the Oriental, though the latter is far 
more picturesque, and better suited to the climate +. On the whole, 
however, they are bigoted Mohammedans, and share the contempt 
with which the fellahin regard all other religions. Their daily inter- 
course with unbelievers and their dread of the power of the Christ- 
ian nations tend, however, to keep their fanaticism, which otherwise 
would be unbounded, in check, and has even induced them to admit 
strangers to witness the most sacred ceremonies in their mosques. 
(5). Berbers. The name Berberi (plur. barabra) is believed 
by many authorities to be identical with 'barbarians', a word which 
is said to have been adopted by the Greeks from the Egyptians, who 
used it to denote all 'non-Egyptians', and to be derived from brr, 
i. e. 'to be unable to speak', or 'to speak imperfectly'. The 'Ber- 
bers' of N.Africa and the town of 'Berber' in S. Nubia also doubt- 
less have the same origin. In Egypt the name is applied in a half 
contemptuous way to the numerous immigrants from the Nubian 

t About the year 1865 a kind of uniform called the 'Stambulina' was 
prescribed by the government for all the officials of the higher classes 
(black coat with a row of buttons and low upright collar), but they are 
allowed to wear ordinary European clothing in their offices. All the 
officials, however, in the pay of the Egyptian government, including Eu- 
ropeans, and even the members of the mixed court of justice, must wear 
the red fez (tarbush). 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. d 


part of the valley of the Nile, -who form the largest foreign element 
of the community, and who never entirely assimilate with it, as 
the Nubians make it a rule never to marry Egyptian wives. The 
Nubians, on the other hand, speak slightingly of the Egyptians as 
'Wod-er-Rif ', or sons of the Nile valley. The two races entertain a 
great dislike to each other, and their dispositions are fundamentally 
different. The Nubians are inferior to the Egyptians in industry 
and energy, especially in tilling the soil, and also in physical 
strength ; and they are more superstitious and fanatical , as is in- 
dicated by the numerous amulets they wear round their necks and 
arms. They are, however, superior to the Egyptians in cleanliness, 
honesty, and subordination , and possess a more highly developed 
sense of honour. The Nubian doorkeepers who are to be found in 
all the mercantile houses of Alexandria and elsewhere aTe noted for 
their honesty. The traveller must not expect to find them very 
sincerely attached or grateful, any more than the native Egyptians, 
but as servants they are certainly preferable. The inhabitants of 
the Nubian part of the valley of the Nile are not all strictly Nubians ; 
for in the southern parts of that region a colony of Shegtyeh and 
other Arabian tribes has settled in comparatively recent times. The 
genuine Nubians (a name unknown to themselves, and of ancient 
origin) occupy the valley of the Nile from Gebel Barkal near the 
fourth cataract down to the first cataract, and are divided in accord- 
ance with the principal idioms of their language into Mahas, Kenus, 
and Donholas. Their language belongs to the Libyan group of the 
N. African tongues, and Dr. Brugsch is of opinion that it may 
afford a clue to the interpretation of the still undeciphered Ethio- 
pian (Meroitic) inscriptions of the Nubian part of the Nile valley. 
Dr. Lepsius, on the other hand, who has published an admirable 
work on the subject, maintains that the 'to-bedyawiyeh' language 
of the Bega (p. xlv) is more likely to be cognate with that of the 
inscriptions , as he believes that the Blemmyes , the ancestors of 
the Bega, were the original inhabitants of the region in question, 
and were expelled by the handsome and intelligent 'Nuba' negroes 
from the district to the S. of Kordofan. Friedrich Mfiller places 
the Nuba tongue in a separate category along with the dialects of 
a few other tribes in different parts of Africa, and there is certainly 
much to be said in favour of this distinction of it from the lan- 
guages of the Hamitic races on the one side and the typical negro 
races on the other 

Those Berbers who do not learn Arabic grammatically never speak 
it thoroughly well ; but itis generally, though imperfectly, understood 
in Nubia. The traveller must therefore not expect to learn good Arabic 
from his Nubian servants. In their native country they till the banks 
of the Nile, but their land is of very limited extent and poorly culti- 
vated ; and as their harvests are scanty they are rarely able to support 
large families. They accordingly often emigrate at an early age to the 


richer lowlands, chiefly to the large towns, and particularly to Alex- 
andria, in quest of employment; and they find no difficulty in 
attaining their object, for they are generally active, intelligent, and 
honest, while the older immigrants, who are strongly attached to their 
country, are always zealous in procuring them work and rendering 
them assistance. "When the Berber has succeeded in amassing a 
moderate fortune, he returns to settle in his native country, of 
which throughout his whole career he never entirely loses sight, 
and to which he frequently remits his hardly earned savings for the 
benefit of Ms relations. The cold winter nights in Egypt are very 
trying to the poor Berbers, who often have to sleep in the open air 
outside the doors, and many of them are attacked by consumption. 
They are most commonly employed as doorkeepers (bawwdb), as 
house-servants (khadddm), as grooms and runners (sdis), for which 
their swiftness renders them unrivalled, as coachmen f'arbagi), 
and as cooks (tabbdkh). Each of these five classes is admirably or- 
ganised as a kind of guild, with a shekh of its own , who levies a 
tax from each member, and guarantees the character and abilities of 
members when hired. Thefts are very rarely committed by the 
Nubians , but in cases of the kind the shekh compels the whole of 
his subjects to contribute to repair the loss, and cases have been 
known in which several hundred pounds have been recovered in 
this way. The result is that there is a strict mutual system of 
supervision, and suspected characters are unceremoniously excluded 
from the fraternity. Nubian women are seldom seen in Egypt. 

(6.) Negroes. Like the Berbers, most of the negroes in Egypt 
are professors of El-Islam, to the easily intelligible doctrines of 
which they readily and zealously attach themselves. Most of the 
older negroes and negresses with whom the traveller meets have 
originally been brought to Egypt as slaves, and belong to natives, 
by whom they are treated more like members of the family than 
like servants. Although every slave who desires to be emancipated 
may now with the aid of government sever the ties which bind him 
to his master, most of the negroes prefer to remain on the old foot- 
ing with the family which supports them and relieves them of the 
anxiety of providing for themselves. The eunuchs, who also belong 
almost exclusively to the negro races, but are rapidly becoming 
rarer, very seldom avail themselves of this opportunity of regaining 
their liberty, as their emancipation would necessarily terminate the 
life of ease and luxury in which they delight. The slave-trade is 
now very rapidly approaching complete extinction in Egypt, not so 
much owing to the penalties imposed (which the rapacious officials 
take every opportunity of enforcing), as from changes in the mode 
of living, and the growing preference of the wealthy for paid servants. 

The negroes, who voluntarily settle in Egypt in considerable 
numbers, form the dregs of the people and are employed in the most 
menial offices. Most of the negro races of Central Africa to the N. 


of the equator are represented at Cairo, particularly in the rank and 
file of the negro regiments. 

Ethnographers, linguists, or other scientific men who desire to see 
specimens of as many different races as possible should obtain an intro- 
duction to an Arabian merchant in the Gameliyeh, who will conduct 
them to merchants from every part of the interior and of the African 
coast, each attended by his staff of negro servants. The latter, however, 
especially if long resident in Egypt, cannot give trustworthy information 
about their country and their origin. Some of them have forgotten their 
mother tongue and even the name of their native country. 

Foreigners are prohibited from taking negro servants out of the 
country, but if through the intervention of their consul they obtain per- 
mission they must find security for their subsequent restoration. 

(T). Turks. Although the dynasty of the viceroys of Egypt is 
of Turkish origin (see p. cxxviii), a comparatively small section of the 
community belongs to that nation, and their numbers appear to be 
diminishing. The Turks of Egypt are chiefly to be found in the towns, 
where most of them are government officials, soldiers, and merchants. 
The Turkish officials are much to blame for the maladministration 
which so long paralysed the rich productiveness of the valley of the 
Nile, having always with few exceptions been actuated in their pro- 
ceedings by motives of reckless cupidity without regard to ulterior con- 
sequences. The Turkish merchants are generally a prosperous class, 
and, although fully alive to their pecuniary interests, they are digni- 
fied and courteous in their bearing, and are often remarkable for 
the handsomeness of their features. 

(8). Levantines. A link between the various classes of dwellers 
in Egypt and the visitors to the banks of the Nile is formed by the 
members of the various Mediterranean races, known as Levantines, 
who have been settled here for several generations, and form no in- 
considerable element in the population of the larger towns. Most of 
them profess the Latin form of Christianity, and Arabic has now be- 
come their mother tongue, although they still speak their old national 
dialects. They are apt linguists, learning the European languages with 
great rapidity, and good men of business, and owing to these qua- 
lities they aTe often employed as shopmen and clerks. Their serv- 
ices have also become indispensable at the consulates as translators 
of documents destined for the native authorities, and as bearers of 
communications between the respective offices. A large proportion 
of them are wealthy. Being Christians, the Levantines all live under 
the protection of the different consuls, and thus unfairly escape 
payment of taxes, although they derive the whole of their wealth 
from the country. 

(9). Armenians and Jews. This section of the community is 
about as numerous as the last, and in some respects contrasts 
favourably with it. The Armenians generally possess excellent 
abilities, and a singular aptitude for learning both Oriental and 
European languages, which they often acquire with great gram- 
matical accuracy. Many of them are wealthy goldsmiths and jewel- 
lers, and they often hold important government offices. 

Europeans. THE MODERN EGYPTIANS. lili 

The Jews are often distinguishable by their red hair from the 
native Egyptians, as -well as by other characteristics. Most of them 
are from Palestine, but many have recently immigrated from Wal- 
lachia. All the money-changers in the streets (sarrdf), and many 
of the wealthiest merchants of Egypt, are Jews, and notwithstand- 
ing the popular prejudice entertained against them, owing as is 
alleged to their disregard of cleanliness, they now form one of the 
most highly respected sections of the community. 

(10). Europeans. The number of European residents and 
visitors in Egypt at the census of 1882 was 82,000, exclusive of 
the British army of occupation. The Greeks are most numerously 
represented, then the Italians, French, English (including Maltese), 
Austrians (including many Dalmatians), and Germans. The nu- 
merous Swiss residents in Egypt , who are not represented by a 
consul of their own , are distributed among the above leading clas- 
ses (French, Italian, German). Beside these nationalities, there 
are also a few representatives of Russia, America, Belgium, Scan- 
dinavia, and other countries. Each of the above leading nation- 
alities shows a preference for one or more particular occupa- 
tions, in which they sometimes enjoy a complete monopoly. The 
Greeks of all classes are generally traders. They constitute the aris- 
tocracy of Alexandria, and the victual-dealers (bakhal) in all the 
other towns are mostly Greeks. They are the proprietors of the 
numerous small banks which lend money on good security, both to 
the peasantry and the government officials, at a rate of interest 
sometimes amounting to 6 per cent monthly , the maximum per- 
mitted by law ; and they are the only Europeans who have established 
themselves permanently as merchants beyond the confines of Egypt 
proper. The Greeks also have the unenviable notoriety of com- 
mitting numerous murders, thefts, and other crimes, but it must 
be borne in mind that they are by far the most numerous section 
of the European community (35,000 from Greece alone, besides 
many Turkish subjects), and that some 30,000 of them belong to 
the lowest class of emigrants from an unhappy and ill-conditioned 
country. Many of these crimes must, moreover, be regarded as the 
outcome of the sadly misdirected daring and ability which 
characterise their nation. The superiority of the Greeks to the 
Orientals is nowhere so strikingly manifested as in Egypt, where it 
affords a modern reflex of their ancient, world-renowned supremacy. 
Most of them are immigrants from the various Greek islands, and 
the purity of their type is specially noteworthy. 

The Italian residents, 16,000 in number, consist chiefly of trad- 
ers of a humble class, advocates, and musicians, from the operatic 
singer down to the Calabrian itinerant. Of French nationality 
(15,000) are all the artizans of the higher class, who are generally 
noted for their skill, trustworthiness, and sobriety, and indeed 
form the most respectable stratum of the European community. 


Most of the better shops are kept by Frenchmen, and the chief 
European officials of the government, including several architects 
and engineers, are French. The English settlers number about 5000, 
exelusive of the troops, of 'which there were about 3500 at the 
beginning of 1894. Until recently their specialities were the manu- 
facture of machinery and the construction of railways and harbours ; 
but of late they have also almost monopolised the chief posts in 
those branches of the administration (post and telegraph office, 
railways, custom-house) that have been remodelled after the Euro- 
pean pattern. A large majority of the residents who enjoy the pro- 
tection of the British consulate are Maltese, and to them apply even 
more forcibly most of the remarks already made regarding the 
Greeks. It has been ascertained that the Maltese settlers in foreign 
countries are more numerous than those resident in their two 
small native islands, and of these a considerable proportion be- 
longs to Egypt. At home, under the discipline of British institu- 
tions, they form a pattern little nation of their own, but in Egypt, 
where they are freed from the restraint of these influences, they 
aTe very apt to degenerate and to swell unduly the ranks of the 
criminal class. Many of the Maltese, however, are enterprising 
tradesmen and industrious artizans, such as shoemakers and joiners. 
To the Austrian (3000) and German (1000) community belong a 
number of merchants of the best class, many physicians and teach- 
ers, innkeepers, musicians, and lastly handicraftsmen of humble 

With regard to the capability of Europeans of becoming ac- 
climatised in Egypt, there are a number of widely divergent opinions. 
Much, of course, must depend on the nature of the climate of their 
own respective countries. It has been asserted that European 
families settled in Egypt die out in the second or third generation, 
but of this there is no sufficient proof, as the European community 
is of very recent origin, and many examples to the contrary might 
be cited. The climate of Egypt is less enervating than that of most 
otheT hot countries, an advantage attributed to the dryness of the 
air and the saline particles contained in it ; while the range of tem- 
perature between the different seasons is greater than in Ireland or 

e. The Nile (comp. Map, p. xxxii). The Nile ranks with the Ama- 
zon and the Congo as one of the three longest rivers in the world 
(about 4000 miles), since its headstream was proved by Dr. O. Bau- 
mann in 1892 to be the Kagera, which rises three degrees to the S. 
of the Equator. Throughout nearly the whole of its course the river 
is navigable, with two great interruptions only (at Abu Hammed- 
Barkal and Donkola-Wadi Haifa). Though it is greatly surpassed 
by the Amazon and Congo in volume, neither these nor any other 
river in the world can vie in historical and ethnographical interest 
with the 'father of rivers'. 

Course. THE NILE. lv 

The discovery of the true sources of the Nile and the cause of 
its annual overflow are two scientific problems which for upwards 
of 2000 years European scholars laboured to solve, while the Egypti- 
ans themselves regarded the river as a deity, and its origin and 
properties as the most sacred of mysteries, to be revealed to the 
curious spirit of man only when he should have quitted this earthly 
scene. As it is the Egyptian Nile only with which we have at 
present to deal, we shall advert but briefly to the subject of the 
sources of the river, and mention the principal affluents only which 
affect Egypt. 

The Nile is formed by the confluence of the White and the Blue 
Nile at the town of Khartum, from which point to its principal 
mouths at Damietta and Rosetta , a distance of upwards of 1800 
miles, it traverses an absolutely barren country, and receives one 
tributary only, the Atbara, on the east side, about 180 miles below 
Khartum. Throughout the whole of this distance , in the course of 
which it falls 1240 ft. , the river has to contend against numerous 
absorbing influences, for which it receives no compensation beyond 
the rare showeTs attracted in winter by the mountains between 
its right bank and the Red Sea. Noth withstanding the immense 
length of the river, it very rarely presents the picturesque appearance 
of some of the great European and other rivers , as its banks are 
generally flat and monotonous, and it contains hardly a single island 
worthy of mention. The broadest parts of this portion of the Nile 
are a little below Khartum, a little above its bifurcation near Cairo, 
and also near Minyeh, at each of which places it attains a width of 
about 1 100 yds. , while the White Nile is of greater breadth throughout 
a long part of its lower course. As the river pursues its tortuous 
course through thirsty land, for a distance of 15 degrees of latitude, 
much of its water is consumed by evaporation and infiltration (a pro- 
cess by which it is probable that the Libyan oases are supplied with 
water from the Nubian Nile) , and still more so by the extensive 
system of artificial canals requisite for the irrigation of a whole 
kingdom. M. Linant estimates this loss at the time of the inun- 
dation within Egypt proper, i.e. between Gebel Selseleh and Cairo, 
as one-third of the total volume; he found that 1,093,340,222 cu- 
bic metres of water passed Gebel Selseleh in 24 hrs., while on the 
same day only 705,588,389 cubic metres passed Cairo. At the 
confluence of the White and Blue Nile their average volumes are 
in the proportion of three to one , but the latter assumes far 
greater importance when swollen by the Abyssinian rains. The 
Blue Nile is in fact a species of mountain-torrent, being liable to 
rise suddenly and sweep away everything it encounters on its ra- 
pidly descending course. It is therefore called the Bdhr el-Azrak, 
i. e. the blue, 'dark', or 'turbid', in contradistinction to the Bdhr 
el-Abyad, i. e. the white, or rather the 'clear' river, whose water 
descends from clear lakes and is farther filtered by the vast grassy 

M THE NILE. Source. 

plains and occasional floating plants through which it passes. 
The Blue Nile (together -with its coadjutor the Atbara) may there- 
fore he regarded as the sole origin of the fertility of Egypt, and also 
as the cause of the inundation, while on the other hand the regular 
and steady supply of water afforded by the White Nile performs the 
very important office of preventing the lower part of the river from 
drying up altogether in summer. The White Nile is not only much 
larger than the Blue in average volume, hut is, with its tributaries, 
more than double the length. It does not, however, remain very long 
undivided. Higher up, in 9° N. latitude, it receives on the east 
side the waters of the Sobdt, a stream descending from the mountains 
to the south of Abyssinia, and resembling the Blue Nile in character, 
though much smaller. A little farther up, on the opposite side, 
the White Nile is joined by the Bdhr el-Ghazal, or Gazelle River, 
a very sluggish stream, fed by numerous springs rising in the Nyam- 
nyam and Kredy regions, between 4° and 5° N. latitude. Higher up 
the river takes the name of Bdhr el- Oebel, and is considerably small- 
er in volume , and beyond 5° N. latitude it ceases to be navigable, 
as it descends in a series of rapids from the Albert Nyanza or 
Mwutan Lake. This sheet of water is connected by another river, 
the 'Somerset' or Victoria Nile, which may be regarded as the con- 
tinuation of the White Nile, with the Victoria Nyanza or Vkerewe 
Lake ; while the Kagera or Alexandra Nile and other feeders of the 
latter may be called the ultimate sources of the Nile. 

The Valley of the Nile from Khartum to the Delta , although 
from its great length (15° of latitude) necessarily possessing great 
varieties of climate, foTms one long unbroken tract of country, the 
fertilising soil of which is brought down by the Blue Nile from the 
Abyssinian mountains. 

The breadth of the Valley of the Nile, including the barren land 
immediately flanking it, varies from 4i/ 2 to 10 miles in Nubia, and 
from 14 to 32 miles in Egypt. The hanks, of which the eastern is 
called the 'Arabian', and the western the 'Libyan', rise at places 
to upwards of 1000 ft., resembling two large canal embankments, 
between which the river has forced its passage through the plateau 
of 'Nubian sandstone' (which extends to the Gehel Selseleh above 
Edf a), and through the nummulite limestone of Upper and Central 
Egypt. The breadth of the cultivable alluvial soil corresponds with 
the above varying width, but nowhere exceeds 9 miles. The soil 
deposited by the Nile averages 33-38 ft. deep in Egypt , but near 
Kalyub at the head of the Delta it increases to about 50 ft., the 
bottom of it being at places below the level of the sea. The bed of 
the river is also of considerable depth, and at low water the mud- 
banks (gef) rise above its surface to a height of 25 ft. in Upper 
Egypt, and 14 ft. at Cairo. These are also the depths of the various 
irrigation wells. 

The Nile soil is unlike any other in the world in its composition 
According to Kegnault it contains S3 pei; cent nf water an d san( i jg pe j 

Inundation. THE NILE. lvii 

cent of carbonate of lime , 9 per cent of quartz , silica , felspar, horn- 
blende, and epidote , 6 per cent of oxide of iron , and 4 per cent of car- 
bonate of magnesia. 

Nothing certain is known regarding the average increase of the 
alluvial land, all the calculations regarding it having hitherto been 
based on erroneous ot insufficient data. Thus the Nilometer of 
antiquity furnishes the depth relatively to the level of the sea, but 
not absolutely. The thickness of earth accumulated around buildings 
of known age has also been found a fallacious guide ; and lastly 
local measurements lead to no result, as the river often capriciously 
washes away what it has deposited in previous years. An approxi- 
mate calculation might possibly be made if the proportion of solid 
matter annually brought down by the river could be ascertained, 
but no investigation of this kind has ever been made. It has some- 
times been asserted that the desert has begun to encroach upon the 
cultivated part of the valley, but Sir G. Wilkinson has shown, that, 
while the sand of the desert may be advancing at places, the cultiv- 
able bed of the valley is steadily increasing in thickness and width. 

The Inundation , as is obvious from what has already been 
said , is more or less favourable according to the greater or less 
amount of rain that falls among the Abyssinian mountains, for 
that which falls in Central Africa is a more constant quantity, 
being Tegulated by the influence of the trade-winds. Like the 
waterspouts which descend on equatorial Africa, the overflow al- 
ways recurs at the same season of the year, varying in its advent 
by a few days only, and in its depth by several yards. At the be- 
ginning of June the river slowly begins to swell , and between the 
15th and 20th of July the increase becomes very rapid. Towards 
the end of September the water ceases to rise, remaining at the same 
height for a fortnight or more , but during the first half of October 
it rises again and attains its highest level (comp. p. ciii). After 
having begun to subside, it generally rises again for a short time, 
sometimes regaining and even passing its first culminating point. 
At length it begins to subside steadily, and after a time the de- 
crease becomes more and more rapid. In January, February, and 
March the fields from which the water has receded gradually dry 
up, and in April, May, and the first few days of June the river is 
at its lowest. The height of the inundation most favourable for 
agriculture at the present day has been ascertained by long observ- 
ation to be 23 cubits 2 inches (i.e. about 41ft. 2in., the cubit 
being 21.3g6inches), while in the time of Herodotus 16 cubits suf- 
ficed, and the god of the Nile in the Vatican is therefore repre- 
sented as surrounded by sixteen children. A single cubit more is 
apt to cause terrible devastation in the Delta, and elsewhere to cover 
many fields destined for the autumn crop (nabdri, p. lxxiii), while a 
deficiency of two cubits causes drought and famine in Upper Egypt. 
As health depends to a great extent on the regularity of the 
pulsations of the heart, so the welfare of the whole of this singular 

lviii THE NILE. Inundation. 

country is jeopardised by a too powerful or a too scanty flow of the 
great artery on which its very existence depends. An excessive 
overflow , especially if it does not give notice of its approach in 
due time, is far more disastrous now than formerly, as the extensive 
cotton-fields in the Delta will not hear flooding , and have to be 
protected by embankments. 

Egypt is now no longer a vast lake during the inundation as 
it formerly was, nor does the overflow of the fields take place in a 
direct manner as is commonly supposed. The water is conducted 
into a vast network of reservoirs and canals, and distributed as re- 
quired (comp. p. lxxi), and special engineers are appointed for their 
supervision. The whole of the cultivable land is divided into huge 
basins, in which the water introduced by the canals is maintained 
at a certain height until it has sufficiently saturated the soil and 
deposited the requisite quantity of mud. After the water in the 
river has subsided, that in the basins may either be discharged into 
the river or into the canals, or it may be used for filling other ba- 
sins lying at a lower level. During these operations many of the 
villages are connected by means of embankments only, while others 
can only be reached by boat , and the whole country presents a 
very peculiar and picturesque appearance. 

If the river and the system of canals connected with it are in 
any way neglected, the consequences are very disastrous, as was 
notably the case during the latter part of the Byzantine supremacy 
and under the disgraceful sway of the Mamelukes, when the fertile 
soil of Egypt yielded less than one-half of its average produce. The 
mean difference between the highest and the lowest state of the 
river is about 25 ft. at Cairo, 38 ft. at Thebes, and 49 ft. at Assuan. 
Even in March and April the traveller will have an opportunity of 
observing how powerful and rapid the flow of the river still is, 
although its fall from Assuan (by the first cataract) to Cairo is 
299 ft. only, or about seven inches per mile. The rapidity of the 
stream, however, which averages 3 miles an hour, is not so serious 
an impediment to the navigation as the frequent changes which 
take place in the formation of its channel, sometimes occasioning 
difficulties which the most careful of captains is unable to foresee. 

If we now enquire what influence this remarkable river has 
exercised on the history of civilisation, we can hardly avoid the 
conclusion that it was the Nile, with its unique character, that 
stimulated the ancient Egyptians to those great physical and in- 
tellectual exertions which rendered them the most famous and the 
most civilised among the nations of antiquity. The necessity of 
controlling its course and utilising its water taught them the art of 
river- engineering and the kindred science of land-surveying, while 
in the starry heavens they beheld the eternal calendar which regu- 
lated the approach and the departure of the inundation, so that the 
river may perhaps have given the first impulse to the study of 

Embouchures. THE NILE. lix 

astronomy. As the annual overflow of the water obliterated all land- 
marks, it was necessary annually to' measure the land anew, and to 
keep a register of the area belonging to each proprietor ; and above 
all it became an important duty of the rulers of the people to im- 
press them with a strong sense of the sacredness of property. Every 
succeeding year, however, there arose new disputes, and these 
showed the necessity of establishing settled laws and enforcing 
judicial decisions. The Nile thus led to the foundation of social, 
legal, and political order, and it is also natural that the mighty and 
mysterious river on which the welfare of the entire population de- 
pended should have awakened their religious sentiment at a very 
early period. Subsequently, when the engineers and architects, in 
the service of the state or in the cause of religion , erected those 
colossal structures with which we are about to become acquainted, 
it was the Nile which materially facilitated the transport of their 
materials, and enabled the builders of the pyramids and the other 
ancient Egyptians to employ the granite of Assuan for the structures 
of Memphis, and even for those of Tanis, on the coast of the Medi- 
terranean. As the river, moreover, not only afforded a convenient 
route for the transport of these building-materials, but also an ad- 
mirable commercial highway, we find that the Egyptians had acquired 
considerable skill at a very early period in constructing vessels 
with oars, masts, sails, and even cabins and other appliances. 

From the earliest historical period down to the present time the 
course of the Nile, from the cataracts down to its bifurcation to the north 
of Cairo (the ancient Kerkasoros, *. e. the mutilation of Osiris), has under- 
gone very little change. This, however, is not the case with its Em- 
bouchures ; for, while ancient writers mention seven (the Pelusiac , the 
Tanitic, the Mendesian, the Bucolic or Phatnitie, the Sebennytic , the 
Bolbitinic, and the Canopic), there are now practically two channels only 
through which the river is discharged into the sea. These are the 
mouths at Rosetta (Reshid) and Damietta (Dumyat), situated near the 
middle of the Delta, while the Pelusiac and Canopic mouths, the most 
important in ancient times , lay at the extreme east and west ends of 
the coast respectively. The water was afterwards gradually compelled 
to seek other outlets. The Pelusiac arm found a convenient exit through 
the Phatnitie near Damietta, while the Canopic was artificially conducted 
into the Bolbitinic. All the principal arms of ancient times at length en- 
tirely disappeared , combining to form the modern outlets. These last 
will in their turn be abandoned , as the river will doubtless again force 
for itself a more direct passage with a greater fall. 

f. Geological Notice. (1) Egypt Pkopee. There is no exaggeration 
in the often repeated saying that Egypt is 'the gift of the Nile'. But 
for the bounties dispensed by the river, what is now the most fertile 
country in N. Africa would be a wilderness of bare rock or sand. With 
the greatest height attained by the inundation and the extreme length 
of the irrigation canals corresponds precisely the line which divides the 
Sahara from the cultivated land. The whole of the alluvial soil deposited 
by the Nile is an entirely foreign element in the geological structure of 
N. Africa, and its geological character is uniform and easily determined. 

The origin, composition, and thickness of the alluvium has already 
been stated. The perpendicular, black, and furrowed mud-banks, which 
often rise to a height of 25-35 ft., are composed of distinct parallel strata 
of somewhat different colours, with thin layers of sand occasionally in- 


tervening. In Lower Egypt the mud is rather more thinly spread over 
the whole Delta, in the form of a blackish or reddish-brown laminated 
mass, a few isolated spots only remaining uncovered. 

Wherever the ground is denuded of its alluvium , apart from which 
there is no permanent soil in Egypt, it is absolutely sterile; for in this 
hot and dry country there is no winter , with its protecting mantle of 
snow, to retard the decomposition of vegetable matter, and to promote 
its admixture with disintegrated rock, so as to form fertile soil. Owing 
to the want of vegetation and moisture, without which the progress of 
disintegration is reduced to a minimum, the surface of the naked rock 
in Egypt and the neighbouring deserts retains its character almost un- 
altered. The huge masses of debris observed at the foot of the rocks in 
the valley of the Nile, and particularly at the mouths of the wadies, and 
the curious isolated hills with which every traveller through the desert 
is struck, could not possibly have been formed during the present state 
of the Egyptian climate. They prove that at some pre-historic period 
the now parched and sterile ground must have been overflowed by co- 
pious volumes of water which produced these and various other effects 
on the appearance of the earth's surface. 

The geologist will find little to attract his attention in the alluvial 
soil of Egypt; but on the sea-coast, and in that part of the isthmus which 
is intersected by the canal, there are several points of interest. 

On entering the harbour of Alexandria the traveller will observe the 
massive blocks of stone from the quarries of Meks of which the quays 
are constructed. They consist of recent tertiary, light-coloured, sandy 
limestone, composed chiefly of innumerable broken fragments of con- 
chylia, a kind of rock which extends far to the W. of Alexandria, and 
probably constitutes the greater part of the lofty Cyrensean plain. This 
rock forms the building-stone generally used at Alexandria, and is also 
employed in the harbour-structures of Port Sa r id. 

Amidst the desert sand of the isthmus, which even in Lower Egypt 
forms a substratum underlying the Nile mud, and which in the E. part of 
the desert is nearly covered with a solid gypseous and saline crust , the 
rock occasionally crops up , or has been uncovered in the course of the 
excavation of the canal. Near the Shaluf station (p. 196j a greenish-grey, 
gypseous marl overlies the solid limestone, which contains the tertiary 
marine conchylia, sharks 1 teeth, and remains of crocodiles and am- 
phibious mammalia. The same formation occurs in other places also, 
and ridges of the early tertiary nummnlite limestone likewise occasionally 
rise from the plain. At several points on the coast of the Bed Sea, 
particularly near Koser, at a height of 600-950 ft. above the sea-level, we 
find rock of the late tertiary or diluvial era containing coral, which 
shows how much the land must have risen since that period. With these 
coral-reefs the petroleum wells of Gebel ez-ZSt and the sulphur which 
occurs on the Ras el-Gimsah appear to be closely connected. 

To the miocene , or middle tertiary period, belong several isolated 
deposits of sandstone near Cairo , in which are found the beautiful fos- 
sil sea-urchins (Clypeaster Aegyptiacus) frequently offered for sale near 
the Pyramids. The place where they occur, on the margin of the 
desert, about 2 31. to the S. of the Sphinx, has been visited and de- 
scribed by Prof. Fraas. 

One of the principal geological curiosities near Cairo is the Petri- 
fied Forest (comp. p. 132). About 5 M. to the E. of the town begins the 
Khashab ('wood') desert, the surface of which for many miles is sprinkled 
with whole trunks and fragments of silicified wood. Few travellers go 
beyond the 'small' petrified wood; the 'great' lies about 20 M. to the 
E. of Cairo. 'The desert here is so completely covered with trunks, 
that, except the fine sand itself, no other kind of stone is visible than 
the flint into which the Nicoliae have been converted'. (Fraas.) Trunks 
of 60-90 ft. in length and 3 ft. in thickness have sometimes been found. 
These have been described by linger as Nicolia Aegyptiaca (of the family 
of the Sterculiaceae), but, according to more recent investigations, it 
would seem that the forest contained various other trees also (palms and 


dicotyledonous plants). Whether the trunks have grown and been silici- 
fied on the spot, or were brought here by inundations from the south, is 
still an open question. At all events these remarkable deposits date 
from the late tertiary period. 

Above Cairo, to the S. , the Nile is flanked by ranges of hills, the 
valley between which is generally 4-9 M. in width. On the east side of 
the Nile begins the Arabian, and on the west side the Libyan desert, 
both of which are very inhospitable , being ill provided with water, and 
covered at places only with scanty vegetation. From the northernmost 
spur of the Arabian desert (the Mokattam near Cairo) to a point above 
Edfu, both banks of the Nile consist of early tertiary nummulite lime- 
stone. The strata dip gradually from south to north, so that the farther 
we ascend the Nile the older are the strata that we meet with. The 
limestone of the Mokattam, with its millions of nummulites, is the ma- 
terial of which the new buildings of the European suburbs of Cairo are 
constructed , and it was from the venerable quarries of Tura and Ma'- 
sara that the ancient Egyptians obtained the stone for their pyramids. 
The blocks for these stupendous structures were conveyed to them by 
means of a huge stone dyke, of which all trace has now disappeared. On 
the Mokattam, near Minyeh, Beni Hasan, Siut, Thebes, Esneh, and at 
other places the limestone is rich in fossils, and in the vicinity of Cairo 
geologists can easily form a considerable collection of them. The quar- 
rymen on the Mokattam offer visitors fossil crabs (Xanthopsia Pcmlino- 
Wiirtembergicus) and sharks' teeth for a moderate bakhshish. 

To the south of Edfu the nummulite limestone disappears, being re- 
placed by marl and rocks of calcareous and sandy character , which, 
according to Figari-Bey , contain chalk fossils. After these we come to 
quartzose sandstone, belonging to the middle chalk formation, and form- 
ing considerable cliffs at the Gebel Selseleh, which confine the river 
within a narrow bed. 

This last formation, known as 'Nubian sandstone'', which covers 
many thousands of square miles of Nubia and the Sudan, was the ma- 
terial almost exclusively used for the construction of the ancient temples 
of Upper Egypt; and near Selseleh, and in the Arabian desert between 
Keneh and Koser, are still to be seen the extensive quarries which yielded 
t°he material for the colossal structures of Thebes. 

From Assuan to Selseleh the Nile flows through Nubian sandstone, 
but near the ancient Syene a transverse barrier of granite and 'syenite' 
advances from the east, forming the boundary between Egypt and Nubia. 
This barrier extends eastwards for about 180 miles, forming a very ir- 
regular chain of barren hills 900-1300 ft. in height. 

The Nile has forced a passage for itself through this hard rock, ex- 
posing to view at places the beautiful red felspar crystals which it con- 
tains, and forms a wild cataract at Assuan. Near the cataracts are the 
deserted quarries of the ancient Egyptians, where to this day we still 
observe a number of unfinished gigantic obelisks, and columns half hewn 
out of the solid rock. 

(2) The Arabian Desekt. Parallel with the coast of the Red Sea , a 
broad and massive range of mountains, consisting of crystalline rocks 
(granite, syenite, diorite, porphyry, hornblende slate, gneiss, mica-slate, 
etc.), runs through the Arabian Desert, sending forth numerous ramifi- 
cations into the interior of the country. At Hammamat, on the caravan- 
route from KosSr to Thebes, we pass the quarries whence the dark- 
coloured stone (aphanite, diorite, and verde antico) used for the ancient 
sarcophagi and sphinxes was obtained by the Egyptian sculptors. Near 
the Red Sea, almost opposite the southern extremity of the peninsula of 
Sinai, rises the Gebel Dukhan, which yielded the beautiful red porphyry 
(porfido rosso) so highly prized by the Greeks and Romans at a later 
period, and used by them for vases , columns, sarcophagi, busts, and 
mosaics. The granite quarries of the Gebel Fatireh yielded both building 
stone and copper. Most celebrated of all, however, were the emerald mines 
of the Gebel Zebara, situated on the Red Sea in the latitude of Selseleh. 

This extensive range of mountains of crystalline formation , rising to 


a height of 6600 ft. , of which those of the peninsula of Sinai form a 
counterpart, terminates towards the east in roof-shaped, stratified for- 
mations. At first there occurs a considerable stratum of Nubian sandstone, 
next to which we find a series of clayey and calcareous strata, identified 
by Figari-Bey with the Triassic and Jura formations, probably errone- 
ously, as the collection of specimens of the rock at Florence shows that 
apparently the chalk alone is completely developed. These strata are 
succeeded by extensive masses of limestone, belonging to the nummulite 
formation, and stretching to the Nile. Among these last formations is 
found the pale yellow, brownish, and snow-white alabaster, a kind of 
limestone composed of nodulous masses, which was formerly quarried at 
the ancient Alabastron near Siut , and still occurs on the Gebel Urakam 
near Beni-Suef. In the reign of Mohammed 'Ali this alabaster was largely 
used in the construction of his alabaster mosque (p. 54), and it was ex- 
tensively exported in ancient times for the embellishment of buildings 
and for sculptural purposes. Blocks of it are even found among the 
ruins of the Oasis of Ammon. 

These extensive mountains, with their numerous profound ravines 
and boldly shaped masses of rock, impart a most imposing character to 
the Arabian Desert. This region is by no means so destitute of vege- 
tation as is usually supposed; for, although without oases, it contains, 
particularly in the N. part, a number of springs and natural cisterns, 
which are filled by the rare, but often copious, rains of winter. 

(3). The Libyan Desert. This region again presents an entirely dif- 
ferent character. It consists of an immense, monotonous, and stony table- 
land, 650-1000 ft. above the level of the Nile, extending between the Nile 
and the oases of Khargeh, Dakhel, Farafra, and Bahriyeh. Throughout 
this vast area there occur neither mountains, nor valleys, nor even iso- 
lated hills of any considerable height ; and there is no trace of crystal- 
line or volcanic formations. The surface of the desert rises in gradations, 
each preceded by a broad girdle of isolated mounds, which have been 
obviously formed by erosion, the materials having been washed down 
from the adjoining plateau. The whole of this stony and absolutely un- 
watered plain, the monotony of which is only varied by a few solitary 
ranges of sand-hills , consists of nummulite limestone. In the direction 
of the oases it descends in precipitous slopes, furrowed with numerous 
ravines, and occasionally nearly 1000 ft. in height. The different strata 
of the earlier nummulite formation, as well as those of the upper chalk, 
are here exposed to view, and generally contain numerous fossils. The 
oases , particularly those of Dakhel and Khargeh , are remarkable for 
their fossil wealth. The soil of the deep depressions in which these 
oases lie, partly below the level of the Nile, consists of the variegated 
clayey or sandy strata of the upper chalk. The ground is so strongly 
impregnated with alum at places that it was thought worth while about 
thirty years ago to erect manufactories for its preparation, but the un- 
dertaking was afterwards abandoned owing to the difficulties of transport. 
Numerous thermal springs well up from the upper strata of the chalk, and 
the soil thus irrigated is luxuriantly clothed with vegetation (see p. lxiii). 

The barrier of Nubian sandstone which abuts on the valley of the 
Nile at Selseleh extends far into the Libyan desert. It forms the south- 
western boundary of the oases of Khargeh and Dakhel, beyond which it 
stretches for an unknown distance into the heart of the desert. This for- 
mation contains silicified wood and iron and manganese ores in abundance. 

About six days' journey to the W. of the oases begins a complete 
ocean of sand. As far as the eye can reach we discover nothing but 
a vast expanse of loose yellow sand , which generally forms itself into 
ranges of sand-hills, many miles in length, and occasionally rising to a 
height of 300 ft. or upwards above the level of the plain. 

The oasis of Farafra lies in a recess eroded in the nummulite lime- 
stone , and enclosed by precipitous slopes, except on the S. side where 
there is an opening. To the N. and W. of Farafra extends the eo- 
cene limestone plateau as far as the neighbourhood of Siwa, between 
which oasis and Bahriyeh it is remarkable for its numerous basin-shaped 

THE OASES. lxiii 

and sharply defined depressions. These basins, especially those which 
are filled with salt-lakes, impart a peculiarly attractive character to the 
scenery. The whole of the desert around the Oasis of Amnion consists 
of recent tertiary deposits, the fossil wealth of which wasxmce extolled 
by Herodotus and Eratosthenes. 

Approximately speaking, the Libyan Desert consists of Nubian sand- 
stone , the upper chalk , the nummulite limestone , and the more recent 
tertiary formations , arranged in this sequence , and extending in broad 
successive strips from S.S.E. to N.N.W. 

g. The Oases (by Prof. P. Ascherson ; see also Baedeker's Upper Egypt). 
In the midst of the Libyan Desert, the most bleak and desolate part of 
the whole of the African Sahara, at a distance of several days' journey 
to the W. of the Nile, there have existed since hoar antiquity a number 
of highly favoured spots, which are abundantly irrigated by subterranean 
supplies of water, and richly covered with vegetation almost vying in 
luxuriance with that of the valley of the Nile. The Coptic word 'Waif, 
according to Brugsch, is of ancient Egyptian origin, and signifies an in- 
habited station; in its Greek form 'oasis' (properly Ougcjis or Auastc), 
the word is used as the geographical term for irrigated and cultivable 
spots, or islands of vegetation, in the midst of the stony and sandy ocean 
of the desert. 

Four of the five Egyptian oases lie in a somewhat curved line drawn 
from S.E. to N.W. , and converging at the S. end to the valley of 
the Nile : — (1) Wdh el-Khdrgeh, i.e. 'the outer oasis' (already so named 
by Olympiodorus in the 5th cent. A.D.), or Oasis Major of antiquity, 
situated 3-4 days' journey from Thebes or from Girgeh on the Nile. (2) 
Wdh ed-Ddkheliyeh, or more commonly Dakhel, i.e. the 'inner oasis' (also so 
named by Olympiodorus), 3 days' journey to the W. of Khargeh, and about 
6 days' journey from the valley of the Nile near Suit. (3) Far&fra (i.e. the 
bubbling springs), about 5 days' journey to the N.N.W. of Dakhel, and 8-10 
days' journey from the valley of the Nile near Siut. (4) Siwa, anciently 
the celebrated oasis of Jupiter Ammon, 16 days' journey to the W.S.W. of 
Alexandria and about 14 from Cairo. The direct route from Siwa to 
Farafra (traversed by Rohlfs and Zittel in 1874 in IOV2 days) is little 
known as yet, as most European travellers make the long circuit towards 
the E. via. — (5) Wdh el-Bahriyeh , i.e. 'the northern oasis' , or Oasis 
Minor of antiquity, situated 6'/2 days' journey to the S.W. ofMedinet el- 
Fayflm, about 4 days' journey from Behneseh in the valley of the Nile, 
9 days from Siwa, and 5 days from Farafra. 

The oases always lie at a considerably lower level than the stony 
plateau of the desert, which rises above them in picturesque rocky pre- 
cipices, and the oasis of Siwa is about 78 ft. below the sea-level. The 
flat surfaces of these depressions do not always form a single 
cultivated area, but consist, even in the case of the smallest oases like 
Farafra, of a number of comparatively small parcels of cultivable soil, 
separated by belts of sterile ground. One of the large oases , like that 
of Khargeh , when surveyed from the neighbouring heights , presents the 
appearance of a large expanse of desert, flecked with isolated spots of 
light and dark green, the former being fields of corn and other crops, 
and the latter palm-groves. These islands of vegetation , the extent of 
which depends on the copiousness of the springs in their midst and the 
amount of care used in the distribution of the water, have often since 
the time of Strabo been not inaptly compared to the spots on a pan- 
ther's skin, but the simile applies to the oases individually, and not to 
those of the Libyan desert as a whole , as they are but few in number 
and very far apart. 

As already observed, these Libyan oases owe their fertility to the 
copiousness of their water supply. Inexhaustible subterranean channels, 
or an immense reservoir, perhaps common to all the oases, are believed 
to connect them with the Nubian Nile, or possibly with the Sudan; and 
of this supply it is probable that a very limited portion only comes to the 
surface in the form of springs. Hasan-Effendi, a well-digger from the valley 

lxiv THE OASES. 

of the Nile, and formerly servant to a French engineer, has sunk about 
sixty new wells in the oasis of Dakhel, some of which, though close to 
older wells, do not seem to diminish the copiousness of the latter. With 
the aid of this^additional supply a large area of sterile soil has been brought 
under cultivation, and it is therefore probable that by means of Artesian 
wells, such as those sunk by the French in the Algerian oases, the extent 
of the cultivable soil might still be largely increased. The high temper- 
ature of the water, both in the natural springs and in the wells, shows 
that it comes from a great depth; and it is strongly impregnated with 
mineral ingredients, as in the case of the bath-springs of Kasr Dakhel and 
Bahriyeh (97° Fahr.), and the beautiful sun-spring ( f Ain Hammam) at Siwa 
(85°), the curative properties of which, owing to their remote situation, are 
seldom utilised. At Bahriyeh the stratum from which the water more im- 
mediately bursts forth seems to lie at no great depth below the surface of 
the soil. The thermal waters of Dakhel contain iron, and, like those of 
Farafra and Khargeh, are not unpleasant to drink when cooled; but the 
water of Siwa is brackish and nauseous to the taste. The wells are gener- 
ally very deep (90-320 ft. and upwards), and in ancient times the inhabitants 
of the oases , as we are informed by Olympiodorus , were celebrated for 
their skill in sinking them. The invasion of the Arabs, however, was suc- 
ceeded by several centuries of barbarism, during which the art of boring 
wells was well-nigh forgotten; many wells were filled up, and extensive 
tracts of cultivated land, still traceable by the old divisions of the fields, 
were abandoned ; but , as above mentioned, the practice is beginning to be 
revived. The considerable force with which the water comes up from 
its profound reservoirs enables the inhabitants to construct wells or ar- 
tificial dams on the highest parts of the oases. The fields are always 
arranged in terraces of picturesque appearance , over which the fertilis- 
ing element is conducted downwards in succession, so that the laborious 
system of sakiyehs and shadufs used in the valley of the Nile is dispensed 
with. Among the southern oases, on the other hand, we frequently ob- 
serve extensive water-conduits, carried by artificial embankments to long 
distances for the purpose of conveying the precious liquid over ste- 
rile salt ground to good soil, or necessitated by the requirements of the 
curiously involved rights of property. These conduits not unfrequently 
cross each other at different levels. The springs are generally the pro- 
perty of the communities , rarely that of wealthy individuals ; and it is 
in proportion to their number, and that of the date-palms, that the in- 
habitants have to pay taxes, while the soil itself is nominally free. 
Where the springs are common property , the periodical distribution of 
the water has from time immemorial formed the subject of statutory re- 
gulations. The cultivable land consists of open fields and of gardens, 
which are carefully enclosed with earthen walls about 6 ft. high, crowned 
with twisted palm-leaves, for the purpose of keeping out intruders, or are 
more rarely hedged in with branches of the sunt or other thorny plant. 
In the oases, as in the valley of the Nile, a regular rotation of win- 
ter and summer crops is observed (comp. p. lxxii), although, with their 
uniform supply of water, there is not the same necessity for it. The 
winter crops are wheat and barley; those of summer are rice, dura 
(Sorghum vulgare), and a small proportion of dukhn ( Penicillaria spicata), 
while in Dakhel and Khargeh indigo is grown in considerable quantities. 
Cotton is also cultivated to a small extent , but the yield is hardly ade- 
quate for even the local requirements. By far the most important fruit 
yielded by the gardens is that of the date-palm. The delicious dates 
are very superior to those of the Nile valley, and they form, particularly 
at Dakhel and Siwa, the only important article of export. Olive-trees 
also occur in all the oases, especially in Farafra, Bahriyeh, and Siwa, 
where they yield a considerable quantity of oil, besides which there are 
apricots , oranges , lemons , and melons , but very few other fruit trees. 
The ordinary vegetables grown in the valley of the Nile, such as lettuces, 
cabbages , and kulkas , are never met with ; nor have the recently in- 
troduced sugar-cane and the beautiful lebbek acacia (p. lxxv) yet found 
their way to the oases. The venerable sunt-trees (p. lxxv) form a very 


characteristic feature of the southern oases. They generally shade the 
wells, or the sites of old wells now filled up owing to neglect, and they 
indicate the course of the water-conduits to the still distant traveller. 

The most prominent of the indigenous plants of the oases is the 'oshr 
(Calotropis procera), which is also common on the banks of the Nile in 
Upper Egypt. It is a broad-leaved shrub or small tree, attaining a height 
of 6 ft. or more, with a copious milky and very poisonous sap, and round 
fruit of the size of a large apple containing woolly seeds, and known on 
the banks of the Dead Sea as the 'apple of Sodom'. 

The indigenous animals of the oases are much fewer in number than 
those of the valley of the Nile. The only large mammal that occurs is 
the gazelle, which is also found in the sterile parts of the Libyan desert. 
The only beasts of prey are several varieties of jackals (Arab, dib) and 
foxes (Arab, ta'leb). Among the latter is the pretty fenek, which is only 
half the size of the European fox, yellowish-grey in colour, and with 
ears longer than the breadth of the head. Hyenas seem to be unknown, 
except in Bahriyeh. The timid ostrich rarely visits the Libyan oases. 

The domestic animals kept by the inhabitants of the oases consist of 
a few horses, numerous donkeys of a small and weakly type, which will 
not bear comparison with their strong and active congeners of Alexandria 
and Cairo, and a few oxen, sheep, and goats. Buffaloes are also kept in 
Khargeh and a few in Bahriyeh. It is surprising how few camels are to 
be found in the oases , but it is said that the bite of a certain fly en- 
dangers their lives in summer. Turkeys and fowls are plentiful. 

The population of the oases is not of a uniform character. According 
to Brugseh, the original inhabitants were Libyan (or Berber) tribes, but 
after the oases were annexed to Egypt many new settlers were introduced 
from the valley of the Nile and from Nubia. The Berber nationality of 
the inhabitants of the oasis of Ammon, notwithstanding its having been 
connected with Egypt for several thousand years and its reception of 
immigrants from the west in the middle ages, is still very marked, while 
the population of the other oases, like that of the Nile valley, has 
adopted the Arabic language. In Bahriyeh (where, besides the natives of 
the place, there is a colony of Siwanese who still speak the Berber dia- 
lect) and Farafra the physiognomic type of the Berber race still predom- 
inates ; in Dakhel the features of most of the population are not ma- 
terially different from the fellah type ; while in Siwa , through which 
the great caravan route from Alexandria and Cairo via Murzuk to the 
Sudan leads, and in Khargeh , which lies on the route to Dar-Fur , the 
admixture of negro blood imparts its unmistakable stamp to the features 
of the inhabitants. There are no Coptic settlers in the oases, bat they 
are sometimes temporarily met with there in the capacity of merchants 
or government clerks; and Europeans are still more rarely encountered. 
The population of the oases is comparatively small (Khargeh, according 
to Schweinfurth, possessing 6340 souls ; according to Rohlfs , Dakhel 
17,000, Farafra 320, Bahriyeh about 6000, and Siwa 5600), and the narrow 
limits of the cultivable soil prevents it from increasing ; but a more 
auspicious era may now be in store for these isolated communities if 
they follow the example set by the inhabitants of Dakhel by sinking 
fresh wells and thus extending their territory. As a rule , even in the 
most favourably circumstanced oasis of Dakhel , the physique of the 
population is poor and stunted, owing partly to their almost exclusive 
vegetable diet (of which Prof. Virchow has found evidence in the condition 
of the teeth of skulls from the ancient tombs of Dakhel), and partly to the 
unhealthiness of the climate, which has been notorious from the remotest 
antiquity. In the early Egyptian period, and also during the domination 
of the Roman emperors , the oases were generally used as places of 
banishment, partly because their isolation rendered escape well-nigh im- 
possible, and partly perhaps because the climate was expected to aggra- 
vate the misery of the exiles. The overplus of the water used for agri- 
cultural purposes forms a series of marshes, ponds, and lakes on the sa- 
line soil, and these last contribute greatly to the picturesqueness of the 
landscape in Siwa , which is farther enhanced by a number of isolated 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. e 


rocky heights; but the exhalations of these watery tracts in summer 
are very unhealthy. Within the last few centuries this evil has been 
aggravated by neglect, and the artificial swamps required for the rice 
cultivation are fraught with additional danger. Some measure for utilis- 
ing the superfluous water, or at least rendering it harmless, is perhaps 
more urgently needed for the well-being of the oases than an increase 
of the water supply. Under present circumstances Europeans had better 
abstain from visiting the oases from the beginning of April till the end 
of November, but in the winter months they may visit them safely. 
With regard to the construction of the dwellings in the oases it may 
be remarked that they all have more or less the character of town- 
houses, as, even at the present day, the unsafe state of the country requires 
them to be strongly built in close proximity to each other. Instead of the 
low hovels of the Nile valley, we therefore find in all the oases houses 
of several stories in height , somewhat rudely built of mud (and some- 
times of stone, as at Bahriyeh) and palm logs. A curious feature of these 
towns (recurring in the other oases of the Sahara also , as , for example, 
in the famous commercial town of Ghadames, to the S.W. of Tripoli) 
is the covered streets running under the upper stories of the houses, 
and sometimes of such length as to be perfectly dark. As, moreover, 
like most Oriental streets , they are generally crooked , it is hardly 
prudent for a stranger to venture into them without a guide. The main 
street of the town of Siwa winds in this manner up the rocky eminence 
on which the houses are built, and the place is indeed in this respect 
one of the most curious in the East. 

As is usually the case with places lying at a distance from the outer 
world, the government of these communities is in the hands of the most 
respectable and wealthy members ; and at Farafra this paternal oligarchy 
is under the control of no government. Even at Siwa the Mudir appointed 
by the Egyptian goverment finds it difficult to assert his authority, and 
it is only the interminable and sometimes bloody quarrels of the leading 
parties of the Lifayeh and the Gharbin (of whom the latter, as the name 
indicates, are immigrants from the west) that afford him an opportunity 
of interposing in his judicial capacity. In the other oases also, down to 
the middle of the present century, the power of the government officials 
was always to a great extent paralysed by that of the obstinate shekhs ; 
but after the repression of the Beduin revolt Sa'id Pasha succeeded 
in firmly establishing the viceregal authority in the oases also. Since 
that period peace has reigned throughout the oases, and as the pressure 
of taxation is not nearly so heavily felt here as in the valley of the 
Nile the inhabitants are comparatively wealthy. Of late years, how- 
ever, they have occasionally suffered from predatory attacks by nomadic 
marauders from the Cyrenaica, and even by the Arabs of the Nile valley. 
A disturbing element, too, has unfortunately sprung up in Siwa, Bahriyeh, 
and Farafra, in the establishment and rapid spread of the Senusi order 
of Mohammedans , by whom the introduction of all Christian culture is 
bitterly opposed. This religious order was founded about the middle of 
the present century by Sidi Snusi (or Senusi, as the name is pronounced in 
Eastern Africa, where the vowels are more distinctly pronounced than by 
the Moghrebbins of Algeria and Morocco), a talib (or scripture scholar) of 
Tlemsen in Algeria, for the purpose of restoring the observance of Islam to 
its original purity, and, above all, of warring against Christianity. Although 
the members of the order are regarded by other Mohammedan sects as 
Khoms, or heretics, they have rapidly acquired great power in the districts 
surrounding the eastern Sahara, and, like the Jesuits in Christian countries, 
have amassed considerable wealth, their principal treasury being at Sara- 
bub, the chief seat of the order, two days 1 journey to the W. of Siwa. 

h. Climate. The climate of Egypt is to some extent influenced by 
the great artery on which the country's life depends, hut the desert 
may he regarded as its chief regulator. But for the immense ab- 
sorbing power of the desert the winter rains of the Mediterranean 

Rain. CLIMATE. Ixvii 

regions would extend far up the Nile valley ; and, but for its prox- 
imity, the great expanse of nearly stagnant water at the mouths of 
the Nile, covering an area of upwards of 2500 sq. M. , would render 
the Delta one of the most unhealthy and uninhabitable regions in 
the world. The air of the desert is pleasantly cool, and possesses 
the most refreshing and health-giving qualities ; indeed, to borrow 
Bayard Taylor's expression, it is a true 'elixir of life'. To the deli- 
cious purity of the airt of the desert a kind of parallel is afforded 
by the excellence of the water of the life-giving Nile. 

Rain, throughout a great part of Egypt proper, is a very rare 
phenomenon. At Cairo the fogs of winter are rarely condensed into 
showers of any duration, and the rain occasionally blown inland 
from the sea seldom lasts long. Observations carried on at Cairo 
for five years show a mean annual rainfall of only l'/2 inch, while 
the mean at Alexandria for a period of fourteen years was 8 inches. 
The unusual frequency of rain during the last few years has been 
absurdly attributed to the great increase of the area planted with 
trees, a boon which the country owes to the government of the Khe- 
dive Isma'il. The winters of these same years were also unusually 
wet in Greece and other regions adjoining the Mediterranean where 
but little rain generally falls, so that the weather of these excep- 
tional seasons was doubtless affected by unknown climatic influ- 
ences extending far beyond the limits of Egypt. The recent for- 
mation of the extensive Bitter Lakes in the Isthmus of Suez has 
also no influence on the climate except in their own immediate 
neighbourhood. If the banks of the Red Sea still remain desert in 
spite of the huge evaporating surface beside them, what change 
of importance could be expected from the artificial creation of a 
few square miles of water? The whole of the base of the Delta 
lies within the region of the winter rains, which from January to 
April are blown inland by the then prevailing sea-breezes to a 
distance of 30-50 English miles. In Upper Egypt, on the other 
hand, rain is almost unknown, and it is not uncommon to meet 
with adult natives who have never seen a single shower. In that 
part of the country a thunder-shower, or perhaps the extreme fringe 
of the tropical rains, falls at rare intervals in April or May to the 
no small wonder of the natives. These showers are more frequent 
above the first cataract, and they recur regularly a little to the N. 
of New Donkola or 'Ordeh (19° N. lat.), while to the S. of Shendi 
there is annually a short wet season, with its concomitants of malaria 
and fever. The rainfall in the deserts on each side of the Nile is very 
unequally distributed, but of these regions also it is approximately 
true that rain is of very partial and sporadic occurrence. Thus there 

t It may be noticed here that the air is largely impregnated with 
saline particlea from the limestone rocks of the desert, and it is chiefly 
to their presence that the beneficial effect of the air on the respiratory 
organs is supposed to be due. 

Ixviii CLIMATE. Rain. 

are vast tracts of the Libyan desert which for years together derive 
their sole moisture from the damp north and north-westerly winds, 
and when the wind is in any other quarter they are even deprived 
of their nightly refreshment of dew. On the Arabian side the case 
is materially different. There, along the coast of the Red Sea, runs 
a range of mountains 4800-10,000 ft. in height, where occasional, 
but very violent showers fall between October and December, hol- 
lowing out the deep valleys which descend to the Nile. Although 
these desert rains are of too short duration permanently to affect 
the character of the country, their fertilising effect on the light and 
loose soil is far greater than if they had to penetrate a heavier soil 
covered with thick vegetation. 

As the year is divided in the valley of the Nile by the rise 
and fall of the river into two well-defined seasons, one when the 
soil is moist and easily cultivated, and the other when nothing 
will grow without artificial irrigation, so also it may be divided 
in accordance with the prevalent Winds into two different periods 
of eight and of four months. North winds prevail as a Tule from 
the middle of June to the middle of February, and south (S.E. 
and S.W.) during the rest of the year (while in the Red Sea the 
prevalent winds at these seasons are almost exactly in the reverse 
directions). Early in the afternoon of a day during the second of 
these seasons the wind, as is the case in all tropical regions, some- 
times rises to a hurricane, in which case it is called a 'Samum'. Of 
this wind there are two or three different varieties : (1) It is called a 
'Shobeh' when it blows chiefly from the east or west, and (2) a 
'Merisi' when it comes directly from the south. In the latter case 
it is also sometimes called a 'Khamsin', but this name more properly 
applies to the very hot, dry, and dust-laden winds which frequently 
blow unremittingly for one or two whole days together, and render 
the climate peculiarly trying in March and April (comp. p. xiv). 

The name Khamasln, as it is more correctly written, is the plural 
of Khamsin, signifying 'fifty', and is applied to these winds in conse- 
quence of the fact that they prevail only during a period of fifty days 
before the summer solstice, after which they invariably cease. The Arabs 
confine this name to the period , and name the winds themselves shard. 
The wind to which the name is applied in winter affords hut a feeble idea 
of the Khamsin of the hotter season, which forms the only disagreeable 
feature of the Egyptian climate, and one from which there is no escape. 
The impalpable sand finds its way into the most carefully closed rooms, 
boxes, and even watches, and the parching heat is most destructive to 
the blossoms of fruit-trees. 

In accordance with the Temper atube the Egyptian year may 
also be divided into two seasons, a period of hot weather, lasting 
eight months (April to November), and a cool season of four months 
(December to March). Throughout the whole country the heat 
gradually increases from April till the middle or end of June, and 
many of the superstitious natives believe that a perceptible fresh- 
ening of the air takes place on the night of the 'dropping' (17th 
June ; see p. ciii). In Alexandria the blowing of the N. N.W. wind 




sometimes interrupts the regular increase of the heat , so that the 
maximum may be reached as early as May or June or may be post- 
poned to September or October. The maximum heat in the Delta 
is about 95° Fahr. in the shade, in Upper Egypt about 109°. At 
Cairo the thermometer sometimes rises as high as 114° during the 
prevalence of the Khamsin. In December, January, and February 
the temperature is at its lowest, falling in the Delta to 35°, in Alex- 
andria to 40°, and in Upper Egypt to 41°. The quicksilver rarely 
sinks to the freezing-point, except in the desert and at night. On 
16th Feb. , 1874, during Rohlfs' expedition in the Libyan desert, 
the thermometer fell to 23°. About sunrise the traveller will some- 
times find a thin coating of ice in his basin , or on neighbouring 
pools of water, where, owing to the rapid evaporation, the temper- 
ature falls several degrees lower than in the surrounding air. As 
a rule, throughout the whole country, and at every season, the tem- 
perature is highest from 1 to 5 p.m., and lowest during the two 
hours before sunrise. The result of the observations of ten years has 
been that the mean temperature in the Delta and at Cairo is 58° Fahr. 
in winter, 78° in spring, 83° in summer, and 66° in autumn. M. 
Pirona's observations, carried on for fourteen years, fix the mean 
temperature on the coast near Alexandria at 60° in winter, 66° in 
































— H 












































































































































































































































































































































spring, 77° in summer, and 74° in autumn. At Alexandria the sum- 
mer days are much cooler and the winter nights much warmer than 
at Cairo, but the moisture of the air makes the heat much more op- 
pressive. In the drier air the constant absorption of moisture from the 
skin keeps the body at a much lower temperature than that of the 
surrounding air, and thus renders the great heat of the desert much 
more bearable than one would expect. The strong sea-breezes at 
Alexandria also make the heat of summer less oppressive than it is 
at many places on the Mediterranean situated much farther to the N. 

As three different thermometers are used in Europe, — those of 
Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Re'aumur (1° F. = 5/ 9 ° 0. = 4/ 9 ° R.). — the 
traveller may find the accompanying table convenient for reference. 

i. Agriculture. I. Capabilities op the Soil. In the time of the 
Pharaohs the Egyptian agricultural year was divided into three 
equal parts, the period of the inundation (from the end of June to 
the end of October), that of the growing of the crops (from the end 
of October to the end of February), and that of the harvest (from 
the end of February to the end of June). At the present day there 
are two principal seasons, corresponding to our summer and winter, 
besides which there is a short additional season, corresponding with 
the late summer or early autumn of the European year. The land 
is extremely fertile, but it is not so incapable of exhaustion as it is 
sometimes represented to be. Many of the crops, as elsewhere, must 
occasionally be followed by a fallow period ; others thrive only when 
a certain rotation is observed (such as wheat, followed by clover and 
beans) ; and some fields require to be artificially manured. Occa- 
sionally two crops are yielded by the same field in the same season 
(wheat and saffron, wheat and clover, etc.). The great extension with- 
in the last twenty-five years of the cultivation of the sugar-cane, 
which requires a great deal of moisture, and of the cotton-plant, which 
requires extremely little, has necessitated considerable modifications 
in the modes of irrigation and cultivation hitherto in use. As both of 
these crops are of a very exhausting character, the land must either 
be more frequently left fallow, or must be artificially manured. The 
industry and powers of endurance of the Egyptian peasantry are 
thus most severely tried, although the homogeneous soil of the valley 
of the Nile requires less careful tilling and ploughing than ours. As 
the dung of the domestic animals is used as fuel throughout Egypt, 
•where wood is very scarce , that of pigeons (p. lxxviii) is almost 
the only kind available for agricultural purposes. An abundant 
source of manure is afforded by the ruins of ancient towns, which 
were once built of unbaked clay, but now consist of mounds of earth, 
recognisable only as masses of ruins by the fragments of pottery they 
contain. Out of these mounds, which conceal the rubbish of thou- 
sands of years, is dug a kind of earth sometimes containing as much 
as 12 per cent of saltpetre, soda, ammonia, and other salts. 

II. Irrigation. The whole of the cultivable soil of Egypt is 

Irrigation. AGRICULTURE. lxxi 

divided into two classes in accordance with its relative height 
above the surface of the Nile : (1) The 'RaV, or fields which retain 
their moisture after the subsidence of the overflow long enough (or 
nearly long enough) to admit of the ripening of the crop without 
additional irrigation ; (2) The 'Shardki', or those which always 
require artificial irrigation. The irrigation is effected by means of : 

(1) The 'Sdkiyeh', or large wheels (rarely exceeding 30 ft. in dia- 
meter), turned by domestic animals of various kinds, and fitted with 
scoops of wood or clay , resembling a dredging-machine. (In the 
Fayum a peculiar kind of water-wheel is in use, so contrived as to 
be turned by the weight of the water.) According to Figari-Bey, 
the number of sakiyehs used in Central and Lower Egypt in 1864 
was about 50,000, which were turned and superintended by 200,000 
oxen and 100,000 persons, and irrigated 4,500,000 acres of land. 

(2) The l Shaduf, an apparatus resembling that of an ordinary 
well, set in motion by one person only, and drawing the water in 
buckets resembling baskets in appearance ; as a substitute for the 
sakiyeh several shadufs are sometimes arranged one above the other. 

(3) When it is possible to store the water in reservoirs above the 
level of the land to be watered, it is allowed to overflow the fields 
whenever required. This is the only method available in the oases, 
where fortunately the water rises from the springs with such force 
as to admit of its being easily dammed up at a sufficiently high 
level. (4) Pumps driven by steam are also used, particularly when 
a large supply of water is required, as in the case of the sugar- 
plantations on the 'Gefs' of the Nile in Northern Egypt, where they 
are seen in great numbers. (5) Lastly the ' Tdbut', a peculiar, very 
light, and easily moved wooden wheel, which raises the water by 
means of numerous fans, is used in the Lower Delta only and in 
places where the level of the water in the canals remains nearly 
the same. In order to distribute the water equally over flat fields, 
they are sometimes divided into a number of small squares by means 
of embankments of earth, 1 ft. in height, which, owing to the great 
plasticity of the Nile mud, are easily opened or closed so as to 
regulate the height of the water within them. 

Before describing the different Egyptian agricultural seasons, 
we must first observe that they are no longer so sharply defined as 
they probably were in ancient times. Besides the old crops, there 
are now several others of recent introduction , and so extensively 
grown as in some measure to revolutionise the modes of cultivation. 
These are maize, rice, the sugar-cane, cotton, ramieh, and indigo. 
(This last plant was known to Pliny, but it was probably grown in 
his time only to a very limited extent.) The agrarian measures of 
the Egyptian government are all directed towards the emancipation 
of farming from its dependence upon the inundations, in order that 
every crop may be cultivated at the season in which it thrives 
best. The modern embankments and apparatus for the regulation of 

Ixxii AGRICULTURE. Seasons. 

the water supply vie in importance with the greatest ancient works 
of the kind ; and the services of Sir Colin Scott Moncrie/f and his 
successor Mr. Garstin cannot he easily over-estimated. 

III. Agricultural Seasons. (1) The Winter Crop, or 'Esh- 
Shitawi', grown exclusively on the 'Rai' land (p. lxxi), is sown 
immediately after the suhsidence of the inundation, which takes 
place progressively from S. to N. In Upper Egypt seed-time ac- 
cordingly begins as early as the middle of October, in Central Egypt 
(from Siut to Cairo) at the beginning of November, and in the 
Delta about the end of December. The ground is seldom prepared 
for sowing by the use of the plough. The seed is scattered over the 
still soft and moist soil, and is then either pressed into it by means 
of a wooden roller, beaten into it with pieces of wood, or trodden 
in by oxent. Throughout the whole country a period of four 
months elapses between seed-time and the completion of the har- 
vest. The winter harvest is, therefore, over in Upper Egypt about the 
middle of February, in Central Egypt about the middle of March, 
and in the Delta towards the end of April. In Upper and Central 
Egypt this is the most important harvest of the whole year. The 
principal crop everywhere is wheat (occupying 50 p.c. of the fields 
in Upper Egypt and 30 p.c. in the Delta), next to which are barley 
(10 p.c. and 14 p.c. in these regions respectively), clover (10 p.c. and 
and 24 p.c. respectively), and broad beans (20 p.c. and 12 p.c. re- 

(2) The Summer Crops ('Es-Sefi' or l El-KMi') are much more 
varied than those of winter, but they are comparatively unimportant 
in Upper and Central Egypt, as the cultivable land in these regions 
is very narrow, and belongs chiefly to the 'Rai' category, two-thirds 

t The Agricultural Implements of the Egyptians are exceedingly 
primitive and defective. The chief of these is the plough (mihrdt), the 
form of which is precisely the same as it was 5000 years ago'; and the 
traveller will recognise it on many of the monuments and in the system 
of hieroglyphics. It consists of a pole about 6ft. long, drawn by an ox, 
buffalo, or other beast of burden, attached to it by means of a yoke, 
while to the other end is fastened a piece of wood bent inwards at an 
acute angle, and shod with a three-pronged piece of iron (lisdn). Con- 
nected with the pole is the handle which is held by the fellah. These 
rude and light ploughs penetrate but slightly into the ground." (On the 
estates of the Khedive, Fowler's steam-plough is now frequently employed.) 
The harrow is replaced in Egypt by a roller provided with iron spikes 
(kumfud, literally 'hedgehog'). The only tool used by the natives on 
their fields, or in making embankments of earth, is a kind of hoe or shovel 
(migrafeh). The process of reaping consists of cutting the grain with a 
sickle (mingal), or simply uprooting it by hand. The ndrag, or 'threshing- 
sledge' , consists of a kind of sledge resting on a roller provided with 
sharp semi-circular pieces of iron, and drawn by oxen or buffaloes. This 
primitive machine, being driven over the wheat , peas , or lentils to be 
threshed, crushes the stalks and ears and sets free the grain or seeds. 
The corn is separated from the fragments of straw by the careful removal 
of the latter, and by tossing it to and fro in a draughty place. The 
grain is afterwards passed through a sieve. 


of it being under water during summer. In the Delta, on the other 
hand, summer is the farmer's most important season. The vege- 
tation with which its whole surface is densely clothed in June and 
July is marvellously rich and beautiful, thousands of magnificent 
trees clustered in groups afford delightful shelter from the fierce 
rays of the sun, and the eye ranges over an immense expanse teem- 
ing with luxuriant crops. Another charm of the country in summer 
consists in its abundantly stocked gardens and orchards : but of all 
these attractions the traveller who, like a bird of passage, merely 
seeks refuge in Egypt from the cold and rains of a northern winter 
cannot possibly form any adequate idea. At this season every dis- 
trict of Egypt has its favourite crop ; in Upper Egypt , between 
Assuan andEsneh, the penicillaria, and in the Delta rice are chiefly 
cultivated ; while the peculiar looking indigo-plant, a rich profusion 
of grapes, and a plentiful growth of cucumbers and melons are seen 
in every part of the country. The summer cultivation, of which the 
'Sharaki' land alone is capable, is carried on from April to August ; 
but many of the plants grown at this season require a longer period 
of development, extending throughout the whole of the autumn 
and even part of the winter. This is particularly the case with the 
rice crop, which is sown in May, but does not attain maturity till 
the middle of November, and with the cotton-plant, sown in April, 
and harvested in November or December. A large quantity of cotton 
is also yielded by a second harvest from the pruned plant in the 
month of August, in the second year of its growth. Summer is also 
the principal season for the tobacco crop. 

(3) The Autumn Season ( l En-Nabari' or 'Ed-Denuri'), as already 
observed , is the shortest season , extending to little more than 
seventy days ; and yet within this brief space the rich soil of 
the Delta yields its harvest of maize, which, next to wheat, is 
the most important of the Egyptian cereals. (The annual yield 
of these two grains is said to amount to 24 million bushels.) The 
autumn cultivation lasts from August to October, and sometimes 
till November. At the beginning of October, throughout the whole 
Delta from Suez to Alexandria, the traveller will observe an almost 
unbroken ocean of maize-fields, seldom varied except by the low 
villages, resembling mounds of earth, with their neighbouring palm 
groves. The picture of teeming fertility which the country then 
presents far surpasses that presented by the rich maize-fields of 
south-eastern Europe. In Central Egypt maize is also an important 
summer crop. Along with it is sometimes cultivated the less com- 
mon SoTghum, or Dura, or Indian millet, which is eaten by the 
poorest fellahin only. It is, however, largely consumed by the Bed- 
uins on the Arabian side of the Nile, and in the Sudan and Nubia 
forms the chief food of the inhabitants. Another plant cultivated 
in autumn, Tarely seen in Egypt, but common in the Sudan and 
Nubia, is the tropical Sesame, from which oil is largely prepared. 


4. Farm Produce of Egypt. The following is an enumeration of all 
the most important industrial crops cultivated within the boundaries of 
Egypt. On hearing the names of those with which he is unacquainted, the 
traveller may identify them with the aid of the Egyptian names given 
below. The various products are enumerated in the order of their im- 
portance. t 

a. Cereals. 1. Wheat (kamh; that from the Delta, kamhbahri; from 
Upper Egypt, kamh sa'idi). 2. Maize (dura shdmi, i.e. Syrian; called in 
Syria dura only). 3. Barley (sha'ir). 4. Rice (ruzz) , cultivated only in 
the lower part of the Delta of Alexandria and Rahmaniyeh , as far as 
Mansura, Zakazik, Salihiyeh, and in the Wadi Tumilat, and also in the 
Fayum and in the oases' of the Libyan desert. 5.' Sorghum vulgare (dura 
beledi, i. e. dura of the country ; simply called dura in the Sudan ; Ital. 
sorgho, Engl, caffrecom, and the Tyrolese sirch). 6. Penicillaria (dukhn). 

7. Sorghum saccharatum. 

b. Podded Fkuits. 1. Broad beans (ful). 2. Lentils ('adas). 3. Chick- 
peas (hummus). 4. Lupins (tirmis). 5. Peas (bisilla). 6. Dolichos Lubia 
(Mbiyd). 7. Dolichos Lablab (lablab), which is very frequently seen fes- 
tooning walls and pinnacles, but is also grown in fields in separate plants. 

8. Vigna Sinensis. 9. White beans (Itibiya frengi). 10. Phaseolus Mungo. 
11. Horse beans (Canavalia gladiata). 

c. Green Crops. 1. White Egyptian clover (bersim). 2. Fosnum 
Grsecum (helbeh, frequently ground into flour and used in making bread ; 
also generally eaten raw by the natives in winter ; not to be confounded 
with clover). 3. Medicago sativa, or lucerne (bersim hegdzi). 4. Lathyrus 
sativus, or flat pea (gulbdn). 5. Sorghum halepense (gerau). 

d. Stimulants. 1. Virginian tobacco, or Nicotiana Tabacum (dukhdn 
ahmar). 2. Peasant's tobacco, or Nicotiana rustica (dukhdn akhdar). 

3. Poppies , for the manufacture of opium (abu-num, or 'father of sleep'). 

4. Indian hemp (hashish; comp. p. xxiv). 

e. Textile Materials. 1. Cotton (kotn), introduced from India in 
1821, but extensively cultivated since 1863 only. 2. Flax (kettdn). 3. Hemp 
(til). 4. Hibiscus cannabinus. 

f. Dyes. 1. Indigo argentea, a peculiar kind (nileh). 2. Lawsonia 
inermis (henna), used for dyeing the nails , the palms of the hands , and 
the soles of the feet yellowish red (a very ancient custom , which has 
recently been prohibited) ; properly a tree , but , like the tea-plant, 
cultivated in fields in the form of a dwarfed bush. 3. Saffron (kartam 
or 'osfur). 4. Madder (fua), cultivated in small quantities. 5. Reseda 
Luteola (bliya), used as a yellow dye. 

g. Oil Plants. 1. Castor-oil plant (khirwa). 2. Sesame (sim-sim). 
3. Lettuce (khass), very largely cultivated. 4. Rape (selgam). 5. Chicory 
(hendebeh). 6. Mustard (khardal , or kabar). 7. Arachides , or earth-nuts 
(ful senndri, or simply fti,l). 8. Saffron (as an oil-yielding plant). 9. Poppy 
(as an oil-plant). 10. Garden cress, or Lepidium sativum (rishdd). 

h. Spices. 1. Capsicum annuum, the Italian peperone (filfll ahmar). 
2. Capsicum frutescens, or Cayenne pepper (shiteta). 3. Aniseed (yansUn, 
or dnisun). 4. Coriander (ktisbara). 5. Caraway (kemmHn). 6. Nigella 
(kemm-dn, aswad). 7. Dill (shamdr). 8. Mustard. 

i. The Sugar Cane (kasab es-sukhar) has of late been largely cultivated 
in the N. part of Upper Egypt for the purpose of being manufactured 
into sugar. An inferior variety, which is eaten raw, introduced from India 
in the time of the khalifs, is cultivated in every part of the country. 

k. Vegetables. 1. Bamyas, or Hibiscus esculentus (bdrniya). 2. On- 
ions (basal). 3. Pumpkins (kar'a). 4. Cucumbers (khiydr). 5. Egyptian 
cucumbers (frequently trumpet- shaped and ribbed; different varieties 
called 'abdeldwi, 'agar, etc.). 6. Melons (kdwAn; the best, shammdm). 
7. Water-melons (battikh). 8. Melonzanes (b'ddingdn). 9. Tomatoes (tomd- 
tin). 10. Corchorus oiitorius (meltikhiyeh). 11. Colocasia (kulkds). 12. Garlic 
(tiim). 13. Mallows (khobbizeh). 14. Cabbage (korumb). 15. Celery (kerafs). 
16. Radishes, a peculiar kind, with fleshy leaves, which form a favourite 
article of food (flgl). 17. Lettuces (khass). 18. Sorrel (liommed). 19. Spinach 
(es-sibdnikh). 20. Parsley (bakdHnis). 21. Purslane (rigl). 22'. Turnips (lift). 


23. Carrots (gezet; a peculiar kind, with red juice). 24. Beetroot (bangdr). 
A variety of other vegetables are cultivated in small quantities in gardens, 
exclusively for the use of European residents. 

5. Trees and Plantations. During the last twenty-five years new 
avenues and parks have been so extensively planted that Egypt 
will soon present a far greener and more richly wooded appearance 
than formerly. In ancient times every square foot of arable land 
seems to have been exclusively devoted to the cultivation of in- 
dustrial crops, the natives preferring to import from foreign coun- 
tries the timber they required for ship-building purposes, and 
probably also the small quantity employed in the construction of 
their temples. The best proof of the scarcity of good timber in 
Egypt is afforded by the fact that sycamore-wood , one of the 
worst possible kinds owing to the knottiness and irregularity of 
its grain, has been laboriously manufactured into coffins and 
statues. Mohammed 'Ali, a great patron of horticulture, at one 
time offered prizes for the planting of trees, but his efforts were 
unattended with success, as the climatic and other difficulties at- 
tending the task were then but imperfectly understood in Egypt. 
Ibrahim planted trees in the Ezbekiyeh lake, which had been drained, 
and along the road between the city and the Nile ; and several hun- 
dred varieties of Indian trees were introduced on the island of Roda, 
where, however, only a few scattered traces of them are now to be 
found. 'Abbas I. and Sa'id were sworn enemies to trees of every 
kind, and they were content that their palaces should be exposed 
to the full glare of the sun. The Khedive Isma'il , however , at 
length revived the plans of his celebrated ancestor, and by the 
engagement of M. Barillet (1869), superintendent of the gardens 
of Paris, one of the most skilful landscape-gardeners of the day, 
introduced an entirely new feature into Egyptian scenery. Hundreds 
of thousands of trees were planted within a few years, and their 
shade has converted many of the dusty and stilling roads in and around 
Cairo into pleasant promenades. The finest of all these trees, both 
on account of its umbrageousness and the excellence of its wood, and 
one which thrives admirably, is the lebbek (Albizzia Lebbek), which 
has long been erroneously called by travellers the acacia of the Nile 
(the latter being properly the sunt tree). Within forty years the 
lebbek attains a height of 80 ft. and a great thickness, while the 
branches project to a long distance over the roads, covering them with 
a dense leafy canopy within a remarkably short time. About two 
hundred different kinds of trees, chiefly of E. Indian origin, are now 
planted in the parks of the Khedive (about twenty in number), and 
they are constantly multiplied in nurseries laid out for the purpose. 
Among the most important of these are the magnificent 'Flamboyer 
des Indes' (Poinciana pulcherrima) and the rapidly-growing Eu- 
calyptus, tropical fig-trees, and several rare varieties of palms. 

The commonest Trees of an Earlier Period which the traveller 
will encounter in every town in Egypt are the following : — The Acacia 


Nilotica (sunt), the thorn-tree of antiquity, the pods of which, resembling 
rosaries (gdrrat), yield an excellent material for tanning purposes. Next 
to the palm, this is the tree most frequently seen by the wayside and 
in the villages. The Acacia Farnesiana (fatneh), with blossoms of delicious 
perfume. The sycamore (gimmcz), anciently considered sacred. The 
zizyphus, or Christ's thorn-tree (nebk). Tamarisks (tar/a; not to be con- 
founded with tamarinds). The Parkinsonia (se'sebdn,' a name also applied 
to the wild Sesbania shrub). Mulberry-trees (Ml), in Lower Egypt only. 
Carob-trees, or bread of St. John (kharrub). The cypress, olive, poplar, 
plane, myrtle, Aleppo pine, Shinus, Melia, and various fig-trees of Indian 
origin are of less frequent occurrence. 

Among the Fruit Trees the most important is the date-palm (Phoenix 
dactylifera ; nakhleh; the date, balah; the rib of the leaf, gerid; the leaf, 
lif; the points of the leaf, sa'af; the crown, gummdr). The date-palms 
blossom in March and April , and the fruit ripens in August and Sep- 
tember. Fresh dates are rough in appearance, blood-red or pale yellow 
in colour, and harsh and astringent in taste. Like the medlar, they 
become more palatable after fermentation has set in. There are no fewer 
than twenty-seven kinds of date commonly offered for sale. The largest 
attain a length of three inches, and are called ibrtmi, or sukkdli, as they come 
from N. Nubia. The most delicately flavoured are the small dark brown ones 
known as amhdt, which are eaten fresh. The Beduins offer for sale at the 
hotels a kind of date-preserve packed in what professes to be gazelle- 
skins, but is usually goats' leather ('agweh). Palm-wine (lagbi), obtained 
by boring the heart of the crown of the palm, whereby the tree is killed, 
is met with in the oases only. Excellent brandy, however, is distilled from 
the fruit. The value of the dates exported annually amounts to about one 
million francs only, as they realise too high a price in the country 
itself to remunerate the exporter. 

The vine thrives admirably in Egypt, and grapes foenab) abound from 
July to September. Wine was extensively made from them in ancient 
times, and this might still easily be done , were it not that Egypt is al- 
ready amply supplied with cheap and excellent wines from every part 
of the Mediterranean. The vine blossoms in March and April, like the palm, 
and the grapes ripen in June and July. Oranges (bitrtukdn) are abundant 
and cheap (the harvest beginning in September), and so also are man- 
darins and lemons (the small and juicy fruit of the Citrus limonium); 
citrons and cedros are of less frequent occurrence. Among other fruit- 
trees we may also mention the pomegranate (rummdn) , which is spe- 
cially cultivated for the benefit of the Turks , who are very partial to 
them , and which yields a handsome return. Apricots are common , but 
quite destitute of flavour , and the same remark applies to the peaches 
(khdkh); almonds (ISz) are also frequently seen. Throughout the whole 
of Lower Egypt figs (tin) abound in summer, and the cactus-fig (tin-shdk) 
is also a favourite fruit. Apples, quinces, pears, and plums abound, 
particularly in the region of Girgeh and in the Fayum, but these last 
are perfectly tasteless; these fruits, moreover, are so abundantly 
brought to the market from the Mediterranean regions that no at- 
tempt is made to extend their cultivation in Egypt. Within the last 
ten years the banana (m6z) has gradually become naturalised in Egypt, 
but it is still a somewhat expensive fruit (1-172 fr. per pound). A deli- 
cacy imported from the W. Indies for the benefit of strangers is the 
Anona squamosa (kishta, i.e. 'cream'). Pine-apples are very rarely seen. 
Fine tropical fruits of this kind (including also the mango) are only to 
be found in the gardens of the Khedive, where, however, their capability 
of acclimatisation has been abundantly proved. 

The principal Decorative Plants are roses (ward ; of which the Rosa 
Damascena moschata and the sempervirens are specially cultivated for the 
manufacture of otto of roses), oleanders of astonishing height, carnations, 
and geraniums , all of which have been grown in Egypt from a very 
early period. A bushy tree, which in its half-leafless condition attracts 
the attention of every traveller on landing at Alexandria in winter, is the 
Poinsettia pulcherrima. The insignificant blossom is surrounded by leaves 


of the most brilliant red, presenting a very picturesque and striking ap- 
pearance. Natural forests, or even solitary wild trees, are never met 
with in the valley of the Nile or in the valleys of the northern deserts. 
On the embankments and on the brink of the rivers we occasionally 
find wild tamarisks and willows (safsdf), but always in the form 
of mere bushes. In the desert-valleys of Upper Egypt , however , grow 
five different kinds of acacia and several other shrubs of inferior interest. 
Another tree of considerable importance is the beautiful dUm palm, which 
grows wild in the valleys of S. Nubia and even in the oases, but those 
which occur in N. Egypt are always planted. Even in Lower Egypt it 
is not met with beyond 27° N. latitude (indeed hardly beyond Keneh), 
and attempts to acclimatise it at Cairo have never been successful. ' Lastly 
we may mention two circumstances which throw some light on the bo- 
tanical position of Egypt. One of these is , that the commonest weeds 
associated with the industrial crops of Egypt , and which occur nowhere 
else, are of E. Indian origin; and the other, that numerous plants culti- 
vated by the Egyptians are now to be found only in their wild condition 
in the central regions of Africa. 

j. The Animal Kingdom in Egypt. (By Dr. M. Th. von Heuglin.) 

I. Domestic Animals. The Horse (hosdn; horses, khil; mare, faras; 
foal, rnuhr; the rider, khayydl) was probably unknown to the most ancient 
Egyptians, and was first introduced by the Hyksos (p. cvii). It is now to 
be met with throughout the whole of the valley of the Nile, and even in 
the oases. Owing to want of proper care and insufficiency of food , the 
Egyptian horses are generally of insignificant appearance. 

The Egyptian Donkey (Arab, hom&r; comp. p. xviii) is noted for its 
power of endurance, its spirited temper, and its moderate requirements. 

The Mule (Arab, baghl, or baghleh), although admirably adapted for 
carrying heavy burdens , is less frequently bred in Egypt, but is some- 
times imported from Abyssinia, Spain, and other parts of Southern Europe, 
Syria, and Asia Minor. 

The Camel (Arab, gemel, fern, ndka; the camel for riding, hegtri), was 
not unknown to the ancient Egyptians , as it is mentioned in several 
papyri , but it was probably rarely used , particularly during the early 
monarchy. During the hottest weather the camel can dispense with 
water for three days or more, while its scanty provender consists of a 
few handfuls of maize or beans , of the dry and wiry desert grass , of 
straw, or of prickly acacia leaves. 

The Buffalo (Arab, gamus) seems to have been long domesticated in 
Egypt. Its flesh is not esteemed , but the cows yield milk and butter. 
The buffalo requires little food and attention, but does not thrive except 
in swampy ground or in the vicinity of flowing water. The hide forms 
strong and valuable leather. 

The Ox (Arab. tSr; cow, bakara; calf, 'igl; milk, leben; sweet milk, 
halib; sour milk, Mined or rdb)' thrives in Egypt on the dry soil of the 
arable land, and is also reared in the oases. Down to the year 1863 
Egypt possessed a long-horned race of oxen which is often represented 
on the monuments; but the breed was entirely swept away by a cattle- 
plague during that year. The fellahin make both butter and cheese from 
the milk. Instead of a churn they use a leathern bag suspended from a 
rope (kirbeh). 

The Goat (Arab, me'za or 'anzeh; he-goat, tes; kid, gidi) is to be 
found in every cottage on the banks of the Nile , and in every tent in 
the desert. Its milk is palatable and wholesome. The hide makes 
durable and waterproof water-bags. 

Sheep (Arab, kharflf, na'geh, ghanam, ramis; ram, kebsh) are almost 
as generally kept by the Egyptian peasantry as goats, the most esteemed 
being the fat-tailed varieties (ovis pachycera recurvicanda and ovis 
platyura). The wool of the Egyptian sheep is harsh and wiry, while 
many of those in the desert have stiff, straight hair, and are altogether 
destitute of wool. 

The Pig (Arab, khanzir), which was regarded by the ancient Egyptians 


as the emblem of Typhon , and is considered unclean by the Arabs , can 
hardly be called one of the domestic animals of Egypt, but it is kept by 
the Greek tavern-keepers. 

The Dog (Arab. kelV) throughout the whole of the East is a masterless 
and half-wild animal. The usual breed resembles the jackal type, its 
colour being of a light rusty tint. Every canine family has its regular 
beat, from which intruders are rigorously excluded. Most of the Egyptian 
dogs feed on street refuse. 

The Cat (Arab, kott, kotteh), which was one of the sacred animals of 
the ancient Egyptians "(comp. p. clviii), is now domesticated in almost 
every Egyptian and Beduin family. 

The Weasel (mustela semipalmata; Arab, 'ersa, or abu 'arus), is occa- 
sionally kept , like the cat , for the purpose of keeping in check the 
mice of numerous kinds with which the country is infested. It is chiefly 
met with in a half-wild condition in Central and Lower Egypt, in the 
towns, farm-buildings, warehouses, and deserted dwellings. 

Foremost among the various kinds of poultry kept by the Egyptians 
is the domestic Hen (Arab, farkha; cock, dik), the usual breeds of which 
are of small size. The artificial hatching establishments in Egypt are of 
very ancient origin. 

The Turkey (Arab, farkha rtimf) is imported. 

The domestic Ooose (Arab, wuzzeh) is chiefly met with in Lower 
and Central Egypt, but nowhere in large numbers. The Egyptian 
Domestic Pigeon (Arab, hamam) is very common throughout the Nile 
Valley. The peasants erect large dovecots for these pigeons, which they 
keep solely for the sake of the manure they yield. 

II. Wild Animals. As there are no game-laws in Egypt, any one 
provided with a license from the police to carry fire-arms is at liberty 
to shoot anywhere and at any season , provided enclosed gardens be not 
entered , and growing crops respected. Permission to shoot on Lake 
Menzaleh, however, must be obtained from the farmer of the fishings, 
an introduction to whom may easily be procured from the traveller's 
consul at Cairo. 

Tolerable guns and other requirements for the chasse may be pur- 
chased at Cairo (p. 31), but gunpowder is bad and dear. Sportsmen 
who bring their own guns will find it very troublesome to clear them 
at the custom-house, and cartridges are contraband. 

One of the favourite objects of the chase is the Arabian Mountain 
Ooal (Ibex beden; Arab, beden or wa'al) , which still frequents the 
mountains between the Nile and the Red Sea. 

Another inhabitant of the mountains is the 'Maned Sheep' (Ovis trage- 
laphus; Arab, kebsh el-ma, or kebsh el-gebel), which is occasionally met 
with among the rocky hills near Minyeh and in the neighbourhood of 
the Fayum. 

A denizen of the plains between Cairo and Suez , and of the sand- 
hills and heights which bound the valley of the Nile and the oases, is 
the Dorcas Gazelle (Antilope dorcas; Arab, ghaz&l), particularly during 
the dry and hot season. 

On the Libyan side of the Nile , in the region of the Natron Lakes 
and the Fayum , and the tract extending thence to the oases, occur also 
the 'Spear Antelope' (Antilope leptoceros; Arab. abu-'l hardb) and the 
Addax Antelope (Antilope addax; Arab, a'kas, or bakar el-wahsh), besides 
which the Arabs mention a kind of 'Cow 'Antelope' 1 (perhaps 'the Antilope 

The Wild Soar (Arab. hallHf) now occurs in a few districts only in 
the Delta and the Fayum. 

In similar localities the sportsman will also meet with the Marsh 
Lynx (Felis chaus; Arab, tifah), the small-footed Wild Cat (Felis manicu- 
lata; Arab, kott), the Egyptian Wolf (Cants variegatus; Arab, dib), and 
the Ichneumon (Herpestes ichneumon; Arab, nims), which last, however, 
prefers gardens and the neighbourhood of farms and villages. 

The Genet (Viverra genetta; Arab, kott zebdd) is said to be met with 
occasionally in Egypt. Among the beasts of prey common in the lower 


part of the Nile Valley we may also mention the various species of Foxes 
and Jackals (Canis viclpes, C. mesomelas, C. niloticus, C. aureus, C. fame- 
licus, and Megalotis zerda; Arab. abu-H-husen , dleb or ta'leb, abu shdm or 
bashom, and abu suf) and the Skunk (Rhabdogale mustelina; Arab, abu 'a/en). 
The fox and the jackal haunt cliffs, quarries, ruins, and heaps of rub- 
bish. The long-eared Fennec (Arab. Fenek , Zerdo) , a kind of fox which 
subsists partly on vegetable food, lives gregariously in extensive burrows 
which it excavates in the sand of the desert. 

Another beast of prey of frequent occurrence is the striped Hyena 
(Hyaena striata; Arab, dab'a), which usually secretes itself among ruins, 
quarries, or rocks during the day, and scours the country at night in 
search of dead or disabled domestic animals. The professional Egyptian 
hyena hunters (Arab, dabbd'a), who are to be met with in many parts of 
the country, will generally undertake to catch any wild animal of which 
the traveller desires a specimen , and their services as guides to the 
sportsman will often he found useful. 

An animal of rare occurrence in Egypt, being confined to the side of 
the Egyptian coast-hills next to the Red Sea, is the Porcupine (Hyslrix 
cristata; Arab, abu shit'a, or hanhan, or en-nis), which lives in deep hol- 
lows excavated by itself. 

On the banks of the Nile, and particularly in Upper Egypt, the 
Egyptian Hare (Lepus aegyptiacus; Arab, arnab) is frequently met with. It 
usually haunts those tracts which are overgrown with tamarinds. 

Among the mountains of Sinai we frequently observe the Daman, or 
Cony (Hyrax syriacus; Arab, wabr), which lives in troops on the cliffs 
and stony slopes, and often lies basking in the sun on overhanging rocks, 
especially in the forenoon. 

Wild fowl abound in Egypt, and frequently come within range of 
the sportsman's gun. Among these are the Ganga or Sand Grouse 
(Pterocles exustus, Pt. gutlatus, and in Upper Egypt the Pt. coronatus also \ 
Arab, kata), and the Bed Partridge (Ammoperdix Heyi; Arab. hagel) i which 
frequents the hills around the cataracts at Assuan, the E. slopes of the 
Arabian mountains in the direction of the Red Sea, and Mt. Sinai and 
its environs, extending as far as the Dead Sea. A kind of Red-legged 
Partridge (Arab, abu zerdd , or send) is also found in the Sinai range. 

The Quail (Coturnix communis; Arab, summdn, or selu) usually visits 
the Nile valley during its spring and autumn migrations only. 

On the N. coast of Egypt the Little Bustard (Otis tetrax) is frequently 
seen in winter, and farther to the W. occurs the 'Collared Bustard' 
(Otis hubara; Arab, hubdra). 

We may also mention the Nile Goose and the Turtle Dove (Turtur 
senegalensis and T. isabellinus ; Arab, kimri) as natives of Egypt. The 
Nile Valley and the lagoons of the Delta are also largely visited by Birds 
op Passage. Many of these proceed still farther to the S., but by far 
the greater number remain for three or four months among the swamps 
of Lower Egypt, and in the region of the Natron Lakes and the Birket 
el-Kurun in the Fayum. 

Among the numerous water-fowl, including ducks and flamingoes, 
several species of heron, and perhaps swans also, which breed in the 
Delta and partly in the Fayum, are the superb 'Sultan Bird ' (Porphyrio 
smaragdonotus ; Arab, dikmeh) and the beautiful Golden Snipe (Rhynchaea 

Lastly we must mention the Crocodile (Arab, timsdh), the largest and 
most famous of Egyptian reptiles, which sometimes attains a length of 
thirty feet. Although gradually disappearing before the march of modern 
civilisation , it is still sometimes to be found in the valley of the Nile 
above Girgeh, and more frequently between the cataracts of Assuan and 
the Wadi Haifa, while occasionally, having lost its way during the in- 
undation, it descends to the vicinity of the Delta. Crocodiles are some- 
times seen fast asleep, often with widely opened jaws, basking in the 
sun on flat sandbanks or on the ends of low islands, to which they most 
frequently resort after cool nights. In Egypt, however, where it is oftener 
hunted than in more southern regions, the crocodile is generally too 


wary to be caught napping, though it sometimes becomes entangled in 
the nets and falls a prey to the fishermen. The Arabs of the Sudan, who 
eat the flesh of the reptile and prepare a kind of musk from its glands, 
frequently angle for it with large hooks baited with meat. 

It is seldom worth while to fire at crocodiles when swimming, as 
they usually disappear in the turbid water, even when mortally wounded. 
The sportsman should therefore endeavour to get within range of one of 
these monster saurians when on shore. As they always keep within easy 
reach of the water, they are occasionally observed on the banks of the 
river by the traveller navigating the Nile, in which case they should be 
approached in a small boat as noiselessly as possible. Success is most 
likely to be achieved in cases where the haunt of the reptile is known, 
so that the sportsman may lie in ambush at some convenient spot in the 
vicinity. Unless, as rarely happens, the first bullet kills the animal on 
the spot, it generally contrives to find its way back to the water, and 
thus effects its escape. 

Another saurian of great power, and extremely rapid in its move- 
ments, is the Monitor (Arab, waran), which attains a length of 4-5 ft., and 
derives its name from its supposed habit of giving warning of the ap- 
proach of a crocodile. 

III. Other Mammalia and Birds. Although not indigenous to 
Egypt, several varieties of Apes, which are imported from the S. and W. 
provinces, are seen in the larger towns. Among these are the Cynoce- 
phalus hamadryas and G. anubis (both called kird by the Arabs), the 
Inuus ecaudatus (Arab, nisnds), the Cercopithecus ruber, C. griseo-viridis, 
and, more rarely, the C. pyrrhonotus. 

The Nile Valley and the neighbouring desert hills are largely in- 
fested by Bats (Arab, watwdt), The commonest kinds are the Kalong 
(Pteropus), the Long-eared Bat (Plecotus, Vespertilio, Taphozous, Syctinomus), 
and the Spectre Bat (Rhinolaphus, Nycleris, Ehinopoma). 

Besides the beasts of prey already enumerated (p. Ixxxix), we may also 
mention the Mustela Africana, several kinds of Hedgehog (Erinaceus; 
Arab, konfud), and the Shrew (Arab, umm sisi). 

Egypt contains numerous species of the Rodentia. The fields, dwell- 
ing-houses, and sailing-vessels are often infested with Mice and Rats (M-us, 
Acomys), and in the Sinai Peninsula is found the Dormouse (Eliomys me- 
lanurus), all of which are called far by the Arabs. The Jumping Mouse 
(Dipus; Arab. yerbU'a) and the Sand Mouse (Meriones; Arab, gebeli) live 
in the desert, and the l Fat Bat' (Psammomys obesus) in the sand-hills 
around Alexandria. 

Besides the Birds indigenous to Egypt, there are, as already men- 
tioned, a great number which winter there, while others merely pass 
through the country when on their way to other regions. About 360 dif- 
ferent species have been ascertained to occur in Egypt, but we shall 
merely enumerate a few of the most important of those which remain 
permanently in the country. 

The commonest Birds of Prey are the Golden Vulture (OypaUus rneri- 
dionalis; Arab, big), the White-headed Vulture ( Vultur fulvus ; Arab, nisr), 
the Eared Vulture ( V. auricularis), the Ooose Vulture ( V. cinereus), which, 
however, is a bird of passage only, the Carrion Vulture (Neophron perc- 
nopterus ; Arab, rakhameh), the Harrier (Milvus aegyptiacus ; Arab, heddyeh), 
and the Elanet (Elanus melanopterus). The white -tailed Sea Eagle 
(Haliaelus albicilla; Arab, 'okdb, or shomlta) breeds in the Delta, the 
River Eagle (Pandion haliaetus; Arab. mansUr or ketdf) on the cliffs of 
the Red Sea, the Dwarf Eagle (Aquila pennata) among the palm-groves of 
Lower Egypt , and the Lanner Falcon (Falco lanarius variet. ; Arab. 
shdhln) and Falco barbarus on the pyramids and rocky heights. Great 
numbers of ' Screaming Eagles' pass the winter in Egypt. Of rarer oc- 
currence are the Imperial Eagle, the Hawk Eagle, the Migratory Falcon, 
the Stone and Red-footed Falcons, the white-tailed Buzzard, the Hawk, 
and the Sparrow-hawk (Arab. bdz). Several species of the European Har- 
rier are more common than these last. The Tower Falcon breeds in every 


part of Egypt, and probably the Castrel Hawk (Falco cenchris) also. The 
Gabar (Nisus gabar) is said to be sometimes met with in Upper Egypt. 

The commonest Owls are the sub-tropical Church Owl (Athene noctua 
var.; Arab, umm Mk) and the Eagle Owl (Bubo ascalaphus; Arab. bum. or 
bdfa). ' 

The family of Goatsuckers is represented in Egypt by the peculiar 
Caprimulgus aegyptiacus. A small Swift (Cypselus parvus), the chief 
representative of its family, frequents the regions planted with the dum 
palm. The Swallows (khottdf, or 'asfur el-yenneh) most frequently seen 
are the red-breasted Hirundo cahirica, which remains permanently in the 
country, and a kind of Bock Swallow (Cotile obsoleta). 

Of the Fishing Birds the most common is the Kingfisher (Ceryle 
rudis), which frequents the banks of every part of the Nile. 

The Bee Maters are represented by the Merops apiaster, the M. aegyp- 
tiacus, and the M. viridissimus, all of which breed in Egypt ; but the last 
only, which is called shehagh by the natives, and chiefly occurs in Cen- 
tral and Upper Egypt, remains throughout the year. 

The most numerous of the Thin-billed Birds are the Hoopoes (Arab. 
hudhud), and to the Promeropides belongs the pretty, lustrous Honey- 
sucker (Nectarina metallica), which frequents the frontiers of Upper Egypt. 

Singing Birds ('asfur) are not numerous in Egypt, with the exception 
of numerous species of Larks and Stonechats. We may next mention the 
Drymoeca, or Drymotcus gracilis, the Cisticola cursitans, the Tree Nightin- 
gale (A'edon galactodes), the Acrocephalus stentoreus, the African Water- 
wagtail (Motacilla vidua), the Wedgetail (Argia acaciae), and the Bulbul 
(Pycnonotus Arsinoe , found in the Fayum and N. Nubia, while a second 
species, the P. xanthopygius occurs in Arabia Petrsea and the valley of 
the Jordan). 

There are no Flycatchers peculiar to Egypt. Among the Butcher-birds 
we may mention the 'Masked Shrike' (Lanius nubicus), and among the 
Ravens (ghurdb), the Short-tailed Raven (Gorvus of finis), and the Desert 
Raven ( C. wmbrinus). The lofty mountains of the Sinai Peninsula are the 
haunt of the Red-legged Crow (Fregilus graculus); and among the tamarisk 
bushes and on the rocky margins of the valleys of Arabia Petrsea occurs 
the Starling (Amydrus Tristramii). 

Among the Finches peculiar to Africa is the '■Desert Trumpeter'' (Buca- 
netes githagineus). On the upper part of the Nile, beyond the Wadi Haifa, 
occur several species of a more tropical character, such as the Fire-finch 
(Euplectes franciscana), the Steel-finch (Hypochera nitens), the 'LancetaiV 
(Uroloncha cantons), and the Dwarf Bloodfinch (Lagonosticta minima). 

Woodpeckers are not met with on the Lower Nile. The Wryneck and 
grey Cuckoo occur as birds of passage, and the Spurred Cuckoo (Centropus 
aegyptiacus; Arab, abu burbur) as a denizen of the Delta. The Jay (Coc- 
cystes glandarius) is more widely diffused throughout the country. 

Among the native Running Birds we may mention the Desert Runner 
(Cursorius isabellinus), the Stone Curlew (Oedicnemus crepitans; Arab, ker- 
wdn), the Crocodile-Watcher (Pluvianus aegyptiacus; Arab, tir et-timsdh), and 
the sprightly Spurred Plover (Hoplopterus spinosus; Arab, siksak). The 
commonest of the Herons are the l Cow Heron' (Ardea Ibis; Arab, abu 
kerddn) and the white ' Great Heron' (Ardea alba and Ardea garzetta). 
Near the Wadi Haifa occurs the Abdim Stork (Ciconia Abdimii; Arab. 
sinbileh). To the family of the Ardeidae belong the rare Ibis Tantalus 
and the Sacred Ibis (Ibis aethiopica; Arab, na'ayeh heriz, or abu tningal). 

Besides the European aquatic and other birds already enumerated, 
which frequent the lagoons, lakes, and marshes (p. Ixxx), we may also 
mention the Rose-backed Pelican (Pelecanus rufescens) of N.Nubia; the 
curious Scissor-beak (Rhynchops flavirostris ; Arab, abu mok&s) and the Fox 
Goose (Chenalopex aegyptiacus; Arab, wuz), which are found throughout the 
whole of the Nile Valley, the former especially in summer; and the 
Brown Booby (Sula fiber; Arab, shomet), several peculiar species of Gulls 
and Sea Swallows (Larus leucophthalmus, Larus gelastes, Larus Hemprichii, 
Sterna media, Sterna Bergii, Sterna albigena, Sterna infuscata, and Anous 
stolidus), and the singular-looking Dramas (Arab, hankdr), on the shores 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. f 


of the Red Sea. The Flamingo ( Phoenicopterus antiquorum; Arab, b&sha 
rosh) haunts the Bed Sea and the lagoons of the Delta throughout the 
whole year, usually congregating in enormous flights, and breeds in the 
region to the E. of Lake Menzaleh. 

IV. Reptiles. Of this class of animals there are but few species 
peculiar to Egypt. The Salamanders and Batrachians (Arab. du/da r a) are 
but scantily represented. There are about twenty species of Shakes (Arab. 
ta'bdn), including the Horned Viper (Cerastes; Arab, mokdreneh) which 
appears in the ancient inscriptions as a hieroglyphic, the Echis (Arab, gha- 
ribeh or dashshdsha), the Cobra da Capello, Hooded, or Spectacle Snake 
(Naja Haje; Arab, ndsher), the Telescopus (Arab, abu 'ayHn), the Psam- 
mophis (Arab, abu siytir), the Tropidonotus, the Periops (Arab, arkam), the 
Zamenis (Arab, gidari), and the Eryx (Arab, dassds). The horned viper, 
the echis, and the hooded snake are highly venomous, and their bite is 
often fatal ; the other snakes are not venomous, but their bite is sometimes 
dangerous. The Egyptian snake-charmers (Arab, hdwi), all of whom be- 
long to a gipsy tribe (ghagar), usually exhibit a number of cobras, the teeth 
in which the venom is secreted having been extracted (comp. p. xxvii). 

To the order of the Saurians belong the Crocodile (Crocodilus vulgaris; 
Arab, tirnsdh), of which there are several varieties, and the Monitor (Va- 
ranus niloticus; Arab, waran), both of which have been already mentioned 
(pp. lxxix, lxxx). Other species occurring in Egypt are the Ablepharus, the 
Oongylus, the Plestiodon, the Euprepes, the Scincus (Arab. sakank&r), the 
Ophiops, the Eremias and Acanthodactylus (Arab, sehliyeh), the Psammo- 
saurus griseus (Arab, waran, a name also applied to the monitor), the 
Uromastix spinipes (Arab, dab), the Uromastix viridis, the Stellio vulgaris 
(Arab, hard&n), several kinds of Agama, the Chameleon (Arab, herbdyeh), 
and numerous Ascalabotes (Arab, abu burs). To the Turtle Family belong 
the Nile Turtle (Trionyx aegyptiaca; Arab. Ursa) and a small Tortoise 
(Testudo marginata; Arab, zelhdfeh), while in the Red Sea occur six 
varieties of Chelonia (Arab, bisa or sakar), several of which yield excellent 
tortoise-shell (Arab, bagha). 

V. Fish of the Nile (by Dr. C. B. Klunzinger). The finny inhabit- 
ants of the Nile are in keeping with the palms growing on its banks, 
being of a tropical and African type. They are generally the same as 
those found in the Senegal and other African rivers, while European 
species are very rare. There are in all about 70-80 varieties. The fol- 
lowing sketch is merely designed to afford an idea of the commonest 
species, particularly of those brought to market. Many of them are re- 
presented and described in the 'Description de TEgypte' (p. ccxiv). 

The fish of the Nile are most abundant during the time of the in- 
undation, when a number of varieties, not found at other seasons, are 
brought down from the higher regions to Lower Egypt. At these seasons 
the canals yield abundant spoil, especially after the subsidence of the 
water. The flesh is generally soft, watery, and insipid, but the mode of 
cooking it is perhaps partly in fault. The colours are wanting in var- 
iety, white with a dark-coloured back predominating. 

To the Perch Family (scaly fish with serrated head-bones) belongs the 
Keshr, and to the Carp Family (scaly fish without teeth) belong the Lebis, 
or Debs, and the Binni, with a thorn in its dorsal fin. The various kinds 
of Siluridae are very abundant (fish without scales, with barbels, and 
generally with an adipose fin). Among these are the Shilbeh (a fish with 
a high neck, a short dorsal fin near the head, and without the adipose 
fin), which is of three kinds, the shilbeh 'arabi, the shilbeh sherifiyeh, and 
the shilbeh wudni (the first two with, the last without a spinous ray in 
its dorsal fin). The Shdl, called kurkar in Upper Egypt owing to the 
sound which they emit, is easily recognised by the bony armour cover- 
ing its head and its fringed barbels. The varieties are the shdl beledi, 
the shdl senin or sheildn, and the shdl kamari or bain sdda, the last of 
which has a blackish stomach. The shdl karafsheh, or samr, has a layer 
of bone over its neck. The shdl abu riydl more nearly resembles the 
following varieties. The Baydd and the Dokmdk, provided with very long 
barbels, and generally of large size, are abundant. Another important 


member of the Siluridee is the long and large Karmut, with its long dor- 
sal and posterior fins. The karmut hdleh has an adipose fin, while the 
karm&t 'arabi has none. To the same family belongs also the famous 
Ba'dd, or electric eel (with one adipose fin on its back, and black spots 
on its skin). 

The following families are peculiar to the tropics. The Characini 
(salmon of the Nile) are scaly and provided with an adipose fin. Among 
these are the high-backed and almost rhombic Kamr el-Bahr ; the oblong 
Bay, with its small and somewhat flat teeth ; the Boshdl, or Kelb el-Bahr 
(river-dog), with strong, conical teeth protruding from its mouth; and the 
Nefash, with its small, narrow, and closely-set teeth with double points, 
and somewhat high shoulders. To the family of the Chromides (scaly fish 
with spinous fins and sides of irregular shape) belongs the Bolti. 

A family occurring in Africa only is that of the Mormyrides, or scaly 
fish with remarkably small mouths, and heads covered with a thick and 
bare skin. Among the members of this family is the well-known Mor- 
myrus oxyrrhynchus (KanHma, or Khashrn el-Bandt), with its long snout 
turned downwards, which was so frequently represented by the ancient 
Egyptians; then the blunt-mouthed Banes, including the Kashua and 
Kashua kamura, or 'Ersat el-Bahr, the last of which has an almost square 

An interesting, but not common, fish is the Finny Pike (Polypterus; 
Arab, abu bishir), with its numerous dorsal fins and rhomboidal scales 
covered with enamel, forming one of the few surviving members of the 
abundant antediluvian Ganoids. The Ball Fish (Tetrodon; Arab, fakdka), 
which is not an edible variety, is frequently offered for sale, either fresh 
or stuffed, on account of its curious shape and its singular faculty of 
puffing itself out like a bladder. It differs from the common ball-fish 
of the Red Sea in having seven brown or blackish oblique stripes on its 
sides. The Red Sea contains many fish of a similar kind, but they are 
not known to exist in the Mediterranean. From the latter sea the Har- 
der (Mugil), Buri, or Qhar&na, frequently ascend the Nile, where they 
form the herrings of the Arabs (fesikh). The same remark applies to the 
'Finte'' (sabugha), a fish resembling the herring, which occurs in many of 
the seas, rivers, and lakes of Europe. The Eel of the Nile (ta'bdn el-bahr) 
does not differ from that of European waters. 

VI. Insects. Butterflies are very rare in Egypt, but Moths are much 
more numerous. Among the not very numerous Beetles we may mention 
the Ateuchus sacer, the celebrated Scarabeeus (p. oxlvii) of the ancient 
Egyptians. This sacred beetle was believed to be of the male sex only, 
and its act of rolling the clayballs containing its eggs was supposed to 
be its manner of propagating its species (Plutarch de Iside, 1. x. 74). 
The Egyptians accordingly consecrated the scarabeeus to Ptah, the god of 
origin and creation, who is often represented on the monuments with a sca- 
rabseus in place of a human head. Among other varieties occur the Bu- 
prestis, the Cicindela or sand-beetle, the ffister, the Dermestes, and nu- 
merous Water Beetles. 

The various kinds of Wasps in Egypt attain a very large size. Bees 
are not often kept by the natives. The so-called black honey eaten by 
the lower classes is sugar-cane treacle. The white honey, which is the 
genuine produce of bees, is imported from Arabia. 

The commonest of the Orthoptera are Grasshoppers and Cockroaches; 
and of the Neuroptera we may mention the Ephemera or day-flies, the 
beautiful and often reddish-coloured Dragon-fly, and the White Ant (rare). 
Among the Diptera are the troublesome Eouse-fly, and the Mosquito. 
Vermin of all kinds abound, such as Fleas, Bugs, Lice, Scoi-pions, 
Tarantulas, and Centipedes. 


III. Doctrines of El-Islam. 

Manners and Customs and Beligious and Popular Festivals 
of the Mohammedans. 

(By Prof. Socin.) 

El-Islam is the most widely spread religion in the world, and 
has not yet ceased to spread. 

Mohammed*, as a religious teacher, took up a position hostile 
to the 'age of ignorance and folly', as he called heathenism. The 
revelation which he believed it was his mission to impart was, 
as he declared , nothing new. His religion was of the most remote 
antiquity, all men being supposed by him to be born Muslims, 
though surrounding circumstances might subsequently cause them 
to fall away from the true religion. Even in the Jewish and Chris- 
tian scriptures (the Thorah, Psalms, and Gospels), he maintained, 
there were passages referring to himself and El-Islam , but these 
passages had been suppressed , altered , or misinterpreted. So far 
as Mohammed was acquainted with Judaism and Christianity , he 
disapproved of the rigour of their ethics , which were apt to 

t Mohammed ('the praised', or 'to be praised') was a scion on the 
paternal side of the family of Hashim , a less important branch of the 
noble family of Kureish, who were settled at Mecca, and were custodians 
of the Ka'ba. His father 'Abdallah died shortly before his birth (about 
570). In his sixth year his mother Anuria took him on a journey to 
Medina, but died on her way home. The boy was then educated by his 
grandfather c Abd el-Muttalib, and, after the death of the latter two years 
later, by his uncle Abu Talib. For several years Mohammed tended 
sheep. He afterwards undertook commercial journeys, at first in company 
with his uncle , and then , when about twenty-five years of age , in the 
service of the widow Khadija, who became his first wife. On one of these 
journeys he is said to have become acquainted with the Christian monk 
Bahira at Bosra. 

About that period a reaction in the religious life of the Arabs had 
set in , and when Mohammed was about forty years of age he too was 
struck with the vanity of idolatry. He suffered from epilepsy, and during 
his attacks imagined he received revelations from heaven. He can scarcely, 
therefore, be called an impostor in the ordinary sense. A dream which 
he had on Mt. Hira, near Mecca, gave him the first impulse, and he soon 
began with ardent enthusiasm to promulgate monotheism, and to warn 
his hearers against incurring the pains of hell. It is uncertain whether 
Mohammed himself could read and write. His new doctrine was called 
Islam, or subjection to God. At first he made converts in his own family 
only, and the 'Muslims' were persecuted by the Meccans. Many of them, 
and at length Mohammed himself (622), accordingly emigrated to Medina, 
where the new religion made great progress. After the death of Khadija, 
Mohammed took several other wives, partly from political motives. 

He now endeavoured to stir up the Meccans , and war broke out in 
consequence. He was victorious at Bedr, but lost the battle of the TJhud. 
His military campaigns were thenceforth incessant. He obtained great 
influence over the Beduins , and succeeded in uniting them politically. 
In 630 the Muslims at length captured the town of Mecca , and the idols 
in it were destroyed. Mohammed's health, however, had been completely 
undermined by his unremitting exertions for about twenty-four years; 
he died on 8th June, 632, at Medina, and was interred there. 


degenerate into a body of mere empty forms, while he also rejected 
their dogmatic teaching as utterly false. Above all he repudiated 
whatever seemed to him to savour of polytheism, including the 
doctrine of the Trinity , as 'assigning partners' to the one and 
only God. Every human being he considered bound to accept the 
new revelation of El-Islam, and every Muslim is bound to promul- 
gate this faith. Practically, however, this stringency was afterwards 
relaxed, as the Muslims found themselves obliged to enter into pa- 
cific treaties with nations beyond the confines of Arabia. A distinc- 
tion was also drawn between peoples who were already in possession 
of a revelation, such as Jews, Christians, and Sabians, and idolaters, 
the last of whom were to be rigorously persecuted. 

The Muslim creed is embodied in the words : 'There is no God 
but God (Allah*), and Mohammed is the prophet of God' (Id ilaha 
ill' Allah, uo Muhammedu-rrasul- Allah). This formula, however, 
contains the most important doctrine only ; for the Muslim is bound 
to believe in three cardinal points : (1) God and the angels , (2) 
written revelation and the prophets, and (3) the resurrection, judg- 
ment, eternal life, and predestination. 

(1). God and the Angels. According to comparatively modern 
inscriptions it would appear that the emphatic assertion of the unity 
of God is by no means peculiar to Mohammedanism. As God is a 
Spirit, embracing all perfection within Himself (comp. p. 66), 
ninety - nine of his different attributes were afterwards gathered 
from the Koran, each of which is represented by a bead of the Mus- 
lim rosary. Great importance is also attached to the fact that the 
creation of the world was effected by a simple effort of the divine 
will. (God said 'Let there be', and there was.) 

The story of the creation in the Koran is taken from the Bible, 
with variations from Rabbinical , Persian , and other sources. God 
first created his throne ; beneath the throne there was water ; the 
earth was then formed. In order to keep the earth steady , God 
caused it to be supported by an angel, placed on a huge rock, which 
in its turn rests on the back and horns of the bull of the world. 
And thus the earth is kept in its proper position. 

Simultaneous with the creation of the firmament was that of the 
Oinn (demons), beings occupying a middle rank between men 
and angels, some of them believing, others unbelieving. These 
ginn are frequently mentioned in the Koran , and at a later period 
numerous fables regarding them were invented. To this day the 
belief in them is very general. "When the ginn became arrogant, an 
angel was ordered to banish them , and he accordingly drove them 
to the mountains of Kaf by which the earth is surrounded, whence 
they occasionally make incursions. Adam was then created, on the 

+ Allah is also the name of God used by the Jews and Christians 
who speak Arabic. 


evening of the sixth day, and the Muslims on that account observe 
Friday as their Sabbath. After the creation of Adam came the fall 
of the angel who conquered the ginn. As he refused to bow down 
before Adam he was exiled, and thenceforward called Iblts, or the 
devil. After this, Adam himself fell, and became a solitary wan- 
derer, but was afterwards re-united to Eve at Mecca, where the 
sacred, stone in the Ka'ba derives its black colour from Adam's tears. 
At Jidda, the harbour of Mecca, the tomb of Eve is pointed out to 
this day. Adam is regarded as the first orthodox Muslim; for God, 
from the earliest period, provided for a revelation. 

Besides the creative activity of God, his maintaining power is 
specially emphasised , as being constantly employed for the pre- 
servation of the world. His instruments for this purpose are the 
angels. They are the bearers of God's throne, and execute his 
commands. They also act as mediators between God and men, 
being the constant attendants of the latter. When a Muslim prays 
(which he does after the supposed fashion of the angels in heaven), 
it will be observed that he turns his face at the conclusion first over 
his right and then over his left shoulder. He thereby greets the 
recording angels who stand on each side of every believer , one on 
the right to record his good , and one on the left to record his evil 
deeds. The traveller will also observe the two stones placed over 
every grave in a Muslim burial-ground. By these sit the two angels 
who examine the deceased , and in order that the creed may not 
escape his memory it is incessantly chanted by the conductor of 
the funeral. 

While there are legions of good angels, who differ in form, but 
are purely ethereal in substance , there are also innumerable sa- 
tellites of Satan , who seduce men to error and teach them sorcery. 
They endeavour to pry into the secrets of heaven, to prevent which 
they are pelted with falling stars by the good angels. (This last is 
a notion of very great antiquity.) 

(2). Written Revelation and the Prophets. The earliest 
men were all believers, but they afterwards fell away from the true 
faith. A revelation therefore became necessary, and it is attained 
partly by meditation, and partly by direct communication. The pro- 
phets are very numerous, amounting in all, it is said, to 124,000; 
but their ranks are very various. Some of them have been sent to 
found new forms of religion, others to maintain those already exist- 
ing. The prophets are free from all gross sins ; and they are endowed 
by God with power to work miracles, which power forms their cre- 
dentials ; nevertheless they are generally derided and disbelieved. 
The greater prophets are Adam, Noah, Abraham, Jesus, and Mo- 

Adam is regarded as a pattern of human perfection, and is 
therefore called the 'representative of God'. — Noah's history is 
told more than once in the Koran, where it is embellished with 


various additions, such as that he had a fourth, but disobedient 
son. The preaching of Noah and the occurrence of the Deluge are 
circumstantially recorded. The ark is said to have rested on Mt. 
Judi, nearMossul. The giant 'Uj, son of 'Enak, survived the flood. 
He was of fabulous size, and traditions regarding him are still 
popularly current. 

Abraham (Ibrahim) is spoken of by Mohammed as a personage 
of the utmost importance, and in the Koran, as well as in the Bible 
he is styled the 'friend of God' (comp. James ii. 23). Mohammed 
professed to teach the 'religion of Abraham', and he attached special 
importance to that patriarch as having been the progenitor of the 
Arabs through Ishmael. Abraham was therefore represented as 
having built the Ka'ba, where his footprints are still shown. One of 
the most striking passages in the Koran is in Sureh vi. 76, where 
Abraham is represented as first acquiring a knowledge of the one 
true God. His father was a heathen , and Nimrod at the time of 
Abraham's birth had ordered all new-born children to be slain (a 
legend obviously borrowed from the Slaughter of the Innocents at 
Bethlehem); Abraham was therefore brought up in a cavern, which 
he quitted for the first time in his fifteenth year. 'And when night 
overshadowed him he beheld a star, and said — This is my Lord ; 
but when it set, he said — I love not those who disappear. And 
when he saw the moon rise, he said again — This is my Lord ; but 
when he saw it set, he exclaimed — Surely my Lord has not 
guided me hitherto that I might go astray with erring men. Now 
when he saw the sun rise, he spake again — That is my Lord ; he 
is greater. But when it likewise set, he exclaimed — people, 
I will have nothing to do with what ye idolatrously worship ; for 
I turn my face steadfastly towards Him who created heaven and 
earth out of nothing ; and I belong not to those who assign Him 
partners I' 

Besides the slightly altered Bible narratives, we find a story of 
Abraham having been cast into a furnace by Nimrod for having 
destroyed idols , and having escaped unhurt (probably borrowed 
from the miracle of the three men in the fiery furnace). 

The history of Moses, as given in the Koran, presents no 
features of special interest. He is called the 'speaker of God' ; he 
wrote the Thorah, and is very frequently mentioned. — In the story 
of Jesus Mohammed has perpetrated an absurd anachronism , Mary 
being confounded with Miriam , the sister of Moses. Jesus is call- 
ed 'Isa in the Koran ; but 'Isa is properly Esau, a name of reproach 
among the Jews ; and this affords us an indication of the source 
whence Mohammed derived most of his information. On the other 
hand, Jesus is styled the 'Word of God', as in the Gospel of St. 
John. A parallel is also drawn in the Koran between the creation 
of Adam and the nativity of Christ ; like Adam , Jesus is said to 
have been a prophet from childhood, and to have wrought miracles 


which surpassed those of all other prophets , including even Mo- 
hammed himself. He proclaimed the Gospel , and thus confirmed 
the Thorah ; hut in certain particulars the latter -was abrogated by 
him. Another was crucified in his stead, but God caused Jesus 
also to die for a few hours before taking him up into heaven. 

Modern investigation shows with increasing clearness how little 
originality these stories possess, and how Mohammed merely repeat- 
ed what he had learned from very mixed sources (first Jewish , and 
afterwards Christian also), sometimes entirely misunderstanding 
the information thus acquired. The same is the case with the 
numerous narratives about other so-called prophets. Even Alexan- 
der the Great is raised to the rank of a prophet , and his campaign 
in India is represented as having been undertaken in the interests 
of monotheism. Alexander is also associated with the Khidr , or 
animating power of nature, which is sometimes identified with 
Elijah and St. George. The only other matter of interest connected 
with Mohammed's religious system is the position which he himself 
occupies in it. Moses and Christ prophesied his advent , but the 
passages concerning him in the Thorah and Gospels have been sup- 
pressed. He is the promised Paraclete, the Comforter (St. John 
xiv. 16), the last and greatest of the prophets ; but he does not 
profess to be entirely free from minor sins. He confirms previous 
revelations, but his appearance has superseded them. His whole 
doctrine is a miracle , and it therefore does not require to be 
confirmed by special miracles. After his death, however, a number 
of miracles were attributed to him, and although he was not exactly 
deified, the position assigned to Mm is that of the principal mediator 
between God and man. The apotheosis of human beings is, more- 
over, an idea foreign to the Semitic mind , and it was the Persians 
who first elevated 'Ali and the imams (literally reciters of prayers) 
who succeeded him to the rank of supernatural beings. 

The Koran itself was early believed to be of entirely super- 
natural origin. The name signifies 'rehearsal', or 'reading', and 
the book is divided into parts called SHrehs. The first revelation 
vouchsafed to the Prophet took place in the 'blessed night' in the 
year 609. With many interruptions, the 'sending down' of the 
Koran extended over twenty-three years, until the whole book, 
which had already existed on 'well-preserved tables' in heaven, 
was in the prophet's possession. During the time of the 'Abbaside 
khalifs it was a matter of the keenest controversy whether the Koran 
was created or uncreated. (The Oriental Christians have likewise 
always manifested a great taste for subtle dogmatic questions, such 
as the Procession of the Holy Ghost.) The earlier, or Meccan Surehs, 
which on account of their brevity are placed at the end of the book, 
are characterised by great freshness and vigour of style. They are in 
rhyme, but only partially poetic in form. In the longer Surehs of a 
later period the style is more studied and the narrative often 


tedious. The Koran is nevertheless regarded as the greatest master- 
piece of Arabic literature. The prayers of the Muslims consist almost 
exclusively of passages from this work , although they are entirely 
ignorant of its real meaning. Even by the early commentators 
much of the Koran was imperfectly understood , for Mohammed, 
although extremely proud of his 'Arabic Book' , was very partial 
to the use of all kinds of foreign words. The translation of the 
Koran being prohibited, Persian, Turkish, and Indian children learn 
it entirely by rote. 

The Koran has been translated into English, French, German, Italian, 
and Latin. The best English translations are those of Sale (1734; with 
a 'preliminary discourse' and copious notes ; ed. by Rev. E. M. Wherry, 
1882-86, 4vols. ; and also published in a cheap form by Messrs Warne & Co., 
London) ; Rodwell (London, 1861 ; 2nd ed., 1878) ; and Palmer (London, 1880). 

(3). Future State and Predestination. The doctrine of the 
resurrection has been grossly corrupted by the Koran and by sub- 
sequent tradition ; but its main features have doubtless been bor- 
rowed from the Christians, as has also the appearance of Antichrist, 
and the part to be played by Christ at the Last Day. On that day 
Christ will establish El-Islam as the religion of the world. With 
him will re-appear El-Mahdi, the twelfth Imam (p. xcvii), and the 
beast of the earth (p. lxxxv), while the peoples of Gog and Magog 
will burst the barrier beyond which they were banished by Alexander 
the Great (p. lxxxviii). The end of all things will be ushered in by 
the trumpet-blasts of the angel Asrafil ; the first of these blasts will 
kill every living being ; a second will awaken the dead. Then follows 
the Judgment ; the righteous cross to Paradise by a bridge of a 
hair's breadth, while the wicked fall from the bridge into the abyss 
of hell. Some Muslims believe in a kind of limbo, like that of the 
Hebrews and Greeks , while others maintain that the souls of the 
dead proceed directly to the gates of Paradise. At the Judgment 
every man is judged according to the books of the recording angels 
(p. lxxxvi). The good have the book placed in their right hands, 
but it is placed in the left hands of the wicked, bound behind 
their backs. The scales in which good and evil deeds are weighed 
play an important part in deciding the soul's fate, a detail which 
gave rise to the subsequent doctrine of the efficacy of works. This 
doctrine is carried so far that works of supererogation are believed 
to be placed to the credit of the believer. The demons and animals, 
too, must be judged. Hell, as well as heaven, has different regions ; 
and El-Islam also assumes the existence of a purgatory, from which 
release is possible. Paradise is depicted by Mohammed, in con- 
sonance with his thoroughly sensual character, as a place of entirely 
material delights. 

The course of all events , including the salvation or perdition 
of every individual, is, according to the strict interpretation of the 
Koran , absolutely predestined ; although several later sects have 
endeavoured to modify this terrible doctrine. It is these views, 


however, which give rise to the pride of the Muslims. By virtue of 
their faith they regard themselves as certainly elect, and as a rule 
they make no attempt to convert others , as they have no power to 
alter the irrevocable decrees of God. 

In the second place the Koran is considered to contain, not only a 
standard of ethics, but also the foundation of a complete code of law. 

The Morality of El-Islam was specially adapted by its founder 
to the character of the Arabs. Of duties to one's neighbour, charity 
is the most highly praised, and instances of its practice are not 
unfrequent. Hospitality is much practised by the Beduins, and by 
the peasantry also in those districts which are not overrun with 
travellers. Frugality is another virtue of the Arabs, though too apt 
with them to degenerate into avarice and cupidity. The law of debtor 
and creditor is lenient. Lending money at interest is forbidden by 
the Koran, but is nevertheless largely practised, the lowest rate 
in Syria being 12 per cent. The prohibition against eating unclean 
animals, such as swine, is older than El-Islam. It is impossible 
to decide whether the prohibition of intoxicating drinks is due to 
the prevalence of habits of over-indulgence, such as are depicted by 
the poets before Mohammed's time, or is based on sanitary consider- 
ations. Wine, however, and even brandy, are largely consumed by 
the upper classes, especially among the Turks. 

Although Polygamy is sanctioned, every Muslim being permit- 
ted to have four wives at a time, yet among the bulk of the popu- 
lation monogamy is far more frequent, owing to the difficulty of 
providing for several wives and families at once. The wives, more- 
over, are very apt to quarrel , to the utter destruction of domestic 
peace, unless the husband can afford to assign them separate houses. 
Few men remain unmarried. The treatment of women as mere chat- 
tels, which is of very remote Oriental origin, constitutes the greatest 
defect of the system of El-Islam, although the position of the female 
sex among the Oriental Christians and Jews is little betteT than 
among the Muslims. It is probably owing to this low estimate of 
women that the Muslims generally dislike to see them praying or 
occupying themselves with Teligion. The practice of wearing veils 
is not confined to the Muslim women, but is universal in the East. 
An Oriental lady would, indeed, regard it as an affront to be per- 
mitted to mingle in society with the same freedom as European 
ladies. Even in the Christian churches, the place for women is 
often separated from the men's seats by a railing. The peasant and 
Beduin women , on the other hand, are often seen unveiled. The 
ease with which El-Islam permits divorce is due to Mohammed's per- 
sonal proclivities. A single word from the husband suffices to banish 
the wife from his house, but she retains the marriage-portion 
which she has received from her husband. The children are brought 



tip in great subjection to their parents, often showing more fear than 
love for them. 

The repetition of Pkatbes five times daily forms one of the 
chief occupations of faithful Muslims. The hours of prayer (addn) 
are proclaimed by the mueddins (or muezzins} from the minarets of 
the mosques : (1) Maghrib, a little after sunset ; (2) 'AshcL, night- 
fall, about 1^2 tour after sunset; (3) Subh, daybreak; (4) Duhr, 
midday; (5) 'Asr, afternoon, about 1 x j<i hour before sunset. These 
periods of prayer also serve to mark the divisions of the day. The 
day is also divided into two periods of 12 hours each, beginning 
from sunset, so that where clocks and watches are used they require 
to be set daily. Most people however content themselves with the 
sonorous call of themueddin: Alldhu akbar (three times); ashhadu 
an Id ildha ill' Allah; ashhadu anna Muhammeda rrasulu'lldh 
(twice) ; heyya 'ala-ssaldh (twice) ; heyya 'alaH-falah (twice), 

Alldhu akbar (twice), la ildha ill'alldh; i.e. 'Allah is great; I 
testify that there is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is the pro- 
phet of Allah ; come to prayer ; come to worship ; Allah is great ; 
there is no God but Allah'. This call to prayer sometimes also 
reverberates thrillingly through the stillness of night, to incite 
to devotion the faithful who are still awake. — The duty of 
washing before prayer is a sanitary institution, and tanks are pro- 
vided for the purpose in the court of every mosque. In the desert, 
where water is scarce and precious, the faithful are permitted to 
use sand for this religious ablution. 

The person praying must remove his shoes or sandals and turn 
his face towards Mecca, as the Jews and some of the Christian sects 
turn towards Jerusalem or towards the East. The worshipper begins 


by putting Ms hands to the lobes of Ms ears, and then holds them 
a little below his girdle ; and he intersperses his recitations from 
the Koran with certain prostrations performed in a given order. On 
Fridays the midday recital of prayer takes place three quarters of an 
hour earlier than usual, and is followed by a sermon, preached from 
the Mimbar (p. cxcviii) by a respectable, but unlearned layman, 
whose audience sits on the ground in rows before him. Friday is not, 
however, regarded as a day of rest, business being transacted as on 
other days. It has, however, of late become customary to close the 
courts of justice in imitation of the Christian practice of keeping 
■Sunday. — The Muslims frequently recite as a prayer the first 
Sureh of the Koran, one of the shortest, which is used as we employ 
the Lord's prayer. It is called el-fdtha ('the commencing'), and is to 
the following effect : — 'In the name of God, the merciful and gra- 
cious. Praise be to God, the Lord of creatures , the merciful and 
gracious, the Prince of the day of judgment ; we serve Thee, and 
we pray to Thee for help ; lead us in the right way of those to whom 
thou hast shown mercy, upon whom no wrath resteth, and who go 
not astray. Amen'. 

Another important duty of the believer is to observe the Fast 
of the month Ramadan. From daybreak to sunset throughout the 
month eating and drinking are absolutely prohibited, and the devout 
even scrupulously avoid swallowing their saliva. The fast is for the 
most part rigorously observed, but prolonged repasts during the night 
afford some compensation. Many shops and offices are entirely closed 
during this month. As the Arabic year is lunar, and therefore eleven 
days shorter than ours , the fast of Ramadan runs through all the 
seasons in the course of thirty-three years, and its observance is most 
severely felt in summer, when much suffering is caused by thirst. 

The PrLGRiMAGB to Mecca, which every Muslim is bound to 
undertake once in Ms life, is also deserving of mention. Most of 
the pilgrims now perform the greater part of the distance by water. 
On approaching Mecca the pilgrims undress , laying aside even 
their headgear , and put on aprons and a piece of cloth over the 
left shoulder. They then perform the circuit of the Ka'ba , kiss 
the black stone, hear the sermon on Mt. 'Arafat near Mecca, pelt 
Satan with stones in the valley of Mina , and conclude their pil- 
grimage with a great sacrificial feast. On the day when this takes 
place at Mecca, sheep are slaughtered and a festival called the Great 
Beiram (el-id el-kebir) observed throughout;the whole of the Moham- 
medan countries. (The 'Lesser Beiram', Arab, el-id es-sughayyir, 
follows Ramadan.) The month of the pilgrimage is called Dhul- 
Mggeh(that 'of the pilgrimage'), and forms the close of theMuslim 
year. + The conduct of the caravan, with the gifts presented to the 

t Mohammedan Calendar. The Mohammedan era begins with July 16th 
(1st Moharrem) of the year 622 A. D., being the day of Mohammed's flight 
(Hegira) from Mecca to Medina (p. Ixxxiv). The Mohammedan year is purely 


town of Mecca, the escort, and other items, costs the Egyptian govern- 
ment 13,0P0 purses (about 66,3002.) annually. For an account of 
the feast in connection -with the pilgrimage, see p. c. 

Most of the Arabic Litebature is connected with the Koran. 
Commentaries were written at an early period to explain the ob- 
scure passages in it , and there gradually sprang up a series of ex- 
egetical writings dwelling with elaborate minuteness upon every 
possible shade of interpretation. Grammar, too, was at first studied 
solely in connection with the Koran, and a prodigious mass of 
legal literature was founded exclusively upon the sacred volume. 
Of late years, however, some attempts have been made to super- 
sede the ancient law, and to introduce a modern European system. 
The Beduins still have their peculiar customary law. 

With regard to theological, legal, and still more to ritualistic 
questions, El-Islam has not always been free from dissension. There 
are in the first place four Orthodox sects, the Hanefites, the Shdfe- 
'ites, the Malekites, and the Hambalites , who are named, after their 
respective founders. In addition to these must be mentioned the 
schools of Free Thinkers, who sprang up at an early period, partly 
owing to the influence of Greek philosophy. The orthodox party, 
however, triumphed , not only over these heretics, but also in its 
struggle against the voluptuousness and luxury of the most glorious 
period of the khalifs. 

Ascetism and fanaticism were also largely developed among 
professors of El-Islam, and another phase of religious thought was 
pure Mysticism, which arose chiefly in Persia. The mystics (sUfi) in- 
terpret many texts of the Koran allegorically, and their system there- 
fore frequently degenerated into Pantheism. It was by mystics who 
still remained within the pale of El-Islam (such as the famous Ibn 
el-'Arabi, born in 1164) that the Orders of Dervishes were founded. 

Dbevishes (darwtsh, plur. darawfah). The love of mysticism 
which characterises Mohammedans is due partly to the nature of 
El-Islam itself, and partly to external circumstances. That earthly 
life is worthless, that it is a delusion, and at best a period of pro- 
bation, are sentiments of frequent recurrence in the Koran. This 

lunar and has no reference or relation to the sun; it contains 354 days, 
or 355 in leap-years, eleven of which occur in each cycle of 30 years. 
There are 12 months, the first, third, etc., of which have 29 days each, the 
second, fourth, etc., 30 days; these are named Moharrem, Safar, IRdbV el- 
auwel, Rabi' el-dkhir, Oemdd el-auwel, Gem&d el-dkhirj Regeb, Sha'bdn, Rama- 
d&n, fihauwdl, Dhil-U'deh, Dhil-higgeh. 

In order approximately to convert a year of our era into one of the 
Muslim era, subtract 622, divide the remainder by 33, and add the quotient 
to the dividend. Conversely, a year of the Mohammedan era is converted 
into one of the Christian era by dividing it by 33, subtracting the quotient 
from it, and adding 622 to the remainder. On 5th July, 1894, began the 
Muslim year 1312. 

The Gregorian calendar was introduced into Egypt in 1875, but is 
government in the financedepartment only. 


pessimist view of life has been confirmed by Mohammed's concep- 
tion of the Supreme Being, on whose awe-inspiring attributes he 
has chiefly dwelt, thus filling his adherents with a profound dread 
of their Creator. The result of this doctrine was to induce devout 
persons to retire altogether from the wicked world, the scene of 
vanity and disappointment, and to devote themselves to the prac- 
tice of ascetic exercises, with a view to ensure their happiness in a 
future state. The fundamental aim of this asceticism was to strive 
after a knowledge of God by cultivating a kind of half-conscious and 
ecstatic exaltation of mind. A mystic love of God was deemed the 
great passport which enabled the worshipper to fall into this ecstatic 
trance, and to lose himself so completely in contemplation as to 
destroy his own individuality (fana) and blend it with that of the 
Deity (ittihdd). As in Europe the monastic system and the mendi- 
cant orders sprang from the example of penitents and hermits who 
had renounced the world, so in the Mohammedan world asceticism 
was rapidly developed into an organised system of mendicancy, 
although in the Koran Mohammed had expressed his strong disap- 
proval of the Christian monastic system. At an early period many 
noble thinkers (such as the Persians Sa'di and Hafiz) and talented 
poets enrolled themselves in the ranks of the ascetics, but the der- 
vishes of the present day have entirely lost the spirit of their pro- 
totypes, and have retained [nothing but the mere physical capacity 
for throwing themselves into a mechanical state of ecstasy and ren- 
dering themselves proof against external sensations. 

The following are the principal orders of dervishes (tartkat ed-dardwish) 
in Egypt: — 

(1) The Rif&'iyeh (sing, ri/d'i), an order founded by Seyyid Ahmed 
Rifa'a el-Kebir, possess a monastery near the mosque of Sultan Hasan 
(see p. 52), and are recognisable by their black flags and black or dark 
blue turbans. The best-known sects of this order are the Auldd 'Jlwdn, 
or 'Ilw&niyeh Dervishes , and the Sa'diyeh Dervishes. The former are 
noted for their extraordinary performances at festivals , such as thrusting 
iron nails into their eyes and arms, breaking large stones against their 
chests, as they lie on their backs on the ground, and swallowing burning 
charcoal and fragments of glass. The Sa'diyeh, who usually carry 
green flags, are snake-charmers (p. xxvii), and on the Friday on which 
the birthday of the prophet is celebrated used to allow their shekh to 
ride over them on horseback (the ddseh; p. ci). 

(2) The Kddiriyeh (sing, kddiri), an order founded by the celebrated 
Seyyid 'Abd el-Kadir el-Gilani, have white banners and white turbans. 
Most of them spend their time in fishing, and in their processions they 
carry nets of different colours, fishing-rods, and other insignia of their 
chief pursuit. 

(3) The Ahmediyeh (sing, ahmedi), the order of Seyyid Ahmed el- 
Bedawi, are recognised by their red banners and red turbans. This order 
is very numerous and is much respected. It is divided into many sects, 
but of these the two most important only need be mentioned. One of these 
is the Shirmdwiyeh, who play an important part in the ceremonies at the 
tomb of Seyyid Ahmed at Tanta (p. 24). The other sect is that of the 
Auldd Ntih, who are generally young men, wearing high pointed caps with 
a plume of strips of coloured cloth , and a number of small balls strung 
across their breasts , and carrying wooden swords and a kind of whip 
made of a thick plait of rope. 


There are also many other orders which it is unnecessary to enumerate. 
The ceremony of the admission of members to all these orders is a very 
simple matter. The candidate (el-murid) performs the customary ablutions, 
sits down on the ground beside the superior (elwurshid, or spiritual, 
leader), gives him his hand, and repeats after him a set form of words, 
in which he expresses penitence for his sins and his determination to 
reform, and calls Allah to witness that he will never quit the order. The 
ceremony terminates with three recitals of the confession of faith by the 
murid, the joint repetition of the fatha (p. xci), and a kissing of hands. 

The religious exercises of all the dervishes consist chiefly in the 
performance of Zikrs («. e. pious devotions , or invocations of Allah ; see 
below). Almost all the dervishes in Egypt are small tradesmen, artizans, 
or peasants. Most of them are married men, and they take part in the 
ceremonies peculiar to their order at stated seasons only. Some of 
them , however, make it their business to attend festivals and funerals 
for the purpose of exhibiting their zikrs. These last are called fukara 
(sing, fakir), i. e. 'poor men'. Others again support themselves by drawing 
water (hemali; see p. 41). Those who lead a vagrant life and subsist on 
alms are comparatively few in number. The dervishes of this class 

Dancing Dervishes. 

usually wear a kind of gown (dilk) composed of shreds of rags of various 
colours sewn together, or a shaggy coat of skins, and carry a stick 
with strips of cloth of various colours attached to the upper end. A 
considerable number of them are insane , in which case they are highly 
revered by the people , and are regarded as specially favoured by God, 
who has taken their spirits to heaven , while he has left their earthly 
tabernacle behind. 

The Zikrs (see above) to which the traveller will most conveniently 
obtain access are those of the Dancing and the Howling Dervishes. 

The dancing dervishes are called Mdlawis after the founder of their order, 
the MS la Jeldl ed-din er-R&mi of Balkh in Persia (who flourished about A.D. 
1208), mevlewi being the Turkish form for molawi, or adherent of the Mola 
or learned master. They perform their zikr within a circular space about 
20 ft. in diameter and enclosed by a railing. At Cairo the Zikr usually 
takes place on Frid. (2-3 p.m.), at the Tekkiyeh el-M61awiyeh, to the S.W. 
of the Place Sultan H * san (PI. D, 6). With slow, measured tread the shekh 
comes forward,' followed by a dervish, and takes his seat on a carpet 


opposite the entrance. The other dervishes next enter the circle one after 
another, in the order of their ages, wearing long gowns and conical hats. 
They walk solemnly up to their superior, make him a profound obeisance, 
kiss the hem of his robe , and take np their position to his left. From 
the galleries is presently heard a rude and weird kind of music, consist- 
ing of a single prolonged tone of a stringed instrument accompanied by 
a flute and a human voice rising and falling in cadences. Time is beaten 
by a tambourine, with varying rapidity and vigour. The singer recites 
a hymn expressing the most ardent love of God. As soon as the singing 
ceases, the dervishes rise, and walk in procession three times round the 
circle, headed by the shekh. Each of them, including the shekh himself, 
makes a low bow in passing the spot from which the shekh has just risen. 
They then resume their seats, and the shekh , with closed eyes, and in a 
deep, sepnlchral voice, begins to murmur a prayer, in which the word 
Allah alone is audible. When the prayer is over the dervishes divest 
themselves of their gowns, under which they wear a long, loose, light- 
coloured skirt or kilt, reaching down to their ankles, and a more closely 
fitting vest. They then present themselves before the shekh, each in his 
turn, make him a profound obeisance, and begin to move slowly round 
in a circle. They turn on the left foot, propelling themselves by touching 
the waxed floor from time to time with the right. Most of them make about 
forty gyrations per minute, but some of them accomplish sixty and even 
more. The whole of the zikr is performed by the dervishes noiselessly, 
with closed eyes , and outstretched arms , the palm of one hand being 
turned upwards and the other downwards, and their heads either thrown 
back or leaning on one side. During the dance soft strains of music are 
heard, while the beat of the tambourine gradually accelerates, and the 
skirts of the performers fly out in a wide circle. The tones of the flute 
become shriller and shriller, until on a signal given by the shekh the 
music ceases, the dancers stop, cross their arms over their chests, and 
resume their seats. The dance is performed three times by all except 
the superior. The latter, however, walks several times noiselessly through 
the midst of the dancers, who, although their eyes are closed, touch neither 
him nor one another. The whole zikr occupies about an hour. 

The howling or shouting dervishes perform their zikr at Cairo on 
Frid. (1.30-2.30 p.m.) in the little mosque beside the Kasr el- r Ain (p. 47); 
an early start is necessary to secure a seat (1-2 pias.). The dervishes assume 
a kneeling or crouching posture, with their heads and chests bent downwards. 
In this attitude they sometimes remain for hours, incessantly shouting the 
Muslim confession of faith — 'la, ilaha', etc., until they at length attain 
the ecstatic condition, and finish by repeating the word A«J, i.e. 'he' 
(God) alone. On the occasion of great festivals some of them fall into 
a kind of epileptic convulsion, and foam at the mouth; but no notice is 
taken of them, and they are left to recover without assistance. It need 
hardly be added that the European traveller will find these performances 
unpleasing and painful. 

The Worship of Saints and Martyrs was inculcated in con- 
nection with El-Islam at an early period. The faithful undertook 
pilgrimages to the graves of the departed in the belief that death 
did not interrupt the possibility of communication with them. 
Thus the tomb of Mohammed at Medina, and that of his grandson 
Husen at Kerbela, became particularly famous , and every little 
town soon boasted of the tomb of its particular saint. In many 
of the villages of Syria the traveller will observe small dome- 
covered buildings , with grated windows , and surmounted by the 
crescent. These are the so-called Weli's , mausolea of saints, or 
tombs of shekhs. In the interior there is usually a block of stone, 
hewn in the shape of a sarcophagus and covered with a green or 


red cloth, on which texts from the Koran are embroidered in gold 
or silver. The -walls are generally embellished with paintings 
representing the sacred cities of El-Islam, and executed in an 
amusingly primitive style. Suspended from the ceiling by cords 
and threads are little boats, ostrich eggs , and numerous paper 
bags filled with sacred earth from Mecca. In one corner are 
a thick wax candle and a heap of bones of all kinds. The tomb is 
usually surrounded by a burial-ground, where certain persons have 
the privilege of being interred. Schools are also frequently connect- 
ed with these weli's. Shreds of cloth are often seen suspended from 
the railings of these tombs, or on certain trees which are consid- 
ered sacred , having been placed there by devout persons. This 
curious custom is of ancient origin. 

About the end of the 18th century a reaction against the abuses 
of El-Islam sprang up in Central Arabia. The Wahhabites , or 
Wahhabees , named after their founder f Abd el-Wahhab, endeav- 
oured to restore the religion to its original purity ; they destroyed 
all tombs of saints, including even those of Mohammed and Husen, 
as objects of superstitious reverence, and sought to restore the 
primitive simplicity of the prophet's code of morals ; and they even 
forbade the smoking of tobacco as being intoxicating. They soon 
became a great political power, and had not Mohammed r Ali deemed 
it his interest to suppress them , their influence would have been 
far more widely extended than it now is. — As to the Senusi 
order, see p. lxvi. 

We have hitherto spoken of the doctrines of the Sunnites (from 
sunna, 'tradition'), who form one great sect of El-Islam. At an early 
period the Shi'ites (from shi'a, 'sect') seceded from the Sunnites. 
They assigned to 'Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, a rank equal 
or even superior to that of the prophet himself; they regarded him 
as an incarnation of the Deity , and believed in the divine mission 
of the imams descended from him. El-Mahdi , the last of these, 
is believed by them not to have died, but to be awaiting in 
concealment the coming of the last day. The Persians are all 
Shi'ites. Towards the West also Shi'itism was widely disseminated 
at an early period, particularly in Egypt under the regime of the 
Fatimite sovereigns. The Shi'ites are extremely fanatical, refus- 
ing even to eat in the society Of persons of a different creed. 
The other sects, which are chiefly confined to Syria (the Metawileh, 
the Isma'Uiyeh , the Nosairlyeh , the Druses , etc.), are noticed in 
Baedeker's Syria and Palestine. 

Remarks on Mohammedan Customs. 

The birth of a child is celebrated on the seventh day of its life 
by a domestic festival, attended by the kadi or some learned theo- 
logian, who dissolves in his mouth a piece of sugar-candy presented 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. g 


to him by the host and drops a little of his sweetened saliva into 
the infant's mouth, as if to give it a sweet foretaste of the world's 
gifts, and also for the purpose of 'giving it a name out of his mouth'. 
Muslims, it is well known, aTe usually named by their pronomens 
only. If a more precise designation is desired, the name of the 
father is placed after the pronomen , with or without the word ibn 
('son of) placed between the names. Nicknames, such as 'the one- 
eyed', etc., are also not uncommon. 

"When the child is forty days old the mother takes it to the bath, 
and causes forty bowls of water (thirty-nine in the case of a girl) 
to be poured over its head. This bath forms the purification of both 
mother and child. 

The rite of circumcision is performed on boys up to the age of 
six or seven, or even later, the ceremony being attended with great 
pomp. The child is previously conducted through the streets in holiday 
attire, the procession being frequently united with some bridal party, 
in order to diminish the expense of the proceedings. The boy gener- 
ally wears a turban of red cashmere, girls' clothes of the richest 
possible description, and conspicuous female ornaments, which are 
designed to attract attention, and thus avert the evil eye from Ms 
person. A handsomely caparisoned horse is borrowed to carry him ; 
he half covers his face with an embroidered handkerchief ; and the 
barber who performs the operation and a noisy troop of musicians 
head the procession. The first personage in the procession is usually 
the barber's boy, carrying the 'hemV, or barber's sign, a kind of 
cupboard made of wood, in the form of a half-cylinder, with four 
short legs. The flat front of the heml is adorned with pieces of 
looking-glass and embossed brass, while the back is covered with 
a curtain. Two or more boys are often thus paraded together, being 
usually driven in a carriage and attended by music. 

Girls are generally married in their 12th or 13th, and some- 
times as early as their 10th year. A man in search of a bride 
employs the services of a relative, or of a professional female 
match-maker , and he never has an opportunity of seeing his bride 
until the wedding-day, except when the parties belong to the 
lowest classes. When everything is arranged, the affianced bride- 
groom has to pay a bridal-portion (mahr) amounting to about 25 J., 
more being paid when the bride is a spinster than if she is a widow. 
Generally speaking , about two-thirds of the sum , the amount 
of which always forms a subject of lively discussion, is paid 
down, while one-third is settled upon the wife, being payable on 
the death of the husband, or on his divorcing her against her will. 
The marriage-contract is now complete. Before the wedding the 
bride is conducted in gala attire and with great ceremony to the 
bath. This procession is called l Zeffet et Hammam\ It is headed 
by several musicians with hautbois and drums ; these are followed 
by several married friends and relations of the bride in pairs, and 


after these come a number of young girls. The bride is entirely con- 
cealed by the clothing she wears, being usually enveloped from head 
to foot in a cashmere shawl, and wearing on her head a small cap, or 
crown, of pasteboard. The procession moves very slowly, and another 
body of musicians brings up the rear. The hideous shrieks of joy 
which women of the lower classes utter on the occurrence of any sen- 
sational event are called zaghdrit. The bride is afterwards conducted 
with the same formalities to the house of her husband. 

The ceremonies observed at funerals are not less remarkable 
than those which attend weddings. If the death occurs in the morn- 
ing, the funeral takes place the same day ; but if in the evening, 
it is postponed till next day. The body is washed and mourned 
over by the family and the professional mourning women (nedda- 
behs ; a custom prohibited by Mohammed , but one dating from the 
remotest antiquity) ; the flkth, or schoolmaster, reads several Surehs 
of the Koran by its side ; after this , it is wrapped in its winding 
sheet, placed on the bier, covered with a red or green cloth, and 
then carried forth in solemn procession. The foremost persons in 
the cortege are usually six or more poor, and generally blind, men, 
who walk in twos or threes at a slow pace, chanting the creed — 
'There is no God but God ; Mohammed is the ambassador of God ; 
God be gracious to him and preserve him !' These are followed by 
several male relatives of the deceased, and sometimes by a number 
of dervishes with the flags of their order, and then by three or more 
schoolboys, one of whom carries a copy of the Koran, or of parts of 
it, on a stand made of palm-branches, covered with a cloth. The 
boys usually chant in a loud and shrill voice several passages from 
the i Hashr1yeK ', a poem describing the last judgment. The bier, 
with the head of the deceased foremost, comes next, being borne 
by three or four of his friends, who are relieved from time to time 
by others. After the bier come the relations and friends in their 
everyday attire, and the female relatives, with dishevelled hair, 
sobbing aloud, and frequently accompanied by professional mourn- 
ing women, whose business it is to extol the merits of the deceased. 
If the deceased was the husband or father of the family, one of the 
cries is — '0 thou camel of my house', the camel being the emblem 
of the bread-winner of the household. 

The body is first carried into that mosque for whose patron 
saints the relatives entertain the greatest veneration, and prayers 
are there offered on its behalf. After the bier has been placed in 
front of the tomb of the saint, and prayers and chants have again 
been recited, the procession is formed anew and moves towards the 
cemetery, where the body is let down a perpendicular shaft to a 
spacious vault excavated on one side of it, and there placed in 
such a position that its face is turned towards Mecca. The entrance 
to the lateral vault is then walled up, and during this long process 
the mourners recite the words : — '•Allahu mughfir el-muslimln 


wa'l-muslimat, el-m&minin wo'l-mumindf (God pardons the Muslim 
men and the Muslim women, the faithful men and the faithful 
women). A Khatib, Imam, or other person then addresses a few 
stereotyped words to the deceased, informing him how he is to 
answer the two examining angels who are to question him during the 
ensuing night (p. lxxxix). A fatha having again been whispered, 
and the perpendicular shaft filled up, while the mourners incessantly 
repeat the words — 'bismillah er-rahimir rdhmdni (in the name 
of God, the merciful), the bystanders shake hands, and the male 
mourners disperse. The women, however, who have stood a little 
on one side during the ceremony, now come forward and inspect 
the tomb. 

Another custom peculiar to the Muslims is that the separation 
of the sexes is as strict after death as during life. In family vaults 
one side is set apart for the men, the other for the women exclu- 
sively. Between these vaults is the entrance to the tomb, which is 
usually covered with a single large slab. The vaults are high enough 
to admit of the deceased sitting upright in them when he is being 
examined by the angels Munkar and Nekir on the first night after 
his interment (see above) ; for, according to the belief of the Mo- 
hammedans, the soul of the departed remains with his body for 
three nights after his burial. For particulars regarding the tombs, 
see p. cxcix. 

Religious and Popular Festivals of the Mohammedans. 

The dates of these festivals, which may all be seen to the best advan- 
tage at Cairo, cannot easily be given according to the European computa- 
tion of time, owing to the variable character of theArabian lunaryear(comp. 
p.xcii). Calendars reducing the Mohammedan and Coptic reckoning of time 
to the European system may, however, be obtained at any bookseller's. 

The first month of the Arabian year is the Moharrem, the first ten 
days of which ('ashi-), and particularly the 10th (y6m 'ashtira), are con- 
sidered holy. On these days alms are distributed, and amulets purchased. 
Mothers, even of the upper classes, carry their children on their should- 
ers, or cause them to be carried, through the streets, and sew into the 
children's caps the copper coins presented to them by passers-by. On the 
10th Moharrem, the highly revered 'AshHra day, on which Adam and Eve 
are said first to have met after their expulsion from Paradise, on which 
Noah is said to have left the ark, and on which Husen, the grandson of 
the Prophet, fell as a martyr to his religion at the' battle of Kerbela, the 
Gami'a el-Hasanein (p. 67) is visited by a vast concourse of religious de- 
votees, whose riotous proceedings had better not be inspected except from 
a carriage, especially if ladies are of the party. Troops of Persians in 
long white robes parade the streets, cutting themselves with swords in 
the forehead until the blood streams down and stains their snowy gar- 
ments. Two boys, representing Hasan and Husen, are also led through 
the streets on horseback, with blood-stained clothes. Strangers may also 
obtain admission to the Persian mosque, in which the orgies are continued, 
by special introduction. Towards evening a great zikr of whirling der- 
vishes takes place here (p. xcv). 

At the end of Safar, the second month, or at the beginning of RaW 
el-awwel, the third, the Mecca Caravan (p.xcii) returns home, its ap- 
proach being announced by outriders. Some of the faithful who go to 
meet the procession proceed as far as three days' journey, but most of 
them await its arrival at the Birket el-Hagg (p. 129), or pilgrims' lake. 


Detached groups of pilgrims occasionally return before the rest of the 
cavalcade, and their arrival is always signalised by the blowing of trum- 
pets and beating of drums. A pyramidal wooden erection, called the 
Mahmal, hung with beautifully embroidered stuffs, and carried by a 
camel, accompanies the procession as a symbol of royalty. The interior 
of the Mahmal is empty, and to the outside of it are attached two copies 
of the Koran. The procession usually enters the city by the Bdb en-Nasr 
(p. 72).' In lVa-2 hrs. it reaches the RumSleh (p. 53), the large open 
space in front of the citadel, from which last twelve cannon-shots are 
fired as a salute. The cortege then sweeps round the RumSleh, and fin- 
ally enters the citadel by the Bab el-Wezir (PI. E, 2). The departure of 
the pilgrims (p. cii) is attended with similar ceremonies. 

The great festival of the Molid en-Nebi, the birthday of the prophet, 
is celebrated at the beginning of Rabi' el-awwel, the third month. The 
preparations for it begin on the second day of the month, and the most 
important ceremonies take place on the evening of the eleventh. The 
city, and particularly the scene of the festival, is then illuminated by 
means of lamps hung on wooden stands made for the purpose. Proces- 
sions of dervishes (p. xoiii) parade the streets with flags by day, and with 
lamps hoisted on poles by night. On this evening the sellers of sweet- 
meats frequently exclaim — 'A grain of salt for the eye of him who will 
not bless the Prophet ! ' The Ddseh, or ceremony of riding over the der- 
vishes, also took place on the eleventh of this month. Some fifty der- 
vishes or more lay close together on the ground, and allowed the shSkh 
of the Sa'diyeh dervishes on horseback to ride over them. Accidents 
rarely happened, although the horse trod on every one of the pro- 
strate figures. During this ceremony the spectators shouted incessantly, 
'Allah-la-la-14-lah-ldh ! ' This barbarous custom was forbidden by the 
Khedive Tewfik, and the ceremonies are confined to the procession of the 
shekh and the reading of the Koran in the Khedive's tent. At night 
a great zikr is performed by the dervishes (p. xcv). On this festival, as 
on all the other 'molids', the jugglers, buffoons, and other ministers of 
amusement, ply their calling with great success (comp. pp. xxv-xxvii). 

In the fourth month, that of Rabi' el-Akhir (et-tdni), occurs the pecu- 
liarly solemn festival of the birthday or M6lid of ffusen, the prophet's 
grandson, the principal scene of which is the mosque of Hasanein, where 
the head of Husen is said to be interred. This festival lasts fifteen days 
and fourteen nights, the most important day being always a Tuesday 
(pdm et-teldt). On this occasion the 'Ilwdniyeh Dervishes (p. civ) sometimes 
go through their hideous performance of chewing and swallowing burning 
charcoal and broken glass, and their wild dances. On the chief days of 
this festival, and on their eves, great crowds congregate in and around 
the mosque , and especially by the tomb of Sultan es-Saleh in the 
bazaar of the Nahhasin (p. 51). On these occasions the Koran is read 
aloud to the people, the streets adjoining the mosque are' illuminated, 
the shops are kept open, and story-tellers, jugglers, and others of the 
same class attract numerous patrons. 

In the middle of Regeb, the seventh month, is the Mdlid of Seiyideh 
Z6nab ('Our Lady Zenab'), the granddaughter of the prophet. The fes- 
tival, which lasts fourteen days, the most important being a Tuesday, is 
celebrated at the mosque of the Seiyideh Zenab (p. 59), where she is said 
to be buried. 

On the 27th of this month is the LSlet el-Mfrdg, or night of the as- 
cension of the prophet, the celebration of which takes place outside the 
Bab el- c Adawi, in the N. suburb of Cairo. 

On the first, or sometimes on the second, Wednesday of Sha'bdn, the 
eighth month, the Mdlid of Im&m Sh&fe'i is commemorated, the centre of 
attraction being the burial-place of El-Karafeh (p. 80). This festival 
is numerously attended, as most of the 'Cairenes belong to the sect of 
Imam Shafe'i (p. xciii). The ceremonies are the same as those at the 
other molids. 

The month of Ramaddn (p. xoii), the ninth, is the month of fasting, 
which begins as soon as a Muslim declares that he has seen the new 


moon. The fast is strictly observed during the day, but the faithful in- 
demnify themselves by eating, drinking, and smoking throughout the 
greater part of the night. At dusk the streets begin to be thronged, the 
story-tellers at the cafe's attract large audiences, and many devotees as- 
semble at the mosques. The eve of the 27th of the month is considered 
peculiarly holy. It is called the Lllet el-Kadr, or 'night of honour', owing 
to the tradition that the Koran was sent down to Mohammed on this 
night. During this sacred night the angels descend to mortals with bless- 
ings, and the portals of heaven stand open, affording certain admission to 
the prayers of the devout. On this night the traveller should visit the 
Hasanein mosque, or, especially if accompanied by ladies, that of Moham- 
med r Ali (p. 54) in the citadel, in order to see the great zikrs of the 
whirling and howling dervishes, of whom some thirty or forty take part 
in the performances. The scene is of an exciting, but somewhat painful 
character, particularly if any of the performers become l melbds\ a con- 
dition resembling that of epileptic convulsion (p. xcvi). 

The month Ramadan is succeeded by that of ShawwAl, on the first 
three days of which is celebrated the first and minor festival of rejoicing, 
called by the Arabs El-' Id es-Sughayyir (the lesser feast), but better 
known by its Turkish name of Beimm. The object of the festival is to 
give expression to the general rejoicing at the termination of the fast; 
and, as at our Christmas, parents give presents to their children, and 
masters to their servants at this festive season. Friends embrace each 
other on meeting, and visits of ceremony are exchanged. During this fes- 
tival the Khedive also receives his principal officials, ambassadors, and 
other dignitaries. 

At this season the traveller may also pay a visit to the cemetery by 
the Bab en-Nasr, or to one of the others, where numerous Cairenes assemble 
to place palm branches or basilicum (rihdn) on the graves of their deceased 
relatives, and to distribute dates, bread, and other gifts among the poor. 

A few days after the Beiram, the pieces of the Kisweh, or covering 
manufactured at Constantinople, at the cost of the Sultan, for the Ka'ba 
(the most sacred sanctuary in the interior of the temple at Mecca), whither 
it is annually carried by the pilgrims, are conveyed in procession to 
the citadel, where they are sewn together and lined. The ceremonies 
which take place on this occasion are repeated on a grander scale towards 
the end of the month of Shaww&l (generally the 23rd), when there is a 
gay procession of the escort which accompanies the pilgrimage caravan 
to Mecca, and which takes charge of the Mahmal (p. ci). On this oc- 
casion every true believer in the prophet, if he possibly can, spends the 
whole day in the streets. The women don their smartest attire. Many 
of the harem windows are opened, and the veiled inmates gaze into the 
streets. The chief scene of the ceremonies is the Bumeleh (PI. F, 2), at 
the foot of the citadel, where a sumptuous tent of red velvet and gold is 
pitched for the reception of the dignitaries. The procession is headed 
with soldiers, who are followed by camels adorned with gaily coloured 
trappings, and bearing on their humps bunches of palm-branches with 
oranges attached. Each section of the cavalcade is preceded by an 
Arabian band of music, the largest section being that which accompanies 
the Takht Rawdn, or litter of the Emir el-Hagg, and the next in order 
that of the Delil el-Hagg, or leader of the pilgrims, with his attendants. 
Next follow various detachments of pilgrims and dervishes with banners, 
and lastly the Mahmal (see p. ci). A picturesque appearance is presented 
by the camp of the assembled pilgrims (Haggi) at the Birket el-Hagg 
(p. 129), whence the caravan finally starts for Mecca. 

On the 10th of Dhil-higgeh, the twelfth month, begins the great fes- 
tival of El-'Id el-Kebir, which resembles the lesser feast (el- r id es-sug- 
hayyir) already mentioned. On this day, if on no other throughout'the 
year, every faithful Muslim eats a piece of meat in memory of the sacri- 
fice of Abraham, and the poor are presented with meat for this purpose 
by the rich. 

The Muslims also celebrate the Christian Easter Week, although in a 
different manner, and of course for different reasons from the Christians. On 


Palm Sunday (had el-khus) the women bind palm twigs round their heads 
and fingers. On the following day (Monday) it is customary to eat fakus 
(cucumbers) with cummin. On the Tuesday the diet of the faithful con- 
sists of a kind of cheese-broth with onions, and the day is therefore call- 
ed ydm el-mish waH-basal ('cheese-soup-and-onion-day'}- Wednesday is 
called aria' Eytib, or 'Job's Wednesday'. On this day the ghubera herb 
is said to have addressed to Job the words — 'Wash thyself with my 
juice, and thou shalt recover'. He did so, and recovered, and to this 
day the whole of the Egyptian Muslims wash themselves with gharghara 
EyHb in memory of the miracle. Maundy Thursday is the Pea-Thursday 
of the Muslims (khamis el-bisilla). Good Friday is called gum'a el-mafru- 
ka, or 'day of the butter-cakes'. Saturday is the sebt en-ntir or 'sabbath 
of light' (so named from the sacred fire which on this day hursts forth 
from the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem). On this day it is customary for 
the Muslims to use a kind of eye-powder for the purpose of strengthening 
their eyes, to get themselves bled, and to eat coloured Easter eggs. On 
Easter Sunday ('id en-nusdra) the Mohammedans usually visit their 
Christian friends, and these visits are returned during the feast of Beiram. 
With the Rising of the Nile there are also connected several inter- 
esting festivals, closely resembling those of the ancient period of the 
Pharaohs, which even the Christian epoch was unable entirely to ob- 
literate. As, however, they take place in summer, few travellers will 
have an opportunity of witnessing them. As these festivals have refer- 
ence to a regularly recurring phenomenon of nature, their dates are ne- 
cessarily fixed in accordance with the Coptic solar reckoning of time, in- 
stead of the variable Arabian lunar year. — The night of the 11th of the 
Coptic month Ba'una (17th June) is called LSlet en-Nukla, i.e. the 'night 
of the drop', as it is believed that a drop from heaven (or a tear of Isis, 
according to the ancient Egyptian myth) falls into the Nile on this night 
and causes its rise. The astrologers profess to calculate precisely the 
hour of the fall of the sacred drop. The Cairenes spend this night on 
the banks of the Nile, either in the open air, or in the houses of friends 
near the river, and practise all kinds of superstitious customs. One of 
these consists in the placing of a piece of dough by each member of a 
family on the roof of the house ; if the dough rises, happiness is in store 
for the person who placed it there, while its failure to rise is regarded 
as a bad omen. On 21st June the river begins slowly to rise (comp. 
p. lvii). On the 27th of the Coptic month Ba'una (3rd July) the Munddi 
en-Mi, or Nile-crier, is frequently heard in the morning, announcing to 
the citizens the number of inches that the river has risen. The munadi 
is accompanied by a hoy, with whom he enters on a long religious dia- 
logue by way of preface to his statements, which, however, are generally 
inaccurate. The next important event is the Cutting of the Dam (y6m 
gebr el-bahr, or ydm we/a el-bahr), which takes place between the 1st and 
the 14th of the Coptic month of Misra (i.e. between 6th and 19th August), 
when the principal ceremonies are performed on and near the island of 
Roda (p. 82). The Nile-crier, attended by boys carrying flags, announces 
the We/a en-Nil (the plenitude, or superfluity of the Nile), or period when 
the water has reached its normal height of sixteen ells (p. lvii). The cut- 
ting through of the dam takes place amid general rejoicings and noisy 
festivities. It appears from inscriptions on columns found on the Nile 
near the Gebel Selseleh, that similar festivals connected with the rise of 
the river were celebrated as early as the 14th cent, before Christ. 


IV. Outline of the History of Egypt. 

Chronological Tablb. 

Introduction. There is no people in the world whose history 
is traceable to so remote a period as that of the Egyptians. Other 
nations may possibly have understood the art of writing as early as 
they, but no specimens of it have been preserved; whereas the 
Egyptian records, hewn in stone, burned in clay, or written on leather 
or on scrolls of papyrus , have survived the ravages of thousands of 
years. The preservation of these memorials , however, is mainly 
due to the dryness of the air in the rainless valley of the Nile, and 
to the property possessed by the hot sand of the desert of hermetic- 
ally sealing everything committed to its keeping. 

The remote dates with which Egyptian chronology deals seem 
mythical when judged by the standards of Jewish and Christian 
ehronographers, and particularly when compared with the supposed 
date of the creation of the world; but they are derived from the lists 
given by Manetho, which have been confirmed by the monuments 

The priest Manetho (Egypt. Mai en Thot, i.e. 'beloved of Thoth') of Se- 
bennytus (the modern Semennud, p. 221), being acquainted with the Greek 
language, was employed by King Ptolemy II. Philadelphus (B.C. 284-246) 
to translate the ancient historical works preserved in the temples. This 
'Egyptian History' of Manetho enjoyed a high reputation at a later period, 
but was subsequently lost, with the exception of his lists of kings and their 
dates, which have been transmitted to us partly by Flavius Josephus, the 
Jewish historian (1st cent. A.D.), and partly by Christian historians. 

The Monuments and Inscriptions in some cases confirm , and in 
others supplement, the records transcribed by Manetho for the 
Ptolemies, our information being derived from the series of kings' 
names inscribed on various monuments, from papyrus scrolls, and 
lastly from historical and genealogical notices on the walls of tem- 
ples and tombs, on statues, implements, and trinkets. A method- 
ical mode of utilising these fragmentary historical records was first 
taught by the learned Prof. Lepsius (d. 1884). 

The lists of the Pharaohs are arranged in the families or dynasties 
of the Thinites, Memphites, and others. If it be assumed that these dif- 
ferent houses reigned in succession , and their reigns be simply added 
together, the sum which results is very large. But, if it be assumed that 
many of the dynasties mentioned by Manetho reigned contemporaneously 
in different parts of the country, the reigns of members of the leading 
dynasties alone have to be added together, and a comparatively moderate 
sum is the result. Adopting the former method of computation M. Mariette 
has fixed the date of Menes, the first King of Egypt, as B.C. 5004, while 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson, proceeding on the latter assumption, assigns the 
date B.C. 2300 to the same monarch. Lepsius believes the true date to be 
B.C. 3892, as Manetho states that an interval of 3555 years (or3553, taking 
into account the difference between the Egyptian and the Julian year) 
elapsed between the reign of Menes, the first King of Egypt, and that ofNec- 
tanebus II. (B.C. 340), the last of the native sovereigns. Brugsch fixes the 
date as B.C. 4400. Our information becomes more definite after the begin- 
ning of the New Empire, while from the 26th Dynasty (B.C. 685) down- 
wards the dates of the different kings are well ascertained. 



In accordance with the arrangement of the history of Egypt 
given by Lepsius, and now generally accepted, the mythical period 
was succeeded by that of the Primaeval Monarchy, the Hyksos Do- 
mination, and the New Empire, which were followed by the suprem- 
acy of the Persians, the Ptolemies, and the Romans in succession. 
Another system recognizes between the Old and the New Empire 
a Middle Monarchy, which includes the period of the Hyksos. These 
divisions, in conformity with the lists of Manetho, are again sub- 
divided into Dynasties, or different families of kings, named after the 
districts or nomes (p. xxxiii) of which their founders were natives. 

Chronological Table. 

Primaeval Monarchy. 

I. DYNASTY (Thinites, i.e. from Teni, the Greek' This, 
near Abydos in Upper Egypt). 

Menes (Egyptian Mena~) , the first earthly king of Egypt, 
who is said to have founded Memphis (see p. 160). 

Athothis (Eg. Teta). 

Usapha'is (Eg. Hesepti), who is said to have written ana- 
tomical works. 

II. DYNASTY (Thinites). 

III. DYNASTY (Memphites, from Memphis, which soon 
obtained precedence over the more southern royal city 
of This). 

Tosorthros (Eg. Teta) , who studied medicine. In his 
reign the calendar is said to have been regulated, and the 
year of 365 days introduced (consisting of twelve months of 
thirty days, with five supplementary days). 

IV. DYNASTY (Memphites; p. 134). 
Snefru (pp. 134, 236, 248), the founder of the 4th 

Dynasty, and the first king of whose reign we possess con- 
temporaneous monuments. Long after his death he con- 
tinued to be highly extolled, and was even revered as a god. 
Khufu (the Cheops of the Greeks) \ Builders of the 
Khafra (the Chephren of the Greeks ; I three great Pyra- 
pp. clxv, 98, 134) [ mids of Gizeh 

Menkaura (the Mykerinos of the Greeks) I (pp. 133 et se?.). 
Khufu and Khafra have been handed down to the detestation 
of posterity as profligate despisers of the gods , chiefly owing to 
the account of them given by Herodotus (ii. 124; see pp. 135 et seq.), 
who, however, was ill informed with regard to the earliest period 
of Egyptian history. The monuments themselves bear testimony 
to the fact that the family and court of the builders of the Great 
Pyramids were pious worshippers of the gods , that they were 
prosperous and wealthy, and that they were industrious and per- 
severing in their undertakings. At that period the fine arts, and 

M. 5004 1. 

L. 3892. 

B. 4400. 

W. 2700. 

L. 3639. 

M. 4449. 

L. 3338. 

B. 3773. 

M. 4235. 

L. 3124. 


t M. is the initial letter ofMariette, L. of Lepsius, B. of Brugscb, andW. 
of Wilkinson ; comp. p. civ. — The most important names only in each dy- 
nasty are given ; the complete lists are to be found in Baedeker's Upper Egypt. 









W. 2240. 





















particularly that of sculpture , attained a perfection which the 
Egyptians never again reached. The inscriptions on the monu- 
ments also exhibit a high degree of technical skill. 

V. DYNASTY (Memphites ; pp. 158, 173, 248). 

VI. DYNASTY (Elephantines, from Elephantine, near Syene, 
the modern Assuan, situated in Upper Egypt ; p. 248). 


Pepi I. (p. 187). 
Pepi II. (p. 187). 
Nitokris (Eg. Neitaker). 

VII. DYNASTY (Memphites). 

VIII. DYNASTY (Memphites). 

IX. DYNASTY (Heracleopolites, from Heracleopolis Parvat, 
the Karba of Egyptian and Karbanis of Assyrian inscrip- 
tions, situated in theN.E. paTt of the Delta. 

X. DYNASTY (HeracleopolitesJ. 

XI. DYNASTY [Diospolites , from Diospolis, i. e. Thebes, 
now Luxor - Kamak - Medinet Abu in Upper Egypt). 
On the coast of the Delta, which at this remote period was 

most probably a very swampy district, densely overgrown with 
marsh vegetation, and which was first brought under cultivation 
in the neighbourhood of This , and afterwards around Memphis, 
the towns of Tanis and Heracleopolis Parva had been founded at a 
very early epoch by seafaring peoples of Semitic origin. They 
thence penetrated into the interior of the country, where they 
came into collision with the Egyptians coming from the south, 
whose culture they adopted. At the same time, however, they 
retained their independence under kings of their own, who during 
the period of the 6th, 7th, and 8th Dynasties formed the 9th and 
10th contemporaneous Dynasties of Heracleopolites, from the year 
2691 onwards, and who ruled over the Delta and perhaps the 
whole of Lower Egypt. The 11th Dynasty, which put an end to 
the sway of the Heracleopolites, is called Diospolite, or Theban, 
but in the estimation of the Egyptians was not a strictly legitim- 
ate line. 

Middle Monarchy. 

XII. DYNASTY (Diospolites; pp. clxvi, clxx, 128). 
Amenemha I. (Gr. Ammenemes ; p. 128). 
Vsertesen I. (Gr. Sesonchosis ; p. 128). 
Amenemha II. (Gr. Ammanemes). 

Vsertesen II. (Gr. Sesostris; p. 248). 
Vsertesen III. (Gr. Lachares~). 
Amenemha III. (Gr. Ameres ; p. 278). 
Amenemha I V. (Gr. Amenemes~). 
Sebek-nefru (Gr. Skemiophris). 

t Heracleopolis, or City of Hercules. The Phoenician god Melkart 
was called by the Greeks Heracles, as he is said to have performed sim- 
ilar prodigies of strength. Brugsch identifies the Heracleopolitan with the 
Sethroitic nome (the capital of which was Pithom or Pi-Tum) ; see p. 194. 



L. 2136. 

Under this Dynasty the sceptres of Upper and Lower 
Egypt were united. All the kings were powerful and pros- 
perous, and art again flourished. The Sun Temple at Helio- 
polis (see p. 128) was magnificently restored , and in the 
Fayum the practice of building pyramids was revived. Dur- 
ing this period, too, fortifications were erected on the N.E. 
frontier of the kingdom which appear to have extended across 
the whole of the present Isthmus of Suez (p. 204). 

The Hyksos Period (pp. 102, 103, 229, 236). 
In the 12th Dynasty we already hear of Semitic families 
applying for admission to Upper Egypt t, and in the 13th 
Dynasty these immigrations became more frequent. The 
newcomers met with kinsmen in the seaports of the Delta, 
allied with whom and with Arabian tribes they at length 
became so powerful as to defeat the armies of the Pharaohs 
and obtain possession of the whole of Lower Egypt. They 
made Tanis their capital , and under the name of Hyksos 
ruled over N.Egypt for five centuries, while the exiled royal 
family was compelled to retire to Upper Egypt. (The name 
of 'Hyksos', according to Josephns, Manetho, and others, 
is derived from hyk, a king, and sos, a shepherd, and thus 
signifies 'Shepherd Kings' ; some modern authorities, how- 
ever, derive it from hak shasu, signifying 'Robber Kings'.) 
The Hyksos soon conformed to the ancient culture of the 
valley of the Nile. They applied the name of the Egyptian 
god Set to their own gods (Be'alim) ; and the sphinxes 
preserved at Tanis with the portrait-heads of their kings 
(p. 103) prove that they took Egyptian artists into their serv- 
ice, and perhaps themselves acquired a knowledge of the 
Egyptian plastic art (pp. clxviii, 102, 103). At the same 
time they adopted all the titles of the Pharaohs and the 
whole of the court ceremonies of the legitimate monarchs 
of Egypt, tt 

XIII. DYNASTY (Diospolites). 

XIV. DYNASTY (Khoites, fromKhois, the modern Sakha, 
situated to the N.E. of Sais). 

t In the tomb of the governor Khnum-hotep, at Beni Hasan, Absha, a 
Semitic chief, with his family and attendants, is represented approaching 
with gifts. The occasion was perhaps similar to that on which Abraham 
and Sarah were induced to visit Egypt (Gen. xii. 10). The record of 
their sojourn there forms the earliest notice of Egypt to be found in the 

tt From this it appears that, when Joseph came to Egypt at the end 
of the Hyksos period, he found on the throne a monarch of a race kind- 
red to his own, though conforming in all respects to the ancient cus- 
toms of the Pharaohs. A famine mentioned in a tomb at El-Kab is some- 
times rather daringly identified with the one which brought Jacob and his 
family to Egypt (comp. Baedeker's Upper Egypt). 



L. 1684. 
B. 2115. 

M. 1703. 
L. 1591. 
B. 1700. 
W. 1520. 

31. 1462. 
L. 1443. 
B. 1400. 
W. 1340. 

XV. DYNASTY (Hyksos). 

XVI. DYNASTY (Hyksos). 

XVII. DYNASTY (Diospolites). 

We learn from a papyrus in the British Museum that the 
Hyksos monarch Apepi demanded the cession of an import- 
ant well from Rasekenen , the king of Upper Egypt (17th 
dyn.). This incident gave rise to the outbreak of a war of 
independence which lasted for eighty years. 

XVIII. DYNASTY (Diospolites ; p. cix). 

Aahmes I. (Amosis, or Amasis; pp. 107, 123) captured 
Abaris (Ha-war) after a long siege by land and by water. The 
Hyksos (numbering, according to Manetho, 24,000 men 
capable of bearing arms) were obliged to retreat and to 
seek a new territory, and most of them accordingly settled 
in S. Palestine. The successors of Aahmes penetrated far 
into Asia, subjugated one nation after another, exacted 
heavy tribute from the vanquished, and embellished Thebes, 
their capital, with magnificent edifices. 

Amenhotep I. (Gr. Amenophthis; pp. 123, 125). 

Tutmes (Thothmes) I. (Gr. Amensis; p. 125). 

Tutmes II. (Gr. Misaphris ; p. 124) and Ramaka, his sister 
and wife (pp. 123, 124, 125). 

Tutmes III. (Gr. Misphragmuthosis ; pp. 106, 124, 153,278 
et seq.~) extended his conquests as far as the vicinity of the Tigris. 

Tutmes IV. (Gr. Tuthmosis). 

Amenhotep III. (Gr. Amenophis ; pp. 107, 167, 190) not only 
continued to exact tribute from the Oriental nations as far 
as Mesopotamia, but succeeded in extending his dominions 
towards the south. He was also remarkable for his extra- 
ordinary building enterprise. 

Amenhotep IV. (Gr. Horos) returned to the earlier and 
ruder religion of worshipping the sun. For Ms name Amen- 
hotep ('peace of Ammon') he therefore substituted Khu- 
en-aten ('reflection of the sun's disk'). 

Ramses I. (Rhamesses ; pp. 205, 212). 

XIX. DYNASTY (Diospolites, pp. clxviii, 205, 228). 

Seti I. (pp. 124, 205, 228) undertook several campaigns 
against the Aramaic tribes, who had formed a league 
under the hegemony of the powerful Kheta (or Khittim, 
the Hittites of the Bible), and penetrated as far as the 
Orontes. He erected the Memnonium at Abydos, and caused 
a sepulchre to be hewn for himself in the rock at Thebes. 
He caused Ramses , his son and successor, to be educated 
along with other young Egyptian nobles, and it is possible that 
Moses formed one of the number (Exod. ii. 10). Seti devot- 
ed special attention to the Delta and to Tanis, the ancient 
capital of the Hyksos, where he erected extensive buildings 



M. 1288. 
L. 1209. 
B. 1200. 
W. 1200. 

M. 1110. 
L. 1091. 
B. 1100. 

with the aid of the Semites , among whom the Israelites 
must also be included. During this reign a great canal was 
completed in Goshen (see p. 193), leading from the Nile to 
the E. frontier of the kingdom, and probably thence through 
the Bitter Lakes to the Red Sea, but chiefly destined for 
the irrigation of the land of Goshen. 

Ramses II. the Sesostris of the Greeks (pp. 105, 107, 125, 161 
et seq., 193, 205, 228, 229, 238), with a view to vindicate his 
supremacy over the nations subjugated by his ancestors, under- 
took campaigns towards the S. to Donkola, towards the N. to 
Asia Minor, and towards the E. to the Tigris, to commemorate 
which he erected monuments of victory in various parts of the 
conquered countries. He exhibited great zeal as a builder, 
and was a patron of art and science. He erected the Rames- 
seum at Thebes, and presented it with a library. Pentaur, 
Amenemapt, and other poets flourished during this reign. 
Ramses II. was the 'Pharaoh of the Oppression' (Exod. i. 11). 

Merenptah (Gr. Amenephthes), the 'Pharaoh of the Exodus' 
(pp. 229, 238). During Ms reign (in the year 1325, ac- 
cording to Brandes) the termination of a Sothis period t 
was celebrated. A conflict which broke out between this 
monarch and the Israelites settled in Goshen resulted in his 
discomfiture (Exod. xiv.). 

The New Umpire. 

XX. DYNASTY (Diospolites ; p. 236). 

Ramses III. (the Bhampsinitos of Herodotus , ii. 121 ; see 
also pp. 123, 128), though successful in his campaign against 
the Libyans and in other warlike enterprises , could not vie 
with his ancestors in military glory, but endeavoured to 
surpass them in the magnificence of his buildings. His 
monument at Bib an el-Muluk, near Thebes, is one of the 
finest now in existence. Most of the rock-tombs in this city of 
royal mausolea were founded by his successors of the same Dy- 
nasty, all of whom also bore the name of Ramses (IV-XIIL). 

XXI. DYNASTY (Tanites, from Tanis, in the N.E. part of 
the Delta ; pp. 161, 228). 

t The course of Sothis, or the dog-star, afforded the Egyptians a means 
of ascertaining the true astronomical year. They began their first year 
with the early rising of this star, at the beginning of the inundation 
(on 1st Thoth). The Egyptian solar year , being six hours too short, 
differed from the Sothis year by a quarter of a day. This discrep- 
ancy soon became very perceptible. After 40 years the end of the solar 
year fell by 10 days, and after 400 years by 100 days, short of the end of the 
true Sothis year, and festivals recurred at seasons to which they did not 
properly belong. At length, after 365X4 years, the error corrected itself, 
and the beginning of the new year again coincided with the rise of Sothis. 
Thus in a period of 1460 fixed, or 1461 variable, years the error in the 
Egyptian calendar was rectified. 



M. 980. 
L. 961. 
B. 966. 
W. 990. 

M. 810. 
L. 787. 
W. 818. 

M. 721. 
L. 729. 
B. 733. 

M. 715. 
L. 716. 
B. 700. 
W. 714. 

The throne of the Ramessides -was now usurped by ambitious 
hierarchy of Tanis , headed by Herhor , the chief priest of 
Ammon ; and Thebes was thus deprived, of her ancient pre- 
eminence. This dynasty of priest-kings reigned ingloriously. 
Being unable to exact obedience from their Asiatic vassals 
by force , they endeavoured to maintain their suzerainty by 
a conciliatory policy. (See also the relations of Solomon 
with Egypt : 1 Kings iii. 1 ; ix. 16 ; x. 28.) 

XXII. DYNASTY (Bubastites, from the Bubastis of the 
Greeks, the Pibeseth of the Bible, the Pibast of the 
Egyptian monuments, the modern Tell Basta in the Delta ; 
pp. clxix, 192). 

Sheshenk I. (the Sesonehis of the Greeks , the Shishak of 
the Bible; p. 229) assisted Jeroboam against Rehoboam, and 
besieged and captured Jerusalem. 

Osorkon (Gr. Osorthon , the Zerah of the Bible, 2 Chron. 
xiv. 9 ; xvi. 8) invaded Palestine , but was signally 
defeated, by Asa. 

XXIII. DYNASTY (Tanites; p. 228). 

Tefnekht, Prince of Sa'is and Memphis, attempted to possess 
himself of the sovereignty of Lower Egypt, but was defeated 
by Piankhi, King of Ethiopia, who captured Memphis, but 
afterwards returned to his own country (see p. 104). 

XXIV. DYNASTY (/Suites, from Sa'is, the modern Sa el- 
Hager; p. 222). 

Bek-en-ranf (Gr. Bocchoris] vainly endeavoured by a new 
legislation to arrest the decline of the empire. In 716 Egypt 
fell into the hands of the Ethiopians. — Interregnum. 

XXV. DYNASTY (Ethiopians). Shabako (Gr. Sabacon; the 
So of the Bible, 2nd Kings xvn, 4) conquered Upper 
Egypt, and resided at Thebes, but made no alteration in 
the religion or the constitution of the country. His sister 
Ameneritis (p. 105) became the wife of King Ba-men- 
kheper Piankhi, and their daughter Shep-en-apet married 
Psammetikh I. (see p. cxi). 

Shabataka (Gr. Sebichos) led an anny to the assistance of 
the Jewish king Hezekiah, but was defeated at Altaku by 
Sennacherib, King of Assyria. 

Taharka (Gr. Teareo ; the Tirhakah of the Bible, the Tarku-u 
of the Assyrian monuments; pp. 104, 117) formed an alli- 
ance with the kings of Phoenicia and Cyprus against Assy- 
ria, but was defeated in Egypt by Esarhaddon, the son and 
successor of Sennacherib, and driven back to Ethiopia. 
The Assyrians then plundered Thebes and divided the coun- 
try among twenty princes, among whom Nekho (the Nechoh 
| of the Bible) , prince of Sa'is , became the most prominent. 





After Esarhaddon's death Taharka endeavoured to shake off 
the Assyrian yoke, but was defeated and driven out of Egypt 
by Assurbanipal (Sardanapalus), Esarhaddon's son and suc- 
cessor. The vassal princes assisted Taharka, but were par- 
doned by Assurbanipal and reinstated in their provinces on 
a solemn vow of future obedience. 

Nut- Amen (Assyr. Urdamani) captured Memphis and won 
back the whole of Lower Egypt, but was in his turn defeated 
by Sardanapalus, who again invaded Egypt. 

After the departure of the Assyrians and the decline of 
their power under the successors of Sardanapalus, the petty 
Egyptian princes attained complete independence and es- 
tablished the so-called 'Dodekarchy'. An end, however, was 
put to this by Psammetikh, son of Nekho, and prince of Sais 
and Memphis , with the aid of Ionian and Carian mercen- 
aries. As the nephew (by marriage) of Shabako (p. ox) 
Psammetikh was the legitimate heir of the Ethiopian dy- 
nasty, and he accordingly ascended the throne of Egypt and 
founded the — 

XXVI. DYNASTY (Suites ; pp. clxix, 223). 

Psammetikh I. (Egypt. Psemtek, Gr. Psammetichos;-p. 167), 
in order to consolidate his empire, assigned dwellings to the 
Greek mercenaries in the fertile region of Bubastis, and fa- 
voured foreigners in many ways. The warrior caste of Egypt, 
highly offended at this proceeding, emigrated to Ethiopia, 
and there founded the kingdom of the Sembrides. Profiting 
by the decline of the power of Assyria, Psammetikh made 
war against the wealthy Phoenician seaports, but was stoutly 
opposed by the Philistines. 

Nekho (Grk. Nechos, Egypt. Nekau; p. 205), the son of 
Psammetikh, was more concerned for the domestic welfare 
of the country than for military glory. During his reign the 
S. extremity of Africa was circumnavigated for the first time 
(Herod, iv. 42). Nekho began to construct a canal from the 
Nile to the Red Sea , but discontinued the work on being 
informed by an oracle that it would only benefit 'strangers.' 
Hearing of the campaign of the Medes and Babylonians 
against the Assyrians, he also marched against Assyria, and 
defeated Josiah, King of Judah, the ally of the Assyrians, who 
opposed him at Megiddo. Meanwhile, however, Nineveh had 
fallen , and the Assyrian empire been divided by Cyaxares, 
King of Media , and Nabopolassar , King of Babylon ; and 
Nekho's farther progress was arrested by Nebuchadnezzar, 
King of Babylon and son of Nabopolassar, who defeated him 
at Karkemish (Circesium). Nekho thus lost his possessions 
| in Syria and Palestine. 






Psammetikh II. {Psammis, or Psammuthis ; p. 107). 

TJahbra (Gr. Apries or TJaphris ; the Hophrah of the 
Bible), observing that the Babylonians -were encroach- 
ing on Palestine , fitted out an army and fleet , cap- 
tured Sidon , defeated the Cyprians and the Tyrians in a 
naval battle, and marched to the relief of Zedekiah, King of 
Judah, who was besieged in Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. 
That city having been again besieged by Nebuchadnezzar 
and captured, TJaphris accorded an asylum to its exiled 
inhabitants. He afterwards sustained a defeat from Bat- 
tos II., King of Cyrene, in consequence of which his army 
rebelled against him. Aahmes, who had been dispatched by 
him to treat with the insurgents, was then proclaimed king, 
and he himself was dethroned. 

Aahmes II. (Gr. Amasis;j>. 168) succeeded in securing 
his supremacy by alliances with Cyrene , with the tyrant 
Polycrates of Samos, and with the Greeks. He assigned land 
to foreign colonists , granting them religious toleration , and 
diverted the stream of commerce from the semi-Phoenician 
cities of the Delta (Tanis, Mendes, and Bubastis) towards 
the Greek city of Naucratis (see p. 8). During his reign the 
country enjoyed peace and prosperity, but the balance of 
power among the great nations of that era underwent a con- 
siderable change. Cyrus had meanwhile founded the vastPer- 
sian empire, and consolidated it by means of the conquest of 
the Babylonian and Lydian kingdoms. His son Cambyses next 
marched against Egypt, the only great power which still 
rivalled Persia. Having advanced to Pelusium with a large 
army, he there defeated Psammetikh III., son of Amasis, 
who was now dead (p. 161) , captured Memphis , and 
took the king prisoner. Psammetikh was afterwards executed 
for attempting to organise an insurrection to shake off the 
foreign yoke. 

The Persian Domination. 

XXVII. DYNASTY (Persians). 
Cambyses (Pers. Kambuziyall., Egypt. Kembut; pp. 161, 
169, 222) at first behaved with great moderation. He 
tolerated the Egyptian religion , and to his own name he 
added the Egyptian agnomen of Bamesut , or 'child of the 
sun'. After , however , he had failed in several rash enter- 
prises, such as his campaigns against the inhabitants of the 
oasis of Ammon and against the Ethiopians, his temper 
became soured, and his conduct violent and cruel. He died 
at Akbatana in Syria, while marching to Persia against 
Oaumata, a usurper who personated Bardiya (Gr. SmerdisX 











the deceased brother of Cambyses, who had been assassinated 
long before this period by order of the king himself. 

Darius I. (Pers. Daryavus), son ofHystaspes (Vistaspa), 
became king of the Persian empire on the dethronement of 
the usurper Gaumata (the personator of Smerdis). His 
policy consisted in modifying his rule over each part of his 
territory in accordance with its own special requirements. 
He endeavoured to promote the prosperity of Egypt in every 
possible way. He established new commercial routes from 
Koptos in Upper Egypt to the Red Sea , and from Siut and 
Abydos to the Sudan ; he resumed the construction of the 
canal from the Nile to the Red Sea (pp. cix, cxi); he improved 
the roads of Egypt ; he sent a strong garrison to the oasis 
of Khargeh (p. lxiii), and erected a temple to Ammon there ; 
he coined money for the use of the Egyptians , whose cur- 
rency had hitherto consisted of stamped, rings and weights ; 
and he appointed Amasis , a scion of the 26th Dynasty , his 
satrap in Egypt. Hearing that the Persians had been de- 
feated by the Greeks (in 492 and 490), the Egyptians 
revolted against the Persian yoke under the leadership of 
Khabbash, a descendant of the family of Psammetikh. The 
insurrection, however, was soon quelled by — 

Xerxes I. (Pers. Khshayarsha) , son of Darius ; Khabbash 
disappeared , and Achaimenes , the king's brother , was ap- 
poined satrap. 

Artaxerxes I. (Pers. Arlakhshathra~), surnamed Makrocheir, 
or Longimanus, next ascended the Persian throne. During 
his reign the Egyptians again revolted. Prince Inaros of 
Marea, aided by the Athenians, defeated Achaimenes, the 
Persian satrap , but the allied Egyptians and Greeks were 
in their turn defeated by the Persian general Megabyzos 
near Prosopitis , an island in the Nile , and Inaros was 
crucified. Amyrtaeos, a scion of a princely Egyptian family, 
and a partizan of Inarus , then sought an asylum in the 
marshy coast district , where he succeeded in maintaining 
his independence. 

Herodotus travels in Egypt. 

Darius II. (Pers. Daryavus) , surnamed Nothos , or the 
Bastard. The Egyptians now revolted for the third time. 
Pausiris, son of the Amyrtaeos above mentioned, had 
meanwhile been succeeded by a second Amyrtaeos, who still 
maintained the independent position of his predecessors in 
the Delta. This Amyrtaeos headed the new insurrection, 
which became general in 404 ; and he was soon recognised as 
king of the whole of Egypt. He founded the 28th Dynasty, 
which, however, lasted for six years only. Naifdurut (Ne- 

Baedekee's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. 










pherites) of Mendes at length succeeded in completely 
throwing off the Persian yoke , and became the founder of 
the 29th Dynasty. His chief endeavour was to secure the 
friendship of the Greeks, with a view to strengthen himself 
against the Persians. 

Artaxerxes II., surnamed Mnemon. 

The Persian king endeavoured to recover Egypt, but 
Akhoris, the successor of Naifaurut, threw obstacles in his 
way by supporting Ms enemies, particularly Euagoras , the 
tyrant of Salamis in Cyprus, and by improving the defences 
of his country. 

Psamut (Psammuthis) and — 

Naifaurut (Nepherites) II., the successors of Akhoris, 
reigned for short periods only. 

Nekht-hor-heb (Nectanebus I.), however, the next native 
monarch, a Sebennytic prince, the founder of the 30th 
Dynasty, completed the warlike preparations of the Egypti- 
ans , and entrusted the chief command of his troops to 
Chabrias , an Athenian general , who signally defeated 
Pharnabazus, the Persian general, at Mendes. 

Artaxerxes III., Ochos. 

Tachos or Teos, who succeeded Nekht-hor-heb, invaded 
Persian Phoenicia , supported by a body of Greek allies. 
During his absence, his nephew Nekht-nebf (Nectanebus II.) 
usurped the Egyptian crown , but was defeated by Arta- 
xerxes III. and driven into Ethiopia. Egypt now surrendered 
to Artaxerxes, and again became a Persian satrapy (345). 

Darius III., Codomannus. 

Alexander the Great, after having defeated Darius on the 
Granicus (334), and at Issus (333), and captured the Phil- 
istine town of Gaza, marched to Pelusium, and was received 
with open arms by the Egyptians, who regarded him as their 
deliverer from the Persian yoke. He tolerated the native 
religion, visited the Oasis of Ammon, and founded Alexan- 
dria (p. 8), which, under the Ptolemies, became the great 
centre of Greek culture and of the commerce of the whole 

In the lists of the Pharaohs we find the 28th, 29th, and 30th 
Dynasties mentioned as contemporaneous with the 27th or Persian 

XXVIII. Dynasty (Saites): Amyrtaeos (Amen-rut). 

XXIX. Dynasty (Mendesites, from Mendes, in the Delta; see 
p. 218): — 

399-393 Nepherites I. 
393-383 Akhoris. 
383-382 Psammuthis. 
382-378 Nepherites II. 

XXX. Dynasty (Sebennytes, from Seoennytus, the modern Semen- 
nud, in the Delta; p. 221): — 











378-364. Nehhl-hor-Keb (Neclanebus I.). 

364-361. Tacho (Teos). 

361-345 (?). Nekht-nebf (Neclanebus II.). 

Period of the Ptolemies. 
Ptolemy I. Soter (p. 9), son of LaguB, and one of Alex- 
ander's generals, now became Macedonian governor of Egypt. 
He defeated Antigonus and Perdiccas, who threatened the 
independence of his province, and in 305 , after the assass- 
ination of Alexander II. .<Egus , the son of Alexander the 
Great, he assumed the title of King of Egypt. Two years 
before his death, which took place in 284, Ptolemy I. ab- 
dicated in favour of his son — 

Ptolemy II. Philadelphia (pp. 9, 17]. In consequence of 
the foundation of the Alexandrian Museum (pp. 9, 11) for 
the reception of learned men, as well as of literary treasures, 
Alexandria soon superseded Athens as the chief nursery of 
Greek literature. 

Ptolemy III. Euergetes I. (pp. 9, 109) , in the course of 
two campaigns, conquered the empire of the Seleucides and 
Cilicia in Asia Minor. The power of Egypt abroad was now 
at its zenith. 
Ptolemy IV. Philopator. Under this king and his suc- 
cessors, a series of degenerate monarchs, the great empire of 
the Ptolemies hastened to its destruction. He defeated 
Antiochus the Great of Syria, who had marched towards the 
Egyptian frontier, at the Battle of Raphia, but concluded a 
dishonourable peace with him. 
PtolemyV.Epiphanes(pp.225 et seq.) ascended the throne, 
when five years of age, under the guardianship of Agathocles 
and ffinathe , the mother of the latter. In consequence of 
revolts at Alexandria and Lycopolis, and an attack by 
Antiochus the Great of Syria, his guardians were obliged 
to resign their office in favour of the Roman Senate , by 
whom Coelesyria and Palestine were ceded to Antiochus, 
while Egypt continued to be independent. Ptolemy V. , hav- 
ing been prematurely declared of full age in 196 , married 
Cleopatra I., daughter of Antiochus the Great. This alliance 
not only secured peace abroad , but caused a portion of the 
revenues of Coelesyria , Phoenicia , and Judsea again to flow 
into the treasury of Alexandria. The internal affairs of the 
country, however, fell into a state of deplorable confusion; 
one rebellion succeeded another, and anarchy prevailed 
Ptolemy V. was poisoned. 

Ptolemy VI. Eupator, his son, died the same year 
I Ptolemy VII. Philometor, the second son o( Ptolemy V. 


















(p. 215), ■when six years of age, ascended the thione under 
the protectorate of his mother Cleopatra I. 

Battle of Pelusium. Philometor is taken prisoner, and Mem- 
phis captured, by Antiochus IV. of Syria. 

Ptolemy VIII. -was now placed on the throne, but was im- 
mediately assassinated by Ptolemy IX. Euergetes II. (nick- 
named Physcon, or 'big belly'). 

Ptolemy VII. Philometor and Ptolemy IX. Physcon, having 
become reconciled, reign jointly. 

The brothers quarrel ; Philometor flies to Rome , is rein- 
stated by the Roman Senate , and thenceforth reigns alone ; 
while Euergetes , by command of the Roman Senate, reigns 
at Cyrene. 

Philometor and Demetrius Nikator defeat Alexander Balas 
on the Orontes. Philometor dies. 

Ptolemy Physcon besieges Alexandria, and becomes the 
guardian of the heir-apparent, a minor. 

He is overthrown by a revolution, and retires to Cyprus. 

He regains possession of the throne. 

Physcon dies. Cleopatra III. Cocce , his niece and widow, 
and her son Ptolemy X. Soter II. Philometor II. (Lathyrus) 
reign jointly. 

Lathyrus is banished, and his brother Ptolemy XI. Alexan- 
der I. becomes co-regent in his stead. 

Alexander is exiled by insurgents. 

Alexander is slain in a naval battle, and Lathyrus is recalled. 

Thebes rebels and is destroyed. 

Lathyrus dies. Ptolemy XII. Alexander II. marries Cleo- 
patra Berenice III., with whom he reigns jointly. 

He assassinates his wife, and is himself slain. 

Ptolemy XIII. Neos Dionysos (or Auletes , the 'flute- 
player'), an illegitimate son of Lathyrus, ascends the throne, 
and is formally recognised by Rome (59). 

Diodorus visits Egypt. 

Auletes flies from Alexandria to Rome, but is reinstated 
by Gabinius. 

Auletes dies, leaving a will by which he appoints his eldest 
children — 

Cleopatra VII. (pp. 9, 206) and Ptolemy XIV. Diony- 
sos II. his joint heirs, commands them to marry each other, 
and nominates the Roman Senate their guardian. Pompey 
is appointed to that office. 

Ptolemy XIV. banishes Cleopatra. Pompey , having been 
defeated by Caesar at the Battle of Pharsalia, seeks an asylum 
in the territory of his wards , but on landing in Egypt is 
slain at the instigation of Ptolemy. 








B.C. 30- 
A.D. 362. 



A..D. 14-37. 






Caesar lands at Alexandria , takes the pait of the banished 
Cleopatra, and defeats the rebellious Ptolemy. 

Ptolemy XIV. is drowned in the Nile. 

Caesar, haying meanwhile become dictator of Rome , ap- 
points Ptolemy XV. , the brother of Cleopatra VII. , a boy 
of eleven, co-regent. 

Ptolemy XV. is assassinated at the instigation of Cleopatra, 
and Ptolemy XVI. Csesarion, her son by Caesar, is appointed 

Caesar is murdered. 

Antony , having summoned Cleopatra to Tarsus to answer 
for the conduct of her general Allienus, who contrary to her 
wishes had aided the army of Brutus andCassius at Philippi, 
is captivated by her beauty and talent. After having spent 
years of debauchery with the Egyptian queen, he is at 
length declared by the Roman Senate to be an enemy of his 
country. Octavianus marches against him , defeats him at 
Actium, and captures Alexandria. 

Antony commits suicide, and Cleopatra is said to have 
also caused her own death by the bite of an asp. 

Egypt now became a Roman province , and was governed 
by prefects down to A.D. 362. 

Soman Period. 

Caesar Octavianus , under the title of Augustas , becomes 
sole ruler of the vast Roman empire (p. 10). The Egyptian 
priesthood accord to the Roman emperors the privileges en- 
joyed by their own ancient monarchs, and in their temple- 
inscriptions style them autocrator (absolute sovereign). 

The Ethiopians, under their queen Candace, invade Egypt. 

Strabo travels in Egypt. 

Tiberius erects the Sebasteum at Alexandria. 

Germanicus visits Egypt. 

Caligula. A persecution of the Jews takes place, to which 
we are indebted for the valuable treatise of Josephus in 
answer to Apion, who had written against the Jews. 

Claudius. Rights of citizenship guaranteed to the Jews. 
Lake McBris gradually dries up. 

Nero. Egypt acquires a new source of wealth as a com- 
mercial station between India, Arabia, and Eome, 

Annianus, first Bishop of Alexandria. 

Oalba. Otho Vitellius. 

Vespasian (p. 12) visits Alexandria. From this city Titus 
starts on his expedition against Palestine, which terminates 
with the destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70. 

Domitian (p. 219) encourages the worship of Isis and 
Serapis at Rome. 









About 179. 












Trajan (pp. 12, 206). The canal connecting the Nile •with 
the Red Sea is re-opened (Amnis Trajanus). 

Rebellion of the Jews at Alexandria. 

Hadrian (pp. 12, 206) visits Egypt (twice according to 
some accounts). 

Termination of a SotMs period (comp. cix). 

Marcus Aurelius. 

Rebellion of the Bueolians , or cowherds of Semitic origin 
who had long been settled among the marshes of the Delta, 
qnelled by Avidius Cassius. 

Avidius Cassius is proclaimed emperor by the Egyptian 
legions, but is assassinated in Syria. 

Marcus Aurelius visits Alexandria (p. 12). 

Demetrius, first Patriarch of Alexandria. 


Septimius Severns. The philosopher Ammonius Saccas 
founds the Neo-Platonic School. 

Severus visits Egypt. 

Edict prohibiting Roman subjects from embracing Chris- 
tianity. The Delta at this period is thickly studded with 
Christian communities. Schools of Catechists flourish at 
Alexandria (Pantsenus, Clement, Origen). 

Caracalla (p. 12) visits Egypt. Massacre at Alexandria. 
Caracalla is assassinated by the prefect of his guards — 

Macrinus , who is proclaimed emperor by the Egyptians. 
After his death a series of contests for the possession of the 
throne take place at Alexandria. 

Decius (p. 12). 

Persecution of the Christians under Decius. Beginning of 
the anchorite and monastic system , perhaps in imitation of 
the hermit life led by the devotees of Serapis (p. 166). The 
history of these Christian ascetics (comp. pp. 137, 237) soon 
came to be embellished with myths of every kind. 

Valerianus. Persecution of the Christians (p. 13). 

Gallienus accords religious toleration to the Christians. 
Plague in Egypt. 

Rebellion of Macrianus , who is recognised as emperor by 
the Egyptians. He marches into Illyria against Domitian, 
the general of Gallienus. 

jEmilianus (Alexander) is proclaimed emperor by the army 
at Alexandria and Tecognised by the people, but is defeated, 
and put to death by the Roman legions. 

Egypt invaded by an army of Queen Zenobia of Palmyra. 

Claudius II. 


Renewed invasion of the Palmyrenes. Zenobia recognised 
as Queen of Egypt. 



















' 413. 





Zenobia dethroned. Insurrection of Firmus, a Syrian (p. 
13). Invasions of the Blemmyes. Firmus defeated. 

Probus obtains the purple at Alexandria (p. 13). 

His successful campaign against the Blemmyes. 

Diocletian (pp. 13, 15). 

Rebellion in Upper Egypt. 

Insurrection of the Alexandrians. 

Diocletian takes Alexandria and marches to UppeT Egypt. 

Erection of Pompey's Column (p. 15). 

Persecution of the Christians. 

Maximinus. Beginning of the Arian controversies. 

Constantine the Great, first Christian emperor. 
Council of Nice. The doctrine of tlie presbyter Arius of Alex- 
andria (p. 13) that Christ was begotten by God before all time, 
and was godlike, but not very God, is condemned ; while the 
teaching of Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria, to the effect that 
Father and Son are homousioi, or of the same nature, is sanctioned, 
chiefly owing to the powerful eloquence of his deacon Athanasius, 
who accompanied him to the Council. 

Constantine founds Constantinople as a new metropolis of 
Greek art and science. 

Death of Constantine. 

Constantius favours Arianism. Athanasius is deposed, 
and Georgius , who is made Bishop of Alexandria , opposes 
the followers of Athanasius with the sword. 

Julian , surnamed the Apostate from his renunciation of 
Christianity (p. 13). 

Athanasius dies, after having spent the last years of his 
life in the midst of his flock. 

Theodosius I. the Great. He formally declares Chris- 
tianity to be the religion of the empire. Persecution of the 
Arians and heathens (pp. 13, 161). 

Partition of the Roman empire, Arcadius being emperor of 
the East, and Honorius of the West. 

The Byzantines. 

Arcadius permits Theophilus, the bigoted Patriarch of 
Alexandria (p. 13), to exterminate with fire and sword 
the opponents of the doctrine that God must be considered 
to have a human form. 

Theodosius II. 

Theophilus dies, and is succeeded by Cyril (p. 13). 
The view of the Patriarch Cyril, that Christ and the Virgin (as 
7) 8eoTo'xoc) possess a double nature, prevails over that of the 
Patriarch of Constantinople at the Third (Ecumenical Council, held 
at Ephesus. i j i " 

Death of Cym 


At the Fourth (Ecumenical Council, that of Chalcedon, the doc- 
trine of the archimandrite Eutyohes of Constantinople , to the 















effect that Christ possessed a double nature before his incarnation, 
but that this human nature was afterwards absorbed by his di- 
vine, is condemned, chiefly through the influence of Pope Leo the 
Great. At the same time the doctrine that Christ possesses two 
natures, otauy^u'tuj? and aTp^irruK, but at the same time aSioctp^-ruK 
and a^wpiatuK, i.e. unmixed and unchangeable, but also indis- 
tinguishable and inseparable, is formally accepted by the Church. 
The Egyptians, to this day, adhere to the monophysite doctrine 
of Eutyches. 

With a view to put an end to these doctrinal controversies, 
Zeno issued the so-called Henoticon, in which the question whether 
Christ possessed a single or a double nature was evaded. The 
doctrine stated, however, was so vague, that this attempt at re- 
conciliation proved entirely fruitless. 


Famine in Egypt. 

Insurrection of the Alexandrians on the occasion of the elec- 
tion of a patriarch. 

Justinian (p. 13). New administration. 
The emperor appoints a new orthodox patriarch. The Jlono- 
physites, who far outnumbered the orthodox party, separate from 
the dominant church and choose a patriarch of their own. They 
were afterwards called Copts (p. xlli). 


The Persians under Chosroes invade Egypt (p. 13). Alex- 
andria is taken. Chosroes rules with moderation. 
The Persians expelled by Heraclius. 

Mohammedan Period. 

'Amr Ibn el-'Asi, general of Khalif 'Omar (pp. 87, 207), 
conquers Egypt and founds Fostat. 

'Amr enters Alexandria. 

'Omar is assassinated. 

'Othman. A number of Arabian tribes settle in the valley 
of the Nile, and many Copts embrace El-Islam. Fostat 
becomes the capital of the new government. 

'Othman is put to death. 

'Omayyades. The last of this dynasty was — 

Merwan II., who, having been defeated by Abu'l-' Abbas, 
fled to Egypt, and was put to death there. The Omayyades 
were then exterminated, with the exception of 'Abd er- 
Rahman, who fled to Spain, and founded an independent 
Khalifate at Cordova. 

The 'Abbasides govern Egypt. 

Mamlin (p. 142), the son of Harun er-Rashid, visits Egypt, 
promotes scientific pursuits of all kinds, and supports the 
school of learned men which had sprung up at Fostat. 

Ahmed ibn Tulttn, governor of Egypt (p. 35), profiting 
by the weakness of the 'Abbasides reigning at Baghdad, 
declares himself an independent sultan, and founds the 









dynasty of the Tulunides. He extends the boundaries of 
Egypt beyond Syria and as far as Mesopotamia. Arabian 
writers extol Tuliin for his fabulous wealth and love of 
magnificence. Numerous buildings were erected during his 
reign (pp. 35, 56, et «eg.). 
Khumaruyeh (p. 35), son of Tulun. 

The 'Book of Lands', a geographical work by Ja'kubi, pub- 
lished about the year 891, informs us that Fosl&t occupied about 
one-third of the area of Alexandria at that period, that Alex- 
andria was the most important commercial city in Egypt, that 
Ashmunln in Upper Egypt (see vol. ii. of the Handbook) was 
noted for its extensive cloth factories, Tints for its weaving and 
gold embroidery, Alexandria, Damydt, and Shata for their brocades 
and cloth of gold (dabtki, kasab, washy), the FayO/m for its canvas 
(kMsh), SiM for its carpets, Akhmim for its straw mats and 
leather-work, and Taha for its pottery. The chief export at that 
period, as in ancient times, was corn, which was chiefly sent to 
the Hijaz. 

The Tulunides are put to death by the 'Abbaside Khalif 
Muktaft, who marched with an army to Egypt. 

The Shi'ite Fdtimites , who had gained possession of the 
supreme power at Tunis, commanded by 'Obedallah, attack 
Egypt, but are defeated. 

Mohammed el-Ikhshid, a Turk, and governor of Egypt, 
takes possession of the throne. 

KafOur, a black slave, who had for a time conducted the 
government for the second son of El-Ikhshid, usurps the 
throne, and recognises the suzerainty of the 'Abbasides. 

Johar conquers Fostat for his master, the Fatimite Mu'izz, 
great-grandson of 'Obedallah. Mu'izz (p. 35) assumes the 
title of khalif and founds the city of Masr el-Kahira (Cairo) 
near Fostat (p. 35). Egypt now becomes the most im- 
portant part of the territory of the Fatimites. 

Fatimite sovereigns of Egypt. The earlier of these govern- 
ed the country admirably. The population increased with 
wonderful rapidity, and the whole of the commerce of India, 
as well as that of the interior of Africa, flowed to Egypt. 

Mu'izz dies. 

Aziz-Billah, his son, distinguishes himself by his tolerance 
and his love of science (p. 64). 

Hakim (p. 72), El-Hakim ibn'Aziz, his son, is a fanatic and 
a sanguinary tyrant towards the rich, the great, and those woh 
differed from him in creed, but a benefactor to the poor. 
Subsequently, however, at the instigation of Ed-Darazi, a 
cunning Persian sectary, he declares himself to be anincarna- 
tion of 'Ali, and exacts the veneration due to a god. Ed-Da- 
razi becomes the founder of the sect of the Druses (see Bae- 
deker's Palestine and Syria). El-Hakim disappears, having 
probably been assassinated while taking one of his nightly 















walks on the Mokattam hills. The Druses believe that he vol- 
untarily withdrew from the world in consequence of its sin- 
fulness and that he will one day re-appear as a divine prophet. 

Zahir, Hakim's son, rules with sagacity. 
Abu Tamlm el-Mustansir, a weak and incapable prince. 
The country is ravaged by a pestilence. Bedr el-Jemali, 
governor of Damascus, is summoned to Egypt tas chief vizier. 

Mustali, son of Mustansir, conquers — 

Jerusalem and the towns on the Syrian coast , but is de- 
prived of his conquests by the army of the First Crusade. 

King Baldwin of Jerusalem attacks Egypt unsuccessfully. 

'Adid Ledinallah, the last Fatimite. 

Contests for the office of vizier take place during this reign 
between Shawer and Dargham. The former, being exiled, 
obtains an asylum with N&reddin, the ruler of Aleppo, who 
assists him to regain his office with Kurd mercenary troops, 
commanded by the brave generals Shirkuh and Salaheddin 
(Saladin). Shawer, quarrelling with the Kurds, invokes the 
aid of Amalarieh I., King of Jerusalem (1162-73), who 
comes to Egypt and expels the Kurds. A second army of 
Kurds, which was about to invade Egypt, is driven back in 
the same way, whereupon Amalarieh himself endeavours to 
obtain possession of Egypt. Shawer next invokes the aid of 
his enemy NuTeddin, whose Kurdish troops expel Amalarieh. 
Egypt thus falls into the hands of the Kurds Shirkuh and 
Salaheddin. Shawer is executed. Shirkuh becomes chief 
vizier, and on his death — 

Salaheddin {Saldheddln YHsufibn Eiytib, p. 35), the Sala- 
din of European historians, rules in the name of the incap- 
able khalif. On the death of the latter Salaheddin becomes 
sole ruler of Egypt, and founds the dynasty of the — 


Salaheddin builds the citadel (p. 53) and old aqueduct of 
Cairo (p. 56). Being a Sunnite, he abolishes the Shftte 
doctrines and forms of worship. 

After Nureddin's death he gains possession of the whole of 
that sovereign's Syrian dominions. 

By the victory of Hittin he overthrows the Christian king- 
dom in Palestine. 

Melik el-'Adil, his brother and successor, preserves intact 
the dominions bequeathed to him; but the empire is 
dismembered at his death, and Egypt falls to the share of 
his son — 

Melik el-Kamil (pp. 216, 219), in whose reign the country 
began to play a prominent part in the history of the Crusa- 
des, as the Crusaders regarded the possession of Egypt as 
essential to the retention of Palestine. 








Damietta (Dumyat) is captured by the army of the Fifth 
Crusade, hut is compelled to surrender in 1221 (p. 219). 

Kamil concludes a treaty with the Emp. Frederick II., who 
appears at the head of an army in Palestine, by which Je- 
rusalem and the coast towns are surrendered to the emperor 
for 10 years. 

While the sons of the last sultan are fighting with each 
other 1'ot the throne of Egypt, the Mameluke — 

Melik es-Saleh usurps the supreme power, and founds the 
Mameluke Dynasty. + The Egyptians take Jerusalem, Da- 
mascus, Tiberias, and Ascalon. 

Louis IX., the Saint, of France, roused by the loss of Jeru- 
salem, and with a view to prevent the Egyptians from 
further encroaching on the Holy Land, undertakes a cam- 
paign against Egypt, takes Damietta (p. 220), but while 
marching to Cairo is captured along with his army at Man- 
sura, and is only released on payment of a heavy ransom. 

Bahbitb Mameluke Sultans. The first of these monarchs 
was Mu'izz Eibeg. 

Bebars , who had risen from being a slave to the position 
of leader of the Mamelukes , was one of the ablest of this 
dynasty. In the course of four campaigns he annihilates the 
last remnants of the kingdom of Jerusalem, and rules with 
sagacity, moderation, and justice. He brings to Cairo the 
last representative of the 'Abbaside khalifs, who had recent- 
ly been dethroned by the Mongols, recognises his authority, 
and permits him nominally to occupy the throne. 
Kalaon, el-Mans&r Kalatin (p. 70), succeeds to the exclusion 
of a youthful son of Bebars, and successfully opposes the Mon- 
gols, who had invited Pope Nicholas IV., Edward I. of Eng- 
land, and Philip le Bel of France to undertake a new Crus- 
ade. Kalaun enters into treaties with the Emperor Rudolph 
and other European princes. He conquers Tripoli, and 
makes preparations to wrest the fortress of 'Akka (Acre) from 
the Christians. 

El-Ashraf Khalil (pp. 49, 70, 76), captures 'Akka, the 
last place in the Holy Land held by the Christians. 

t The Mamelukes were slaves (as the word mamMk imports), pur- 
chased by the sultans and trained as soldiers, for the purpose of forming 
their body-guard and the nucleus of their army. They placed Melik es- 
Saleh on the throne, hoping to govern him without difficulty. But when 
the new sultan found his authority sufficiently well established, he dis- 
missed them from his service, and formed a new body-guard of the 
Bahbite Mamelukes (who were so called from the fact that their barracks 
were situated in the island of Eoda in the Nile or Bahr). Ere long, how- 
ever, the new guards succeeded in gaining possession of almost the whole 
of the supreme power. 









Nasir, Mohammed en-Ndsir ibn Kalaun (p. 36), succeeds 
his brother Khalil at the age of nine years, and is compelled 
to retire to Kerak , a Syrian fortress to the E. of the Dead 
Sea, in consequence of the sanguinary feuds that broke out 
among his viziers. Ketboga, the vicegerent, usurps the sceptre, 
but two years later is dispossessed by Lajtn, once a slave, 
■who is said to have been a German by birth. Lajin having 
been assassinated in 1299, Nasir is recalled, but is still 
treated by his emirs as a youth under age, and the real rulers 
are Sallar, his chancellor, and Jashengir, the prefect of his 
palace. He therefore again withdraws to Kerak , and Bl- 
bars II. is proelamed sultan at Cairo in his stead. The Sy- 
rian emirs, however, remain faithful to Nasir, and with their 
aid, he speedily regains his throne. Distrust, vindictiveness, 
and cupidity soon show themselves to be prominent character- 
istics of Nasir, who treats his emirs with the utmost caprici- 
ousness, loading them with rich gifts or ordering them to 
execution as the humour seizes him. The emir Isma'il Abul- 
fida, known also as a historian, succeeds, however, in retain- 
ing his master's favour till the time of his death. Towards the 
mass of the population Nasir is liberal and condescending, 
and towards the clergy he is indulgent. In order to provide 
the enormous sums required for the expenses of his court, 
his taste for horses, and his love of building, he appoints 
Christian officials in the custom-house and finance depart- 
ments. As soon as the emirs perceive that his end is near, 
they seize upon his property with such prompt Tapacity that 
not even a suitable pall to cover the corpse can be found. 
His miserable funeral takes place by night. 
Hasan , Melik en-N&sir AbuH-Ma'ali Hasan ibn Kalaun 
(p. 52), the sixth son of Nasir, is still a minor when he as- 
cends the throne. The lawless independence of the Mame- 
lukes and emirs is aggravated by a plague in 1348-49 which 
exterminates whole families, whose property is immediately 
seized by the government. After having been dethroned in 
1351, Hasan regains his sceptre three years later, but in 
1361 he is assassinated 

Ciecasstan Mameluke Sultans (Burgites). The founder 
of this dynasty was — 

Barkuk (pp. 36, 70, 76), a Circassian slave, who succeeded 
in raising himself to the throne by setting aside Haggi, a boy 
of six years, and great-grandson of Mohammed en-Nasir. 
His accession to the throne , which had been the result of 
treachery and intrigues of every kind, so exasperated the 
emirs that they conspired against him and dethroned him in 
June, 1389. In Jan. 1390, however, after having defeated 
his enemies, Barkuk celebrated his triumphal entry into 





Cairo. He fought successfully against the Mongolians under 
Timur and the Osmans under Bajesid. 

Farag (pp. 36, 76), his son, had scarcely ascended the 
throne, as a boy of thirteen years of age, before the Osmans, 
and a little later the Mongols , again began to threaten 
the Syrian dominions of the Egyptian empire. Farag pro- 
ceeded victoriously as far as Damascus ; but owing to dis- 
sensions among his emirs he was obliged to return to Cairo 
and leave Syria to its fate. After the defeat of the Turks 
under Bajesid by the Mongols under Timur at the battle of 
Angora, Farag wis compelled to enter into negociations with 
Timur. The latter years of Farag' s reign were constantly 
disturbed by the rebellions of his emirs, particularly Shekh 
el-Mahmudi Muaiyad. He was at length compelled by the 
insurgents to capitulate at Damascus, whither he had pro- 
ceeded with his army, and was executed (May, 1412). 
El-Mahmudi Muaiyad (p.62), the victorious rebel, succeeded 
Farag. His reign was chiefly occupied with victorious cam- 
piagns against his unruly Syrian vassals , in which he was 
greatly aided by the military talents of his son Ibrahim. His 
emirs were never sure of their lives , many of them having 
been imprisoned or executed on mere suspicion. As most of 
the public offices were sold to the highest bidder, his sub- 
jects were oppressed and maltreated by his judges and offi- 
cials', who sought to indemnify themselves by practising 
all kinds of extortion. Notwithstanding all the misfort- 
unes he brought upon Egypt by his maladministration and 
cupidity, Muaiyad had no lack of panegyrists, who remembered 
only that he was a pious Muslim, that he did penance for 
his sins by an occasional residence in a dervish monastery, 
and that he was distinguished as a theologian, an orator, and 
a poet. Towards religionists of other creeds he was intolerant 
in the highest degree. 

He exacted heavy contributions from Christians and Jews, and 
he re-enacted and rigorously enforced the sumptuary laws of 
'Omar (A.D. 634-44), Mutawakkil (849-50), the Fatimite Khalif 
Hakim (996-1020; see p. 72), and Sultan Mohammed en-Nasir 
(1293-1341 ; p. 70). Not only were the colours to be worn by the 
Christians and Jews prescribed (the costume of the former being 
dark blue, with black turbans, and a wooden cross weighing 51bs. 
hung round their necks ; that of the latter, yellow, with black 
turbans, and a black ball hung from their necks) ; but the fashion 
of their dress and length of their turbans, and even the costume 
of their women, were so regulated as entirely to distinguish them 
from the followers of the prophet. 

Bursbey (Berisbai; p. 78), who had for a time been the 
vicegerent of a young son of Tartar, ascended the throne on 
April 1st 1422. After having defeated some of his rebel- 
lious vassals, he attacked Cyprus, one of the chief hot-beds 
of piracy, and. imposed an annual tribute upon its king. Burs- 





bey was, however, less successful in his battles with the 
Tuicoman Kara Yelek , who had allied himself with Timur, 
the prince of the Mongols. Buisbey attacked him in N. Syria 
in 1436, but was compelled by the lefractoiy emirs to con- 
clude a dishonourable peace. Shah Bah, the Mongol prince, 
then demanded the cession to himself of the privilege of send- 
ing to Mecca the materials for the covering of the Kab'a, a 
right which had belonged to the Bultans of Egypt since the 
decline of the khalifate of Baghdad, but Bursbey was success- 
ful in resisting this claim. He also defeated the Sherif of 
Mecca, and thus became the protector of the holy city, while 
the possession of Jedda, the seaport of Mecca (p. 201), af- 
forded him great commercial advantages. He died a natural 
death in 1438. 

K&it Bey (pp.58, 64, 78) was one of the last independent 
Mameluke sultans of Egypt. Both as a general and a diplo- 
matist he successfully maintained his position against the 
Turks (Sultans Mohammed and Bajazid), and even inflicted 
serious losses on them ; but the refractory Mamelukes ob- 
structed his undertakings and in 1496 compelled him to ab- 
dicate in favour of his son Mohammed, a boy of fourteen. 

El-Ghuri, Kansuweh-el-Ohuri (p. 63), once a slave of Kai't 
Bey, was upwards of sixty years of age when he ascended 
the throne, but he still possessed considerable vigour and 
energy. He kept the unruly emirs in check, and neutralised 
the influence of the older Mamelukes by the purchase of 
new slaves. He was as great a lover of splendour as if he had 
belonged to a princely family. His stables contained the finest 
horses in Egypt, his rings the most precious jewels ; his 
dinner service was of the purest gold, and his palace and 
citadel were the resort of poets , minstrels, and musicians. 
He improved the roads and canals of Egypt, founded schools 
and mosques, and constructed fortifications ; but in order to 
accomplish all this, he imposed burdensome taxes on his 
people. On one occasion he levied a subsidy on all landed 
property in Egypt and Syria amounting to the value of ten 
months produce. Already seriously injured by the discovery 
of the Cape route to India by the Portuguese, the trade of 
Egypt was terribly depressed by these high taxes and by the 
accompanying debasement of the coinage. Having at length 
been made aware by the Venetians of the dangers which 
threatened his country, Kansuweh el-Ghuri endeavoured to 
protect its commerce by equipping a fleet for service against 
the Portuguese in India, and with it in 1508 he gained a 
naval victory over Lorenzo, son of the viceroy Francisco 
d' Almeida, near Shawl in Beluchistan ; but the following 
year his fleet was compelled to retreat to Arabia in a shattered 






1st July. 

2nd July. 

13th July. 

21st July. 

1st Aug. 


condition. El - Ghuri fell, -while fighting against the army 
of the Osman sultan Selim I. on the plain of Dabik (to the 
N. of Aleppo). 

Tumdn Bey (p. 62) is dethroned by the Osman Sultan 
Sellm I. of Constantinople (pp. 37, 127). Cairo is taken by 
storm. Egypt thenceforth becomes a Turkish Pashalic. 
Selim compels Mutawakkil, the last scion of the family of 
the 'Abbaside khalifs, who had resided at Cairo in obscurity 
since the time of Bebars, to convey to him his nominal 
supremacy, and thus claims a legal title to the office of 
Khaltf, the spiritual and temporal sovereign of all the pro- 
fessors of El-Islam. + 

The authority of the Osman sultans soon declined, and 
■with it that of their governors. The Egyptian pashas -were 
now obliged, before passing any new measure, to obtain the 
oonsent of the 24 Mameluke Beys (or princes) who governed 
the different provinces, and who merely paid tribute to the 
pasha. The most distinguished of these beys was — 

'All Bey, originally a slave, who raised himself to the 
dignity of an independent sultan of Egypt by taking ad- 
vantage of the difficulties of the Turks , who were involved 
in war with Russia. He conquers Syria and Arabia, but on 
his return to Egypt is imprisoned by order of his own 
son-in-law Abu Dabad, and dies a few days afterwards. 
Abu Dabad obtains a ratification of his authority from the 
Turkish sultan. After his death, the beys ; — 

Murdd and Ibrahim share the supremacy, and render them- 
selves almost independent of Turkey. 

The French Occupation. 

Napoleon Bonaparte (pp. 37, 207, 223) arrives at Alexan- 
dria, hoping to destroy the English trade in the Mediter- 
ranean, and, by occupying Egypt, to neutralise the power 
of England in India. 

Storming of Alexandria. 

The Mameluke Bey Murad defeated. 

Battle of the Pyramids (p. 92). 

Destruction of the French fleet at Abukir by the English 
fleet commanded by Nelson (p. 223). 

Insurrection at Cairo quelled. 

+ The Turkish Khalifs, however, have never been recognised by the 
Shi'ites, as not being descended from 'Ali. Most of the Sunnites also, 
especially among the learned Arabs, regard them merely as temporal mon- 
archs. Relying on an ancient tradition, they maintain that none but de- 
scendants of the Koreishites , the family to which Mohammed belonged, 
can attain the office of Imam, or spiritual superior. They accordingly re- 
gard the great Sherif of Mecca as their true Imam. 



1799, Jan., 

25th July. 
24th Aug. 

1800, 21st 

14th June. 
1801, Sept. 







to France , leaving 

Central and Upper Egypt conquered. 

Defeat of the Turks at Abukir. 

Napoleon returns from Alexandria 
General Kle"ber in Egypt. 

Kle"ber defeats the Turks at Matariyeh (p 

Kle"ber is assassinated at Cairo (p. 37). 

The French are compelled by an English army to capitulate 
in Cairo and Alexandria, and to evacuate Egypt. 

Mohammed 'Ali and his Successors. 

In the year 1803 the French consul Matthieu de Lesseps 
was commissioned by his government to seek for some suit- 
able man to counteract the influence of the English and the 
Mamelukes in Egypt, and he accordingly recommended for 
the purpose Mohammed 'Ali, who was born at Kavala in 
Roumelia in 1769 , and who was at that period colonel 
(bimbashi) of an Albanian corps of 1000 men in Egypt. 

Mohammed 'Ali, having succeeded in removing most of his 
enemies, is appointed Pasha of Egypt. In 1807 he frustrates 
an attempt of the English to take possession of Egypt, and on 
1st March, 1811, causes the Mameluke beys, who prevented 
the progress of the country, to be treacherously assassinated, 
together with their followers (480 in number). His son, 
Tusun Pasha , wages a successful war against the Wah- 
habites in Arabia , and deprives them of Mecca and Medina. 
Mohammed improves the agriculture of Egypt by introducing 
the cotton-plant , and by restoring the canals and embank- 
ments, appoints Frenchmen and other Europeans to various 
public offices , and sends young Egyptians to Paris to be 
educated. During the Greek war of independence he sends 
24,000 men to the aid of the sultan, as a reward for whichhe 
is presented with the island of Candia at the close of the war. 
In 1831, aiming at complete independence, he makes war 
against the Porte. His adopted son Ibrahim invades Syria, and 
captures 'Akka (27th May, 1832), Damascus (8th July), and 
Haleb (21st Dec), destroys the Turkish fleet at K6nyeh 
(Iconium), and threatens Constantinople itself. His vic- 
torious career, however, is terminated by the intervention 
of Russia and France. Syria is secured to Mohammed by 
the peace of Kutdhyeh , but he is obliged to Teoognise the 
suzerainty of the Porte. At the instigation of the English, Sul- 
tan Mahmud renews hostilities with Egypt, but is decisively 
defeated, by Ibrahim at Nisibi on 24th June, 1839. In con- 
sequence of the armed intervention of England and Austria, 
however, Ibrahim is compelled to quit Syria entirely, and 
Mohammed is obliged to yield to the Porte a second time. 





1841. By the so-called firman of investiture in 1841 Sultan Abdu'l- 
Medjid secured the hereditary sovereignty of Egypt to the 
family of Mohammed r Ali, the pasha renouncing his provin- 
ces of Syria, Candia, and the Hijaz, and binding himself to 
pay an annual tribute of 60,000 purses (about 306,000J.) 
to the Porte and to reduce his army to 18,000 men. During 
the last years of his life Mohammed fell into a state of im- 
becility, and died on 2nd Aug., 1849, in his palace at Shubra. 
Ibrahim Pasha , Mohammed 'Ali's adopted son , had al- 
ready taken the reins of government , in consequence of 
Mohammed's incapacity, in Jan., 1848, but he died in 
November of the same year, and before his adoptive father. 
'Abbas I. Pasha, a son of Tusun Pasha and grandson of 
Mohammed 'Ali, has generally been described by Europeans 
as a brutal, vicious, and rapacious prince. This, however, 
would seem to be a somewhat distorted view of his character, 
arising from the fact that he had inherited from his Arab 
mother a certain amount of ferocity and even cruelty, coupled 
with the dislike of a true son of the desert for European in- 
novations. He, however, maintained the strictest discipline 
among his officials , and the public security in Egypt was 
"never greater than during his reign. His death is attributed 
to assassination. 

1854-1863. Said Pasha , his successor, was Mohammed c Ali's third 
son. He equalised the incidence of taxation, abolished 
monopolies, improved the canals, completed the railways 
from Cairo to Alexandria and to Suez, and, above all, zeal- 
ously supported the scheme of M. Ferdinand de Lesseps for 
constructing a canal through the Isthmus of Suez, which was 
opened in 1869 under his successor. During the Crimean war 
he was obliged to-send an auxiliary army and considerable 
sums of money to the aid of the Porte. He died on 18th Jan., 
1863, and was succeeded by his nephew — 

1863-1879. Ismail Pasha, the second son of Ibrahim Pasha, who was 
born on 31st Dec, 1830. He had received the greater part 
of his education in France and had there acquired the strong 
preference for European institutions which characterised 
him throughout his reign. Unfortunately, however, he com- 
bined with this enlightenment a profound egotism and a 
tendency to duplicity and cunning , which in the end , in 
spite of his natural talents, proved his ruin. Most of his 
innovations, such as the foundation of manufactories and the 
construction of canals , railways, bridges , and telegraphs, 
were planned mainly in his own interest, though of course 
the country shared in the advantage, while even in the es- 
tablishment of schools , the reorganisation of the system of 
justice (p. xx), and the like, he acted rather with an eye 
Baedkkkk's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. j 









to produce an impression in Europe than from real concern 
for the needs of his subjects. As time went on he succeeded 
in appropriating for his own use about one-fifth of the cul- 
tivable land of Egypt. In 1866, in consideration of a large 
sum of money, he obtained the sanction of the Porte to a new 
order of succession based on the law of primogeniture, and 
in 1867 he was raised to the rank of Khedive , or viceroy, 
having previously borne the title of wali, or governor of a 
province only. In 1873 the Khedive obtained a new firman 
confirming and extending his privileges (independence of 
administration and judiciaries ; right of concluding treaties 
with foreign countries; right of coining money; right of 
borrowing money; permission to increase his army and navy). 
The annual tribute payable to the Porte was at the same 
time raised to 133,635 purses (about 681,538i.). With re- 
gard to the warlike successes of the Khedive and the ex- 
tension of his dominions, see pp. xxxii, xxxiii. — The burden 
of the public debt had now increased to upwards of 100 mil- 
lion pounds , one loan after another having been negotiated 
by the finance minister Isma'il Siddik , who finally became 
so powerful that the Khedive deposed him in 1878 and caus- 
ed him to be Becretly put to death. The Powers now brought 
such a pressure to bear on the Khedive , that he was com- 
pelled to resign his private and family estates to the state 
and to accept a ministry under the presidency of Nubar 
Pasha , with the portfolio of public works entrusted to M. 
Blignieres and that of finance to Mr. Rivers Wilson. This 
coalition, however, soon proved unworkable ; Nubar Pasha 
quitted the ministry in consequence of the Khedive's encour- 
agement of a rising among the disbanded officers of the army, 
and early in 1879 the whole cabinet was replaced by a na- 
tive ministry under Sherif Pasha. The patience of the Great 
Powers was now at an end ; and on the initiative of Germany 
they demanded from the Porte the deposition of Ismail, 
which accordingly took place on June 26th. 

Isma'il was succeeded by his son Tewflk (pronounced 
Tevfilc) or Taufik, under whom the government was carried 
on in a more rational spirit, especially after Riaz Pasha be- 
came the head of the ministry. The debts were regulated, 
an international commission of liquidation was appointed, 
and an extensive scheme of reform was undertaken. In Sept., 
1881, however, a military revolution broke out in Cairo, 
which had for its objects the dismissal of the ministry, the 
grant of a constitution , and above all the emancipation of 
Egypt from European influences. The Khedive was besieged 
in his palace and had to yield; he appointed Sherif president 
of a new ministry and arranged for an election of Notables, 




HISTORY. cxxxi 

or representatives. As the latter espoused the 'national' 
cause, Sherif resigned in Feb., 1882, and Mahmud Pasha 
formed a new ministry, the programme of which tallied 
exactly with the demands of the national party. The new 
cabinet, the soul of which was Arabi Bey, the energetic min- 
ister of war, at once proceeded, without receiving the con- 
sent of the Khedive, to pass several measures intended to 
diminish the European influence in the political and finan- 
cial administration of the country. The consuls general 
were assured that no danger threatened the Europeans, but 
were also told that any foreign intervention in the internal 
affairs of Egypt would be resisted by force. The Khedive, 
to whom both France and England had promised protection, 
declared that he would offer a determined resistance to the 
measures of the cabinet. At the end of May the British and 
French fleets made their appearance before Alexandria. In 
the middle of June serious disturbances broke out in that 
town , in the course of which many Europeans were killed, 
while the others found refuge on board the ships. On July 
11th and 12th Alexandria was bombarded by the British 
fleet, and on Sept. 13th the fortified camp of Arabi at Tell 
el-Kebir was stormed by a British force under Sir Garnet 
Wolseley. Arabi and his associates were captured and sent 
as exiles to Ceylon. Since these events British influence 
has been paramount in Egypt. In the autumn of 1883 a 
widespread rebellion broke out among the Nubian tribes 
of the Sudan under the leadership of Mohammed Ahmed, 
the so-called 'Mahdi' (p. xcvii), which proved fatal to the 
Egyptian supremacy in the Sudan. An Egyptian army of 
10,000 men under an Englishman named Hicks Pasha was 
annihilated in Nov., 1883, by theMahdi's forces, and a sec- 
ond expedition of 3500 regular troops of the Egyptian army, 
led by Baker Pasha, was also completely defeated at Tokar in 
February, 1884. On the 18th of the same month General 
Gordon, who had been Governor General of the Sudan in 
1877-79, after a perilous ride across the desert, entered 
Khartum, which he had untertaken to save from the Mahdi ; 
while on Mar. 1st and Mar. 13th the rebel tribes under the 
Mahdi's lieutenant Osman Digna were defeated at El-Teb 
and Tamanieb by the British troops under Graham. The 
Mahdi himself, however, still maintained his position near 
Khartum, and towards the close of the year a second British 
expedition (of 7000 men) was sent out under Wolseley to 
rescue Gordon. 

Wolseley selected the tedious and laborious Nile route 
for this expedition in preference to the shorter but more 
dangerous desert route from Suakin to Berber. An advanced 


1885. brigade under General Stewart -was , however , sent on from 
Korti at the beginning of 1885, which accomplished its 
march across the Bayuda Desert (see Map, p. xxxii) with com- 
plete success , gaining severely contested victories over 
large bodies of the Mahdi's followers at AbH Klea (Jan. 17th) 
and at a point near Metemmeh (Jan. 19th). Stewart, however, 
was mortally wounded at the latter engagement. The British 
reached the Nile at Gubat, just above Metemmeh , on the 
evening of Jan. 19th, and on Jan. 24th a small body of men 
under Sir Chas. Wilson set out for Khartum in two steam- 
boats which Gordon had sent to meet them. Sir Charles 
reached Khartum on the 28th, but found that it had already 
fallen on the 26th, apparently through treachery, and that 
Gordon had perished. All thoughts of reconquering the 
Egyptian Sudan from the Mahdists were abandoned , and 
Wadi Haifa has remained the S. limit of the Khedive's domini- 
ons (p.xxxiii). Though Suakin became the basis of more or 
less desultory operations against Osman Digna, the British 
devoted their chief attention to developing and improving 
the administration of Egypt proper. Negotiations on the part 
of the Porte, instigated by France and Russia, to bring the 
British occupation of Egypt to a close, have hitherto proved 
fruitless. A loan of 9,000,000£. was raised by the British 

1837. for the purpose of regulating the Egyptian finances. In 1887 
a convention with France established the unconditional neu- 
trality of the Suez Canal. 

1892. The Khedive Tewfik died on January 7th, 1892, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son Abbas II. Hilmi (b. July 14th, 
1874), whose accession was confirmed by a firman of the 
Porte, dated March 26th, 1892. 

V. Hieroglyphics. 

By Professor G. Ebers of Leipsic. 
The ancient Egyptians used three kinds of writing, the 
Hieroglyphic, the Hieratic, and the Demotic, to which, within the 
Christian era, was added the Coptic. The first and earliest is the 
pure Hieroglyphic writing, which consists of figures of material ob- 
jects from every sphere of nature and art, together with certain 

mathematical and arbitrary symbols. Thus "C\ owl, * snake, 

H axe, D square, (o) '! senti. This is the monumental writing, 

which is oftener found engraved on stone than written with a 
pen. For the speedier execution of long records the Egyptians next 

developed the Hieratic writing, in which the owl ( -V i.e. /") ) 

almost ceases to be recognisable, and in which we possess literary 


works of every kind except dramas. The most ancient hieratic 
papyrus now extant was written in the third millennium before 
Christ. The language used in the hieroglyphic and hieratic writ- 
ings alike was the ancient sacred dialect of the priests. The 
Demotic writing, which was first employed in the 9th century 
before Christ, diverges so widely from the hieroglyphic that in 
some of the symbols the original sign from which they were deriv- 
ed is either not traceable, or can only be recognised with difficulty. 
The sign of the owl, for example, was curtailed to ^ . This writing 
was chiefly used in social and commercial intercourse ; as, for 
example, in contracts and letters, whence it was sometimes termed 
the 'letter character' by the Greeks. The more the spoken language 
diverged from the sacred dialect, which assumed a fixed form at a 
very early period, the more urgent became the want of a new mode 
of writing appropriate to the living language. Thus arose the demotic 
style, and lastly, in the 3rd century after Christ, the Coptic, in 
which the language spoken at that time by the Christian Egyptians 
was written, the characters being Greek, with a few supplementary 
symbols borrowed from the demotic (such as UJ sh, q ft j6 ch, 
2_h & c, '3* j, and the syllabic T" ti~). Many Coptic writings, 
chiefly of a religious character, have been handed down to us, the 
finest of them being the books of the Old and New Testament. 

Down to the end of the 18th century scholars had been misled 
in their endeavours to find a clue to the hieroglyphic writing by a 
work of the Egyptian grammarian Horapollon, translated into 
Greek, who represented the characters as being purely symbolical, 
and as having each an independent meaning of its own. At length 
in 1799 M. Boussard, a French officer of artillery, discovered at 
Rosetta a trilingual inscription (pp. 225 et seq.~), in hieroglyphic 
and demotic characters and in Greek. The demotic part of the in- 
scription was examined by M. Silvestre de Sacy, a French savant, 
and Hr. Akerblad , a Swede , in 1802, and , chiefly owing to the 
exertions of the latter, the signification of a number of the symbols 
was ascertained. In 1814-18 the hieroglyphic part of the inscrip- 
tion was studied by Dr. Th. Young, an English scholar, who, by 
comparing it with the demotic part, succeeded in dividing it into a 
number of corresponding groups, and, by directing his attention to the 
cartouches (p. cxxxix), discovered the signification of several of the 
hieroglyphic symbols. In 1821 Francois Champollion, usually sur- 
named Le Jeune, who possessed an intimate acquaintance with the 
Coptic language and literature, directed his attention to the hiero- 
glyphics, and in the course of the following year discovered the 
hieroglyphic alphabet, which afforded him a clue to the whole of 
the ancient Egyptian literature. His method, which he has ex- 
plained in his hieroglyphic grammar, though at first vehemently 
opposed, soon obtained able adherents, who after his early death 
in 1832 zealously took up and prosecuted the same line of research. 


Among these were the French savants MM. Ch. Lcnormant, 
Nestor VHote, and Emmanuel de Rouge, the last of whom was the 
first to translate with philological accuracy a hieroglyphic text of 
any length, and the Italian scholars MM. Salvolini, Vngarelli, and 
Rosellini. The most distinguished English Egyptologists of the 
same school are Messrs. Osburn and Hincks, and Dr. Birch, who 
compiled the first complete dictionary of the ancient language, and 
translated numerous inscriptions. The celebrated German Egypto- 
logist Prof. Richard Lepsius (d. 1884) is another of the chief work- 
ers in the field of hieroglyphics, while Prof. H. Brugsch has led the 
way to a complete interpretation of demotic texts. Thanks to the 
discoveries of these savants and others of the same school, the time 
is probably not far distant when students will be able to translate 
a hieroglyphic inscription with as great philological accuracy as the 
work of a Greek or Latin author. 

A glance at a single temple wall, or even at the annexed list 
of the names of the Egyptian kings, will show the traveller that 
we have not to deal here with an alphabetical mode of writing, the 
signs (about 2000 in number) being far too numerous. The ancient 
Egyptian writings were based on two different, but intimately con- 
nected systems : (1) the Ideographic, which, by the use of well- known 
objects as symbols of conceptions, sought to render its meaning in- 
telligible to a certain class of the community ; and (2) the Phonetic, 
which represents words by symbols of their sounds. Although we 
cannot now trace the rise and progress of hieroglyphic writing, as 
even the earliest specimens manifestly belong to an already per- 
fected system , we may at least safely assert that the ideograph- 
ic element preceded the phonetic; for, as a child employs 
gestures earlier than speech, so nations use a symbolical form of 
writing before they arrive at a method of expressing sounds. The 
newer and more serviceable phonetic system must ultimately have 
superseded the ideographic, although occasionally calling in its 
aid as an auxiliary. In the perfected system, therefore, the sym- 
bols for sounds and syllables are to be regarded as the foundation 
of the writing, while symbols for ideas are interspersed with them, 
partly to render the meaning more intelligible, and partly for or- 
namental purposes, or with a view to keep up the mystic character 
of the hieroglyphics. 

The Phonetic signs are divided into alphabetic letters , such as 


b, JX q or k , ^^ f, etc., and syllabic signs, such as 

„ 3? 1 h<1, nS^ se '*; "T" u-nkh, muj aner, etc. The 

syllable signs may, in order to fix their sounds with greater preci- 
sion, have as 'phonetic complements' one , several , or all of those 
sounds which the name of the syllable representing the sign in 


question contains. Thus ■¥• , which stands for ankh, may also 
be represented by (i)' MMM ^r, (2) ._ . n -Y- ^ , (3) ■¥• 

. The reading is, however, facilitated by the fact that, 

in order to ensure the correct pronunciation of each syllabic sign, 
none but the most definite sounds were added to it. The symbol , '""" | 

men, for example, is never written jr\*~ i"'""i, as it might be, butal- 

most invariably i'"""i or i'"""i . It represents a chess-board with 


figures. The ideographic signs, or determinatives , are placed as 
explanatory adjuncts after the phonetically written groups. They 
are indispensable in elucidating the signification, for the Egyptian 
language, having been arrestedin its development, is poor, and full 

of homonyms and synonyms. The symbol *>"*» dnkh, for ex- 
ample, means 'to live', 'to swear', 'the ear , 'the mirror', and 'the 
goat'. The reader would easily fall into errors, such as mistaking 
ankh nefer foT 'a beautiful life' instead of 'a beautiful goat', if the 
determinative, or class, sign did not come to his aid, and show to 
what category of ideas the object belonged. Thus, after ankh, the 
goat, the Egyptians either placed a figure of that animal, or a piece 

of hide with a tail /^Ni , which served as a common symbol for all 

ail Zfi , 

quadrupeds. The symbol used to represent a particular word is 
termed a special, while one chosen to denote a class is termed a 

general, determinative. An elephant ^TJnra placed after the group 
of .. — n II , ab, 'the elephant', is a special determinative, while a 

lock of hair [Vi placed after [I B. senem, 'the mourning', is a 

general determinative, a lock of hair being the conventional emblem 
of grief, as the men were in the habit of cutting off their hair in 
token of sorrow. A word is frequently followed by several deter- 
minatives. Thus .— __. ash is 'the cedar'; but the wood of the 
tree being scented, the group representing ash was not only fol- 
lowed by the figure of a tree Q, but also by the symbol £3, which 

signifies that a perfumed object is spoken of. The special deter- 
minative always precedes the general. Symbols that were not 
capable of being very clearly engraved on stone were sometimes 
omitted, and the special determinative given alone. Instead of 



semsem, 'the horse', 

often stands alone. In 

such cases we know the sense of the word, while its pronunciation 
must be gathered from other and fuller forms of it. The following 
words, which are written in various ways , may be given as an 

<» 4ilV5B»ik° 


(2) ^^^ 



In the first of these groups U 8 "^ ahu corresponds to the Coptic 
egOOY ehou, and signifies bullocks, as the determinative symbol 
SC^l shows. (The three strokes are the sign of the plural.) In the 

next place \s\ apet-u signifies geese, and is determined by 

Jfi& 111 . 

the figure of that bird. Lastly [1 ""S* arp (Coptic Hpn, erp') means 

wine, and is associated with the general determinative & , i.e. the 
jaTS in which the juice of the grape used to be kept. In the second 
form of the sentence the syllabic writing is omitted, and the plural, 
instead of being denoted by three strokes, is expressed by the repe- 
tition of the special determinative. This leaves no doubt as to what 
is meant, while the first form gives us the actual words. 

We now give the most important symbols of sound of the an- 
cient Egyptian writing, and also a few syllabic signs. 

Hieroglyphic Alphabet. 
8. v\ i. 

10. ^Z^ k. 

11. Qqork. 

12. _g3S 1. 

14. A/WWV 

15. D P- 

■ V- 

16. A 't- 
is. n,-«- 

19. □□, 

20. cs. t. 


22. c— =~s t. 

s (sh). 

» (th). 

24. V , (0 u. 

25. ©,T 

X (kh). 

1. I 1 """! mro 

2. I nofev. 

Important Syllables in Annexed List of Kings. 

16. Vs. Jior (the god Horus). 

, I no. 

3. O rd. 

4. Q khd. 

5. 1_J ka or ga. 

6. 1 user. 

17. ^3£7 Ae5. 

18. W *«»-. 

19. •*«==> d-o, A. 

20. -*«?3r n>e»". 


21. 1 su. 

22. ift Mad (goddess of truth). 

7. T7 tat. 

8. J\ an. 

9. ^7 > M. 

i. JM kheper. 



12. ^}l*ft. 

13. x^'^ oft, ab, ft. 


Tahuli, Thoth (god of 
science, etc.). 


23. TO Set (the god Seth). 

24. fe^ or Q) sih, the son. 

25. £■ „ sotep (approved). 

26. *w Rd (god of the sun). 

27. M Amen (the god Ammon). 

28. In" P(«A (the god Ptah). 

29. ^fcj ba - 


43. •¥■ dnklt. 

30. , ft T hotep. 

31. i 1 me and mer. 


32. hak. 

33. Ml an (On, Heliopolis). 

34. ===== la. 

35. I nuter. 



41. ^ a& and dhti. 

42. ^ *«. 



36. n nsefO (Isis). 


37 - ^fe& *»"■ 50. ^Zl fata. 

38 - tg] sa - 51. ^=/ *A«. 

39. U Net (goddess Keith). 52 ' * "*> *"«■ 

53. f*™*! »«&• 

40. X ««»■ « 

54. <==3^ "><*<*• 

55. - a^g-^ sebek. 

56. <^ Aen». 

The form of the hieroglyphic signs is not invariable. Dur- 
ing the primaeval monarchy they were simple and large, -while 
under the new empire they diminished in size but increased in 
number. The writing of the reigns o-f Thothmes III. and of Seti I. 
(18th and 19th dynasties) is remarkably good. In the 20th and fol- 
lowing dynasties the hieroglyphics show symptoms of decadence. 
The writing of the 24-26th dynasties is distinct and elegant, but 
has not the boldness peculiar to the primaeval monarchy. Under 
the Ptolemies the symbols acquired characteristics peculiar to this 
period alone , while many new hieroglyphics were added to the 
old ; the individual letters are , as a rule , beautifully executed, 
but the eye is offended by their somewhat overladen and cramped 
style. The method of writing, too, is changed. The phonetic 
element makes large concessions to the ideographic, and acrophony 


becomes very predominant : i. e., a number of symbols are used to 
stand for the first letter only of the word they represent. Thus the 

syllabic symbol M| ser ('the prince') is used for the letter s alone ; 

1 nekem ('the lotus-bud') for n alone; and so on. 

The frames within which the groups of hieroglyphics are en- 
closed c > are termed 'cartouches'. Where they occur, the in- 
scription generally records the names of kings, and occasionally, 
but very rarely, those of gods. Above them usually stands the group 

T22R suten s&het , i. e. 'King of Upper and Lower Egypt', or 

neb taui , 'sovereign of both lands', or ^ y £*. neb kha-u, 

'lord of the diadems'. 

When the name of a king is to be deciphered, the alphabetical 
signs must first be noted, and then the syllabic symbols. The fol- 
lowing examples will illustrate this. 

The builder of the great pyramids is named — 

Khufu; © (25) being kh; V\ 
(24) M ;*~_(5)f;and ^ (24) u. 

The builder of the second pyramid was 

Khafra. Here O is the 3rd syllabic sign ra; S, the 4th syl- 
labic sign kha; * — the letter f. This would give us rti-kh&-f; 
but it is to be read khd-f-rd, or Khafra, as the syllable ra, where- 
ever it occurs in the name of a king, is always placed first without 
regard to its proper place in the structure of the word. This was 
done out of respect for the holy name of Ra , the god of the sun, 
to which the Egyptians thus piously gave precedence. On the same 
principle the name of the builder of the Third Pyramid, O (3), 
i"" ' " i (1), and |_| (5), or ra-men-ka, is to be Tead Menkara or 
Menkera. — Several celebrated kings of the 18th Dynasty are termed 


Now „ j^ is the 14th syllabic sign tehuti or 

thut, fjj the 15th syllabic sign mes, and H the 18th alphabetical 

letter, which is added as a phonetic complement to mes. The name 
is therefore to be read Tahut-mes or Thut-mes , the Greek form of 
which was Tuthmosis (commonly known as Thothmes). 


VI. Frequently recurring Names of Egyptian Kings, t 

Selection by Frof. Ebers in Leipsic. 

Khufu Khafra Men- Tat-ka- 

(Cheops) (Che- k ™™ 

4. phren)4. r i nus ) 4. (Tanche- Aasa. 5. 

res) 5. 



Usertesen I. 12. Amenemha II. 12. Usertesen II. 12. Usertesen III. 12, 




— H — 






— H— 


Amenemha III. 12. Amenemha IV. 12. 


, . Shalati. , 

notep. Hvksos. Hyksos. 

13. (Salatis). (Aphobis). 




I 1 








t The numbers placed after the names are those of the different dynasties. 



— H- 

Rasqe- Aahmes (Amo- Amenhotep (Ame- 
nen. sis). 18. nophis) I. 18. 

Tutmes (Tuth- 
mosis) I. 18. 






^ a 

Hatasu. 18. 




Tutmes III. 18. Amenhotep II. 18. Amenhotep III. 18. 

v ^v^W 

Hor-em-heb (Horus) 
Amenhotep IV. 18. Seti I. (favonrite of Ptah) 

(Kbu-en-aten) 18. ^ ^— — -^ Bamses I. 19. 19. 

rVVY „ .. n 

o o 



1 o 

V A~^ 






^|J P 

I ... ,-J U /WW\A I* Li U 

Ramses II., favonrite of Ammon, and his father Seti I., 
the Sesostris of the Greeks. 

(°iiP \\\ l°] I 



Sesetsu (Sesostris.) 

C p p ° i * 1 





. . 

V — y 

Ramses IV. 20. 


Merenptah I. (Menephthes). 19. 

\^ aww QA Q D I ■* — "^ V Jl 
Seti II. (Merenptah). 19. 


Ramses III. 20. 

1 4 





v. a; 

Ramses V. 20. Ramses VI. 20. Ramses VII. 20. 



», „ „ Ramses IX. (Leps. Ramses X. (Leps. Ramses XI. (Leps. 

Ramses VIII. 20. Kamses XI.) 20. Ramses IX.) 20. Ramses XII.) 20. 

;s : 


v l 

v m 

Ramses XII. (Leps. Sheshenk (Sesonehis) I. 2 2. 
Ramses XIII.)_20. /• fiuiu, •?• ▼ ▼ /www" 

Sheshenk IV. 23. 


' — ' 


ill jC^^nr] 


Osorkon I. 22. 
/WWW o ^: 

Bokenranf (Bocchoris). 

Takelut (Tiglath) I. 22. 


Shabak (Sabaco). 25. 

C~- V-'X laifem 1 

Taharka. 25. 

( — J&* ~>J 


Psammetikh 1. 26. Nekho26. Psammetikh 11.26. 


Queen Ameniritis. 





Uahphrahet (Ua- Kambatet Ntariush rish 

phris. Hophrah). AahmesII. (Ama- (Cambyses) (Darius). Darius. (Xerxes). 
26. sis). 26. 27. 27. 27. 27. 



I p 



J l| 




I W I 




Amenrut Nekht-nebf Alexander I. Philip- ptolmis (Ptolemy I, 

(Am I rt IB us). (Nectaiiebus)i 3 _ ^ £^ 

I /www 

Ptolemy II. Philadelphia I. 33. 

Soter). 33. 



Jueen Arsinoe. 33. 

r -fUnesa^ZT>[ 






Ptolemy III. Euerge- Queen Ptolemy IV. Philopa- Ptolemy V. Epi- 
tes I. 33. ii r . en 33 Ce tor I. 33. phanes. 33. 






\ ^ i 










Ptolemy IX. Euerge- 
tcs II. (Physeon). 




v l 

Six Ptole- 
maic prin- 
cesses of 
the name 
of Cleo- 
patra occur. 


\ fl 


Ptolemy X. Soter II. 

or Philometor II., 

usually known as La- 

thyrus. 33. 






v i 

tra .VI., 
of Cse- 
sar and 

D « 




Cleopatra VI., with Csesarion, her son by Ceesar, and 
nominal co-regent. 33. 


a ^ 




and her son 


O I 




v i 


and her son 



Caius Ca- Claudius, 

ligula. (Tibe- Nero. Vespasian. 

34. rius). 34. 34. 34. 

(3 o 







Autocrator (abso- 
lute monarch) and 

Kisaros (Ceesar). 

Epithets of all the 

emperors. 34. 


" § A 

<=> A 

Ceesar Au- 
gustus 34. 


v i 

tian. 34. 

\ i 





Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. 


Aurelius. Commo- Severus. Antoninus. Geta. Deems. 
34. dus. 34. 34. (Caracalla). 34 34. 














O c> 


^JLJV ^L^L^V^! 

VII. Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. 

The difficulty of thoroughly comprehending the fundamental ideas 
which underlay the religion of the ancient Egyptians is increased by 
two important circumstances. The first of these is, that the hier- 
archy of Egypt studiously endeavoured to obscure their dogmas by the 
use of symbolical and mysterious language ; and the second is, that 
each nome possessed its own local divinity and colleges of priests, 
and invented its own cosmological and metaphysical allegories. 
This accounts for the differences of doctrine in a number of forms 
of worship bearing the same name, and for the frequency with 
which the attributes of one god trench on those of another. The 
primitive religion, moreover, underwent great changes as the capa- 
city of the hierarchy for more profound speculation increased, until 
at length the relations of the divinities to each other and to the 
fundamental ideas represented grew into a complicated system, 
understood by the limited circle of the initiated alone. This was 
styled the Esoteric Doctrine t , the leading idea of which was, 
that matter, though liable to perpetual modifications, was eternal 
and fundamentally immutable, incapable of increase or decrease, 
but endowed with intelligence and creative power. In the opinion 

+ Esoteric (from ijuvrepixo'c, inner, hidden) is a term applied to a mys- 
terious doctrine, known to the initiated only, the antithesis of which is 
the exoteric doctrine (from sSioTepixo'c, external, popular). 

RELIGION. cxlvii 

of those who held this doctrine there could be no original act of 
creation , and no plurality of gods ; hut a metaphysical conception 
so difficult of apprehension could not be propounded to the great 
body of the people. For the use of such persons it was, therefore, 
simplified, and clothed with allegorical forms, through the medium 
of which they might behold it as through a veil, somewhat obscured, 
but at the same time embellished and shorn of its terrors. This 
constituted the Exoteric Doctrine , with which was connected 
the theogony , or theory of the origin and descent of the divinities 
who represented the various forces and phenomena of nature. These 
gods, however, though not existent from all eternity, were neither 
created nor begotten, but were regarded as having been self-created 
in the wombs of their own mothers, and are therefore spoken of as 
'their own fathers', 'their own sons', and the 'husbands of their 
mothers'. The deities accordingly are seldom spoken of as single 
individuals, but in triads, as father, mother, andson(comp. p. clii). 

The primary source from which all life proceeds, the first cause 
of all things, was clothed with a personal form , called Nun. The 
principle of light, and the creative power of nature, which implants 
in matter the germs of existence and light, wasKhepera, or the 
scarabseus with the sun's disk, whose emblem was the beetle (seara- 
baeus sacer). As that insect rolls up into a ball the eggs which 
produce its offspring, and was supposed to have no female, so this 
deity was believed to have concealed within the globe of the world 
the germs of organic life. Ptah is the greatest of the gods , and is 
the embodiment of the organising and motive power developed from 
moisture (Nun). It is he who imparts form to the germs sown by 
Khepera, and under the name of SekhemNefer breaks the ball rolled 
along by the scarabseus, or in other words the egg of the universe, 
from which emerge his children, the elements and the forms of 
heaven and earth. Ba , a deity who bears seventy-five different 
forms , at first appears in the Nun under the name of Turn , or the 
evening sun ; during his passage through the lower hemisphere, 
that of night , he is known as Khnum , and is born anew on the 
next morning of the creation , bursting forth in the form of a child 
(Harmachis) from a lotus-flower floating on the Nun. Evening and 
night precede the morning and day; and Amenthes, or the infernal 
regions , were believed to have existed before the upper regions 
which formed the scene of human life. 

After the breaking of the egg of the world, the universe is re- 
solved into three empires : — ■ (1) The heavenly Nut, represented 
as a woman J)l , bending over the earth, on whose back float 
the vessel of the sun, the planets, and the constellations. (2) Seb, 
or the earth, which possesses the power of eternal rejuvenescence, 
and was regarded by the Egyptians as the symbol of eternity, a 
deity somewhat resembling the Greek Chronos. (3) The Infernal 
Regions, which are presided over by Ptah , the power productive of 

cxlviii RELIGION. 

new forms, the germinating principle of seeds, and god of light 
and heat (sometimes represented in the shape of a deformed child), 
and, after him, by Ra, who appears from the inscription on the royal 
tombs at Thebes to have been a purely pantheistic conception, the 
'frame of the universe' and 'the universe', and whose sphere there- 
fore embraced the lower as well as the upper regions. (See also 
Ra and Ammon.) 

The Sacked Animals and the Mixed Forms, which generally 
consist of human bodies with the heads of animals, frequently re- 
cur as companions of the gods, or are used as emblems of the deities 
themselves. In each case those animals were selected whose 
inherent dispositions and habits corresponded to the power or 
phenomenon of nature personified in the god. Specimens of these 
animals were kept in and near the temples, and the finest of them 
were embalmed after death and revered in the form of mummies. 
Thus, the maternal divinities were appropriately represented 
by the cow, the patient mother and nurse ; the goddess of love, the 
bride of Ptah, was represented with the head of a fierce lion or a cat ; 
the crocodile was sacred to Sebek, the god who caused the waters of 
the Nile to rise ; and the hawk, which soars towards heaven like 
the sun, was dedicated to Ra. The symbol of Ptah was the black 
Apis bull , whose great poweT of generation seemed analogous to 
the never-ceasing creative energy of the black soil of Egypt. 

The Egyptian Gods. The chief of the gods , as we have 
already mentioned, was Ptah, the Greek Hephaestus. He was the 
ancient god of Memphis, who delivered to Ra the germs of creation, 
and was assisted in his labours by the seven Khnumu or architects. 
As from him were supposed to emanate the laws and conditions 
of existence, he is also styled 'lord of truth'. He is represented in 
the form of a mummy , but with his hands protruding from the 

bandages, and grasping the symbol of life -¥% that of stability Tj, 

and the sceptre . The neck-ornament called 'menat' is generally 

attached to his back, and on his head he usually wears a smith's cap. 
He sometimes occurs with a scarabaeus instead of a head. In view 
of his connection with the doctrine of immortality and with the 
infernal regions, he sometimes appears in the inscriptions as Ptah- 
Sokar-Osiris, who prescribes to the sun that has set, as well as to 
the mummies of the dead , the conditions under which they may 
rise again and enter on a new life. The 'primaeval Ptah' is also 
spoken of as the head of the solar gods, and also occasionally as the 
creator of the egg, from which , according to an older myth , the 
sun and the moon came forth. Thence , too , is derived his name, 
which signifies 'the opener'. By his side are often placed the 
goddess Sekhet (Pasht), and his son Imhotep (yEsculapius). 

His sacred animal was the Apis bull, which was the offspring 



of a white cow impregnated by a moonbeam. In order to represent 
Apis worthily, a bull had to be sought which possessed a black hide, 
a white triangle on his forehead, a light spot on his 
back in the form of an eagle, and under his tongue 
an excrescence shaped like the sacred scarabaeus. 
After his death the representative of Apis was 
embalmed and preserved in a sarcophagus of stone 
(p. 168). He was the symbol of the constantly 
operative fashioning power of the deity , and is on 
that account represented as the son of the moon, 
which, though never changing, appears to re- 
fashion itself every hour. The era of time named 
after Apis was a lunar period, containing 309 mean 
synodic months, which almost exactly corre- 
sponded with 25 Egyptian years. 

Ra, the great god of Heliopolis (On) in Lower 
Egypt , as the king of gods and men, ranks next to 
Ptah, and is, from the exoteric point of view, the 
sun who illumines the world with the light of his 
eyes, and the awakener of life. He rises as a child, 
under the name of Harmachis (Har-em-khuti), at 
midday he is called Ra , and at sunset he is re- 
presented as Turn, an old man subduing the 
enemies of Ra, who obstruct his entrance to the Ptah. 

lower regions which he traverses at night. During 
his course through the nether world he becomes the ram-headed 
Khnum (p. cli), or the nocturnal link between Turn and Har- 
machis, or evening and morning. As man in the region of the shades 
has to undergo many trials , so the ship of the sun , as soon as he 
has crossed the western horizon, no longeT sails along the blue back 
of the goddess Nut . but along the sinuosities of the serpent Apep, 
the enemy of the setting sun, who is subdued and held in bondage 
by the companions of Ra. 

In rising Ra is born , and in setting he dies ; but his life is 
daily renewed by an act of self-procreation taking place daily in 
the bosom of nature, which was termed Jsis, Muth, oiHathor. This 
goddess is frequently called the ruler of the nether regions, and is 
represented with the head of a cow, or in the form of a cow, which 
every morning gives birth to the young sun. Twelve human figures, 
each bearing the orb of the sun ot a star on his head, represent the 
hours of the day and night. The animals specially sacred to Ra were 
the hawk ; the Upper Egyptian light-coloured Mnevis bull, which also 
belonged at a later period to Ammon Ra, and a specimen of which 
had even before that time been kept in the temple of the sun at 
Heliopolis ; and, lastly, lions with light skins. The Phoenix, or bird 
from the land of palms, called by the Egyptians bennu, which, 



according to the -well-known myth, awakes to new life after being 
burned, and brings its ashes to Heliopolis once every five hundred 
years, was also associated with the worship 
of Ra. As Apis is associated with Ptah , so 
this bird by the side of Ra is a symbol of 
the soul of Osiris. — Ra is generally re- 
presented with the head of a hawk, and co- 
loured red. He holds in his hands the sym- 
bols of life and sovereignty, and wears on 
his head a disk with the Uraeus serpent, or 
basilisk. According to the esoteric and pan- 
theistic construction of the inscriptions on 
the tombs of the kings, Ra is the great Uni- 
verse (to hoV), and the gods themselves are 
merely so many impersonations of his 
various attributes (see Ammon Ra, p. clix). 

Turn, or Atum, a manifestation ofRa, 
whose name is perhaps akin to temt, signi- 
fying the universe, was first worshipped in 
Lower Egypt, particularly at Heliopolis and 
at the city of Pa-tum , that is, 'the place of 
Turn', the Pithom of Scripture. His rites 
were also celebrated in Upper Egypt at an 
early period. He is one of the oldest of the 
gods, having existed 'on the waters' in the 
dark chaos of the embryonic world , prior to 
the first sunrise, or birth of Harmachis from 
the lotus flower. According to the later ex- 
oteric views he was the setting sun, the 
harbinger of the coolness of evening. Under 
his guidance mankind was created by 
Khnum , and he was the dispenser of the 
welcome northerly breezes. He was also the 
approved warrior against the dark powers 
of the infernal regions which obstruct the 
progress of the sun's bark, and is repre- 
sented as a bearded man with a combined 
Upper and Lower Egyptian crown, or the 
orb of the sun, on Ms head, and the emblems 
of sovereignty and life in his hands. As the 
creator he sometimes has a scarabasus for 
a head ; as Nefer- Turn he has the head of 
a lion, surmounted by a hawk crowned with 
lotus flowers , and holds an ufa eye ^^ 

Turn of Heliopolis, lord in his hand - As representing the setting of 
of the world. the sun preparatory to its rising again , he 

Harmachis, the great 



is also regarded as the god of the resurrection, as the hawk on his 
head indicates. 

Khnum (Greek Chnubis, Knuphis, or 
Kneph"), one of the most ancient of the 
gods, who, while retaining Ms own at- 
tributes , was often blended with Am- 
nion, was chiefly worshipped in the region 
of the cataracts and in the oases of the 
Libyan desert. Being regarded as a link 
between the setting and the rising sun, 
he receives the sceptre of Ra beyond 
the western horizon (in which direction 
also lay the oases) , and takes the place 
of that god during the progress of the 
sun through the nether world. Khnum 
('khnem', the uniting) was also the 
power which united the days of sterility 
with those of fecundity, and was there- 
fore specially revered in the island of 
Elephantine, near the first cataract, 
where the fertilising Nile first enters 
Egypt, as the god of the inundation and 
the dispenser of the gift of water. By his 
side usually stand the goddesses Anukeh Khnum. 

and Sati. Khnum is one of the cosmic 

gods, who created the inhabitants of heaven. He and his assistants 
are associated with Ptah, and he is sometimes represented as mould- 
ing the egg of the world on a potter's wheel out of matter furnished 
by Ptah, and fashioning mankind. He is generally represented with 
the head of a ram , and coloured 
green. He occurs as often sitting as 
standing, wears the dtef crown on 
his head, and wields the sceptre 
and the symbol of life ; while from 
his hips, proceeding from his girdle, 
depends a generative organ resem- 
bling a tail, which is appended to 
the most ancient form of his apron. 
Ma , the goddess of truth and 
justice, is the radiant daughter of 
the god of the sun. She is easily 
recognised by the ostrich feather 
on her head, while in her hands she 
grasps the flower-sceptre and the 
symbol of life. In the more recent 
form of the ancient language she is 
termed T-mei (with the article), Ma, daughter of Ea. 



from which name an attempt has been made to derive that of the 
Greek goddess Themis, like whom Ma is represented as Mind , or 
at least with bandaged eyes. 

Gods of the Osiris and Isis Oedbk. We owe to Plutaroh a 
detailed account of this myth, which has been uniformly corroborat- 
ed by the monuments, and. which may be briefly told as follows. 

Isis and Osiris were 
the children of Khea and 
Chronos, that is, of Nut, 
the goddess of space, and 
of Seb, the god of the earth, 
which, owing to its eternal 
rejuvenescence and im- 
perishableness, symbolis- 
es time. While still in the 
womb of their mother, that 
is, in the bosom of space, 
the children became unit- 
ed, and from their union 
sprang Horus. Typhon and 
Nephthys, children of the 
same parents , likewise 
married each other. Osiris 
and Isis reigned as a happy 
royal pair , bestowing on 
Egypt the blessings of 
wealth and prosperity. 
Typhon conspired against Osiris , and at a banquet persuaded him 
to enter a cunningly wrought chest, which he and his seventy-two 
accomplices then closed and threw into the Nile. The river carried 
the chest northwards, and so down to the sea by way of the estuary 
of Tanis ; and the waves at length washed it ashore near the Phoe- 
nician Byblos. Meanwhile Isis roamed in distress throughout the 
country, seeking her lost husband ; and she at length succeeded in 
discovering his coffin , which she carried to a sequestered spot and 
concealed. She then set out to visit her son Horus, who was being 
educated at Buto. During her absence Typhon, while engaged in a 
boar-hunt, found the body of the god, cut it into fourteen pieces, and 
scattered them in every direction. As soon as Isis learned what had 
happened, she collected the fragments, and wherever one had been 
found erected a monument on the spot to its memory ; and this ac- 
counts for the numerous tombs of Osiris mentioned as existing in 
Egypt and elsewhere. Osiris, however, was not dead. He had con- 
tinued his existence and his reign in the lower regions, and after his 
burial he visited his son Horus, whom he armed and trained for battle. 
The young god soon began a war against Typhon, and was at length 
victorious, although he did not succeed in totally destroying his enemy. 

The mythological Trinity or Triad. 
Osiris. Horus. Isis. 



Osiris is the principle of light , while Typhon is that of darkness, 
which Osiris defeats and banishes to the infernal regions. Isis Hathor 
mourns over his disappear- 
ance, follows him towards the 
West , where she gives birth 
to Horus, who annihilates 
darkness and restores his 
father to his lost position. 
When Ba is termed the soul 
of Osiris, the meaning is that 
he renders visible the hidden 
principle of light (Osiris). 
When, on the other hand, 
Osiris is regarded as emblem- 
atical of the principle of 
moisture, the most perfect 
embodiment of which is the 
godHapi, or the Nile, Typhon 
and his seventy-two com- 
panions represent the days of 
drought. Like the dead body 
of Osiris, the water flows to- 
wards the North, and the Ian- ... . 

... T . ' , . . ., Osin8, prince of eternity, 

gmshing Isis, that is, the 

fruit-bearing earth, mourns over the loss of the fertilising power ; 
but this is for a short period only, for Horus soon vanquishes Ty- 
phon in the southern districts, and the rising Nile again begins to 
impregnate the black soil with abundant fertility. Lastly, when 
Osiris is regarded as the principle of life , Isis , the earth, is the 
scene of the operation of that principle, while Typhon represents 
death, and Horus the resurrection. If we regard Osiris , as the 
monuments so frequently do , as a pure and perfect being , the 
principle of the good and the beautiful, in which case he receives the 
surname of Un-Nefer, we recognise in Typhon the discords with 
which life is so replete, but which seem to be permitted only in OTder 
that the purity of the harmonies into which they are resolved through 
the intervention of Horus may be the more thoroughly appreciated. 
Osiris, according to the exoteric doctrine, is also the sovereign of 
the lower regions and the judge of souls, which, if found pure, are 
permitted to unite with his. The dead, therefore, do not merely go 
to Osiris, but actually become Osiris. Osiris is always represented 
with a human head. He either sits as a king on his throne, or ap- 
pears in the form of a mummy. He always wields the scourge and 
crook, and sometimes other emblems also. The crown of Upper 
Egypt which he wears on his head is usually garnished before and 
behind with the ostrich feathers of truth. Beside him, even in 
very ancient representations , stands a kind of thyrsus or entwined 



him as a fabulous animal 


rod, to which a panther-skin, the garb of his priests, is attached. 
In consequence of his function of promoting vegetable life, his 
wanderings, and perhaps also on account of this staff and akin, he 
was termed Dionysos (or Bacchus) by the Greeks. 

Typhon-Seth. The name Typhon is most probably of Greek 
origin. The Egyptians named him Seth, or Sutekh, and represented 

or with the head of this animal H}, 

and subsequently as an ass, an animal which was sacred to him, or 
with an ass's head. His name is met with in the most remote pe- 
riod, but he appears originally to have been worshipped merely as 
a god of war and the tutelary deity of foreigners. He is usually 
styled the brother of Horus, and the two are called the Rehehui, or 
hostile twins, who wounded each other in the battle above describ- 
ed. At a later period, after the god of battles and of foreigners 
had shown himself permanently unfavourable to the Egyptians, 
they ceased to render service to him, and erased his name from 
the monuments on which it occurred, and even from the cartouches 
of the most highly extolled kings. With regard to his connection 
with the myth of Osiris and Isis, see p. clii. 

Nephthys, the wife of Seth, was called by the Greeks Aphrodite 
or Nike (Victory) , probably on account of her being the wife of 
the god of war. Her proper sphere was the 
nether world. In the upper world she occuts as 
the nurse or instructress of the youthful Horus, 
and she appears with Isis, mourning and beating 
her forehead, at the funeral rites of Osiris, 
whom she had loved, and to whom, being mis- 
taken by him in the dark for Isis, she had borne 
Anubis. She is also associated with Osiris and 
Isis, with the youthful Horus and Isis, and 
even, as one of a tetrad , with Osiris , Isis , and 
Horus. She is usually represented with the sym- 

bol J (i.e. neb-hat, mistress of the house) on 

her head , which is adorned with the vulture 
cap, and grasping in her hands the flower- 
sceptre and the symbol of life. 

Anubis was the guide of the dead to the 

infernal regions and the guardian of Hades, of 

In the form of a jackal , or with 

Neb-hat (Nephthys). 

which he is termed the master 

the head of a jackal , he presides over funeral rites" and guards the 

kingdom of the West. 

Horus, who occurs in many different forms, invariably represents 
the upper world or region of light, and also regeneration, resur- 
rection, and the ultimate triumph of good over evil, of life over 
death, of light over darkness, and of truth over falsehood. He is 



constantly called the 'avenger of his father'; and detailed illustra- 
tions of Ms contest -with Typhon, dating chiefly from the period 

Horus , son 
of Isis, mas- 
ter of 

Horus, avenger of 

his father, son of 

Isis and Osiris. 



of the Ptolemies, have been handed down to us. In the form 
of a winged disk of the sun he opposed Typhon and his com- 
panions, being aided by the 
Urseus serpents entwined on the 
disk. As the god of light (Har- 
machis, i.e. Horus on the ho- 
rizon) he merges into Ra, as 
he personifies the resurrection of the young light from darkness. 
The 'young Horus' springs in the foTm of a naked child with the 
lock of infancy from the lotus-flower. Under the name of Hor-hut 
(Horus, the wing-expander) he overthrows Seth and his asso- 
ciates in behalf of Ra Harmachis, who, as a god of light, is con- 
sidered equal to Osiris. Ra is equivalent to the Helios of the 
Greeks, and the young Horus and Hor-hut to Apollo. The hawk, 
with whose head, he is represented, is the animal sacred to him 

and the bird itself with a scourge on its back sometimes 

stands for him. 

Thoth (Egyptian Tahuti, Greek Hermes) is primarily revered 
as the god of the moon, and in this capacity often takes the place 
of Khunsu (p. clx). As the phases of the moon formed the 



basis of the earliest reckoning of time , Thot was regarded as the 
dispenser of time and the god of measures, numbers , and indeed 
of everything subject to fixed laws. Lastly he was also regarded as 
the mediator by whose aid human intelligence manifests itself, as 
the god of writing, of the sciences, of libraries, and of all the arts 
which tend to refine life. In the infernal regions he records the re- 
sult of the weighing of hearts, keeps a register of the trials of the 
dead, and exhorts their souls to return to the radiant spirit of the 

universe. He is represented as an ibis on a standard 

, or with 

the head of an ibis, and frequently crowned with the disk of the 
moon and the ostrich- feather of truth. In his hands are a reed and a 

writing tablet, or, instead of the latter, 
a palette. He sometimes appears with a 
crown and sceptre, but very rarely has a 
human head. The animals sacred to him 
are the dog-headed ape and the ibis. 

Dog-headed ape of Toth. Safekli 

Safekh. A goddess who is associated with Thoth, but whose 
precise name is unknown, is always designated as Safekhu, i.e. 
one who has laid down her horns, as she bears these appendages re- 
versed over her forehead. She is the tutelary deity of libraries, of 
sacred writings and lists, and therefore of history also. She holds 
in her left hand a palm-branch with innumerable notches marking 
the flight of time, and with her right she inscribes on the leaves of 
the persea tree all names worthy of being perpetuated. 



Isis. Muth. Hathor. These three goddesses, although extern- 
ally regarded as separate, were really different modifications of the 
same fundamental idea. As a counterpart of the male generative 
principle , they all represent the female element, the conceiving 
and gestative principle, or the receptacle in which the regeneration 
of the self-creating god takes place. Muth, whose name signifies 
mother, is represented as a vulture, or with a vulture's head. She 
is the great birth-giver, who protects Osiris and Pharaoh with her 
outspread wings, and she guards the CTadle of the Nile, whose 
mysterious source is defended by a serpent. The functions of Isis 
(p. clii), who endows everything that is capable of life on earth 
with the good and the beautiful, have already been mentioned. She 
wears on her head the vulture cap, cow's horns, and the disk of the 


moon, or the throne n , or all four combined. As Isis Selk, she is 

hovering over her head, as Isis 

represented with a scorpion 

Neith, who is also equivalent to Muth , usually with a weaver's 
shuttle 'X^X. , while as Isis Sothis, or the dog-star, she sails in a 
boat. She is also represented as suckling the infant Horus in her 
lap. Her sacred animal is the cow, which belongs also to Isis 
Hathor. The name Hathor signifies 'house of Horus', for within 



Isis and Horus. 

Isis Sothis. 

the bosom of this goddess the young god gave himself new 
life. She is the goddess of love, the great mother, who accords her 
divine protection to all earthly mothers, the dispenser of all the 



blessings of life, the beautiful goddess who fills heaven and earth 
with her beneficence, and whose names are innumerable. At a later 
period she was regarded as the muse of the dance, the song, the jest, 
and even of the wine-cup. The cord and tambourine in her hand 
denote the fettering power of love and the joys of the festivals 

Isis Hathor. 



over which she presided. Her sacred animal was the cow, and she 
generally appears in the form of a youthful woman with a cow's head, 
bearing the disk between her horns ; and she is even spoken of as 
the mother of the sun (p. cxlix). Hathor also plays an important part 
as mistress of the nether world, where she is usually called Mer-Sekhet. 

Sekhet. Bast (or Pashi). These goddesses likewise coincide 
more or less with the many-named Hathor ; but the lion or cat- 
headed deity known by these and many other names possesses 
several characteristics entirely peculiar to herself. She is called the 
daughter of Ra and the bride of Ptah , and personifies sexual pas- 
sion. Represented as a Uraeus basilisk of the crown of Ra , she is 
a symbol of the scorching heat of the orb of day; in the nether 
Tegions she fights against the serpent Apep , and in the form of a 
lion-headed woman or a eat, brandishing a knife, she chastises the 
guilty. But she also possesses kindly characteristics. 'As Sekhet', 
we are informed by an inscription at Philae, 'she is terrible, and 
as Bast she is kind.' The cat, her sacred animal, was long an object 
of veneration. She wears on her head the disk with the Ut»us 
serpent, and holds in her hands the sceptre and the symbol of life. 

Sebek, a god who also appears in union with Ra as Sebek 



Ra is represented with the head of a crocodile , and was chiefly 
revered in the region of the cataracts at Silsili, Kom-Ombu, and 
in the Fayum. At K6m-Ombu Sebek forms a triad in conjunc- 
tion with Hathor and Khunsu. His crocodile head is crowned 
with the disk, the Uraeus basilisks , and the double feather. He 
grasps the sceptre and the symbol of life in his hands , and is 
coloured green. His sacred animal, the crocodile, was kept in 
his honour, but a certain Typhonic character was attributed to the 
reptile, as the sacred lists omit those nomes where it was worshipped. 

Sekhet Bast. 


Kliem Amu. 

Ammon-Ra. Ra (p. cxlix), with whose worship the rites of many 
other divinities were combined, and whose attributes were frequently 
merged in those of Osiris, reigned, according to the later inscrip- 
tions, as the great monarch of the gods, but Ammon, who was 
revealed to the exoterics as a son of Ptah, obtained possession of 
the throne of this world , while Ra continued his sovereignty in 
Amenthes, or the nether regions. Ammon, whose name signifies 
'the hidden one', is a deity of comparatively late origin, having 
been at first merely the local god of Thebes ; but after the valley 
of the Nile had been delivered from the Hyksos under his auspices, 
and after Upper Egypt and Thebes had gained the supremacy over 
Lower Egypt and Memphis, he was raised to the rank of king of 
all the gods. The attributes of almost the entire Pantheon of 
Egypt were soon absorbed by this highly revered deity. He reposes 
as a hidden power in Nun, or the primordial waters, and during 



the process of his self-procreation he is termed Khem. As soon as 
he has manifested himself, he, as 'the living Osiris', animates and 
spiritualises all creation, which through Mm enters upon a higher 
stage of existence. On the human beings fashioned by Turn he 
operates mysteriously, disposing them to a love of discipline and 
order, and to an abhorrence of all that is irregular, evil, and unsightly. 
Justice, which punishes and rewards, is subject to him, and even 
the gods 'prostrate themselves before him', acknowledging the 
majesty of the great Inscrutable. Every other god now came to be 
regarded as little else than a personification of some attribute of the 
mysterious Ammon, god of the gods, standing in the same relation to 
him as models of parts of a figure to the perfect whole. The monu- 

Ammon-Ra, King of the gods. 

ments at Thebes represent him enthroned or standing, coloured 
blue or black , generally adorned with the long feather headdress 
termed shuti, sometimes with the crown of Upper Egypt alone 

or with that of Upper and Lower Egypt , and sometimes with 

a helmet or diadem on his head. In his hands he wields all kinds 
of royal insignia , such as the sceptre , the scourge , the crook , and 
the symbol of life. When represented with a ram's head he is 
termed Ammon -Khnum, Knuphis, or Kneph (p. cli). Beside 
him in the great triad of Thebes stand Muth, the maternal principle 
(p. clvii), and Khunsu or Khons , who represents the operation of 
divine intelligence in the external world , and particularly in its 


relation to human affairs. He is the 'destroyer of enemies', he aids 
mankind in the battle of life, and he heals the sick. To his head 
the moon is attached by the infantine lock. From his ■wanderings as 
the god of the moon, and from the vigour with 'which he destroyed 
evil spirits, he was identified with Heracles by the Greeks. 

Doctrine of Immortality. From the account of the worship of 
Isis and Osiris it is obvious that the Egyptians believed in the im- 
mortality of the soul (whence arose the prevalent worship of 
ancestors), in amoral responsibility, and in a future state of rewards 
and punishments. The doctrine with regard to the life of the soul 
after death was not , however , at all times and in all places the 
same. According to the Egyptian belief, every human being con- 
sisted of three distinct parts , which during the period of life were 
closely united : (1) the body, a portion of matter ; (2) the 'sahu', 
or soul, which belonged to the nether world and ultimately re- 
turned thither; and (3) the 'fcW, an emanation of the divine 
intelligence. Each of these elements could be separated from 
the others , but whatever changes it underwent, it was immutable 
in quantity and quality. As the god of the sun is always the 
same and yet hourly different, being at first Horus, then Ra, next 
Turn, and finally Khnum, so it was with the soul and the in- 
telligence which fills and illuminates it , and which , as soon as 
the gates of the tomb are opened for its reception , speaks and acts 
for it. Once within the gates of Amenthes, the soul had to undergo 
many trials. Ferocious beasts had to be conquered , demons to be 
subdued , and castles to be stormed , and all this was to be done 
with the aid of texts and hymns written on papyrus and scarabsei, 
ufa eyes, and other amulets swathed in the bandage of the mummy. 
At length the soul reached the hall of double justice, where the heart 
in its vase t^> was placed in one scale and the goddess of truth in 
the other. Horus and a dog-headed ape conducted the process 
of weighing, Anubis superintended, Thoth recorded the result, and 
Osiris with forty-two counsellors pronounced sentence. If the heart 
was found too light, the soul was condemned to suffer the torments 
of hell, or to continue its existence in the bodies of animals, within 
a certain period after which it returned to its original body to begin 
life anew, and had afterwards to undergo another trial by the judges 
of Hades. If the heart was found sufficiently heavy, Osiris restored 
it to the soul ; the 'sahu' might then return to its mummy ; its 
intelligence, after a period of purification in the regions of the 
blessed, might unite with the divinity from which it had emanated, 
and, merged in Horus, Osiris, etc., might traverse the heavens in 
the boat of the sun , or walk anew among the living in any form it 
pleased. Finally both the 'sahu' and the intelligence were re- 
united to the dead body they had quitted, which its mummification 
had preserved from decay, and which awaited the return of the soul 
from Amenthes or from its sojourn in the bodies of animals. 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. 1 



Index to the 

Ammon-Ra, clix. 

Anubis, oliv. 

Anukeh, cli. 

Apep, the serpent, oxlix. 

Apis, cxlviii. 

Bast, clviii. 

Hapi, oliii. 

Harmachis, cxlix, civ. 

Hathor, clvii. 

Horns, clii, cliv. 

Imhotep, cxlviii. 

Immortality, doctrine of, clxi 

Infernal regions, oxlvii. 

Isis, clvii, clii. 

— Keith, clvii. 
Isis Selk, clvii. 

— Sothis, clvii. 
Khem, clx. 
Khepera, cxlvii. 
Khnum (Chnubis), cli. 
Rhons or Khunsu, clx. 
Ma, cli, 

Mer-Sekhet (Hathor), clviii. 
Muth, clvii. 

Egyptian Deities. 

Neb-hat, or — 
Neph'thys, clii, cliv. 
Nefer-Tum, cl. 
Nun, cxlvii. 
Nut, cxlvii. 
Osiris, clii. 
Pasht, clviii. 
Phoenix, cxlix. 
Ptah cxlvii, cxlviii,. 
Ea, cxlvii, cxlix, civ. 
Sacred animals, cxlviii. 
Safekh, clvi. 
Sati, cli. 
Seb, cxlvii. 
Sebek, clviii. 
Sekhem Nefer, cxlvii. 
Sekhet, clviii. 
Seth (Typhon), cliv. 
Sokar-Osiris, cxlviii. 
Sutekh, cliv. 
Thoth (Tahuti), civ. 
Turn, cxlvii, cxlix, cl. 
Tphon, clii, cliv. 


VIII. Historical Notice of Ancient Egyptian Art. 

In the ancient Egyptian poem which extols the achievements of 
Ramses the temples in the valley of the Nile are called 'everlasting 
stones'; and the works of Egyptian art do indeed seem to lay claim 
to perpetuity. Some of the monuments have existed for forty or 
even fifty centuries, so that, compared with them, the works of all 
other nations appear recent and modern ; and a still greater marvel 
is that the skill displayed in the execution of these monuments 
must have been the growth of many antecedent ages, all memorials 
of which are now buried in the obscurity of the remotest antiquity. 

The Egyptian people belonged to the so-called Hamitic race, 
and, like the Semites and, the Indo-Germanians, had their original 
home in Asia (comp. pp. xxxvii, xxxviii). "Whether they brought 
any of their arts to the Valley of the Nile, or whether their taste for 
art and their imagination were awakened for the first time by the 
Father of Rivers, must of course remain for ever unknown. Some 
of the very earliest of the products of Egyptian art are indeed 
more akin to those of Asia than the later, but Egyptian art as a 
whole presents so peculiar and unique a character that its origin was 
most probably local. The question might indeed be settled if we 
were in a position to compare early Egyptian art with that of the 
Oriental nations of the same period ; but of the latter we can now 
find no trace. The only sources from which we can form any 
opinion regarding the original condition and the earliest develop- 
ment of Egyptian art are the technical execution of the oldest 
known monuments and the forms and style of decoration employed 
in them. Thus the ceiling-painting in the pyramidal tombs reveals 
its indebtedness to the textile handicraft ; for it is in the art of 
weaving alone that the margins and seams there represented have 
any use or significance. Again, the walls of the most ancient tomb- 
chambers contain horizontal and vertical bands and convex mould- 
ings, the design of which has obviously been borrowed from a system 
of building in wood. The sloping ridges of the pyramids point to an 
original style of building with crude brick, as walls of that material 
required to be tapering in form to ensure their durability. "We 
thus gather that the Egyptians of a very remote period were weavers 
and potters, familiar with the arts of building in wood and in brick. 
If we go a little farther, and venture to draw inferences from the 
subjects and forms of their earliest works of art, we find that the 
Egyptians of the remotest traceable period must have been a cheerful 
and contented people, free from that taste for the mystic and the 
symbolical which afterwards characterised all their exertions in 
the sphere of art , and endowed with a love of life and nature 
which they zealously manifested in the earliest products of their 




An attempt to gather a history of Egyptian art from the in- 
formation we possess regarding the various dynasties of the Egyptian 
monarchs has led to the following results, which, however, may be 
much simplified or modified by future discoveries. The first period 
of the steady development of Egyptian art closes with the sixth 
dynasty, and the monuments of Memphis are the most important, 
though not the only structures of the early dynasties. Some of these 
(such as the pyramid of Cochome, p. 164) are supposed to date as 
far hack as the time of the fourth king ; and there is reason to believe 
that they were originally built of sun-dried bricks encrusted with 
stone, instead of, as subsequently, in solid stone. This would also 
account for the mode of construction observed in the stone pyramids, 


la. Pyramid of Cheops (usual form of pyramids). 16. Pyramid of Dahshur, 
with bent sides. Ic. Step-pyramid of Sakkara. 

which consist of repeated incrustations of tapering courses of ma- 
sonry. According to the well-known hypothesis of Dr. Lepsius, the 
famous German Egyptologist, these different layers or crusts, like the 
concentric rings in the trunk of a tree, perhaps corresponded to the 
number of years during which the deceased monarch reigned. Besides 
the pyramids of the usual regular form (Fig. I, <z), there are others 
with sides forming an obtuse angle , and others again with sides in 
steps. Of the pyramid with bent sides there is an example at Dahshur 
(Fig. I, 6), and of the pyramid in steps one at Sakkara (Fig. I, c). 
The terrace, or step, form seems, however, to have been uniformly 
used in all the pyramids up to the apex (which was probably tapered), 
and in most of them the angles formed, by the steps were afterwards 
filled up with stone. There can now be no reasonable doubt that 
the pyramids were intended to form the inaccessible tombs of great 
monarchs, near which their courtiers and magnates erected mortuary 


chapels for themselves (Mastaba) in the form of blunted pyramids, 
in order, as it were, to pay homage to the memory of their illustrious 
masters. The pictorial decorations of these temples, as well as the 
plastic works of the same period, serve most impressively to com- 
plete the artistic effect of the pyramids. While their marvellously 
perfect execution alone indicates a high state of artistic development, 
our admiration is specially aroused by the striking fidelity to nature 
and expressiveness of the sculptures. The unfavourable criticisms 
on Egyptian sculpture formerly current may indeed now be regarded 
as entirely refuted. Even in European museums an opportunity is 
afforded to the traveller of becoming acquainted with the noble style 
by which the early Egyptian art alone is characterised. What visitor 
to the Louvre , for example , can fail to remember the striking 
impression produced by the statue of the 'Writer?' The expressive 
eyes are formed of dark quartz containing a transparent pupil of 
rock crystal fixed with a small knob of metal, while the attitude is re- 
markable for its lifelike fidelity and strong individuality. This statue 
dates from the fifth or sixth dynasty, and the museum atGizeh con- 
tains other plastic works of the same period in which an almost over- 
drawn realism is still more apparent. The limestone statue of Ra- 
Nefer, a priest of Ptah-Sokar at Memphis, and the wooden figure of 
the 'village shekh' (p. 96), which the Paris Exhibition of 1867 
brought into popular notice, are the best -known specimens of 
a style of art of which the very existence was unsuspected a few de- 
cades ago, and the discovery of which has tended greatly to modify 
the old supposition that the Egyptian sculptors executed their works 
in mere mechanical accordance with a prescribed canon. The chief 
merit of the earliest Egyptian sculpture is the faithfulness of the 
portraiture, which is such that the identity of the person represented 
by two different statues may often be determined by the similarity 
of the features, even when executed at different periods of the per- 
son's life. In this way have been identified eight statues of Khafra, 
the third king of the fourth dynasty, although all differing in meas- 
urement, material, and the age represented (comp. pp. 97, 98). 
Observation of nature in the case of these earliest works has evi- 
dently been carried into the minutest details. The race of men re- 
presented is uniformly of the same character, somewhat resembling 
that of the modern fellahin ; the figures are of a powerful, thickset 
type, and their muscles are faithfully represented, occasionally to 
exaggeration. These early sculptors, however, were incapable of 
producing works of a more complex character, where excellence 
of general effect required to be superadded to accuracy of detail, and 
in this respect they were far surpassed by their successors. Even 
the reliefs in the tomb-chambers of Memphis are executed in a 
singularly fresh and unsophisticated style, and the spectator will 
hardly regret the absence of the mystic symbolism of the later period. 
After the sixth dynasty there occurs a sudden falling away from 


this vigorous style of art, occasioned perhaps by political dissensions, 
by internal wars, and possibly by a change of religious convictions. 
It was not until the rise of the Eleventh Dynasty that the state of 
the country became more settled, and that art began to revive. The 
new style, however, differed materially from the old. As the ancient 
capitals of Memphis and This now began to yield precedence to 
Thebes, the new centre of the kingdom, and as the system of writing, 
the laws, and the constitution, had all undergone material alteration, 
so, too, it may rather be said that the cultivation of art began anew 
than that the style then practised was a development of that of the 
fourth and sixth dynasties. Of this second efflorescence of art no 
great monuments have been handed down to us, the most important 
works being the obelisks of Heliopolis and the Fayum and several 
colossi dug up at Tanis and Abydos. The rock-tombs of Beni Hasan 
are also interesting relics of the period of the Twelfth Dynasty. 
In these we find a reversion to the rock-building style, which, ac- 
cording to Lepsius, is nearly identical with that of the grotto 
architecture, and owed its origin to the prevalence of ancestor- 
worship, and to the popular desire, arising from the Egyptian doctrine 
of immortality, for the preservation of the bodies of the dead. The 
rock-tomb was safe from the overflow of the Nile, while its equable 
temperature arrested the decay of the corpse , and a chapel con- 
nected with it afforded the relations an opportunity of paying 
homage and presenting offerings to the deceased. The division 
of the tomb into a series of chambers, leading at length to the 
actual sepulchre, soon led to their being architecturally decor- 
ated. "Where there were several chambers, one behind the other, it 
was natural that openings should be made in the walls for the sake 
of admitting light. The next step was to convert the remaining 
portions of wall into pillars for the support of the roof, and to plane 
off their corners, part of the pillar being, however, left square at the 
top so as to blend the octagonal column with the roof. In the 
next place the octagonal pillar was sometimes converted into one 
of sixteen sides , so as to resemble a column , and in some cases 
the flat surfaces were grooved or fluted, a sharp angle being thus 
formed between each of them. Polygonal columns of this character, 
which occur in the first tomb of Beni Hasan, have been called 
Proto-Doric or Egypto-Doric by Champollion and Falkener, from 
their resemblance to the Doric columns of the Greeks (Fig. II). The 
points of resemblance are the marked fluting, the tapering, and the 
absence of bases ; but the Proto-Doric differs from the Greek Doric 
in being destitute of the 'echinus', a member resembling an over- 
hanging wreath of leaves, and forming the capital of the Doric column. 
The chief difference, however, is that some of the sides of the Proto- 
Doric columns are not fluted, but left smooth for the reception of 
coloured inscriptions. The column thus loses its structural signifi- 
cance , being degraded to a mere surface for inscriptions , and 



presents a marked contrast to the Doric, where each member and 
each line fulfils a definite requirement of the building. 

The architects of the tombs of Beni Hasan, however, were not 
unacquainted with a light and elegant mode of building above 
ground, which cannot have originated in the grotto architecture. 

Section of the N. Tomb and Columns of Beni Hasan. 

This is proved by their use of the lotus-column (Fig. HI), the pro- 
totype of which is a group of four lotus-stalks bound together and 
secured at the top by rings or ligatures, the capital being formed by 
the blossoms. These columns, which contrast strongly with the mass- 
ive Proto-Doric, suggest a light style of garden architecture in wood. 
"While the architecture of the eleventh and twelfth dynasties 
bears some slight resemblance to the earlier style, the sculpture of 
the same period presents an almost total deviation from the ancient 
traditions. The primitive, lifelike realism to which we have al- 
ready alluded is displaced by the rigorous sway of the Canon, by 
which all proportions are determined by fixed rules, and all forms 
are necessarily stereotyped. There seems, however, to have been no 



Egyptian art. 

retrogression in point of technical skill; for, as in the time of 
Khafra, the hardest materials still became compliant, and the dif- 
ficulties of the minutest detail were still successfully overcome by 
the sculptors of the Pharaohs. 

Another considerable break now took place in the progress of 
This dreary interval began with the invasion of 
the Hyksos or Shepherds , and lasted throughout 
the whole of their domination. To them is at- 
tributed the destruction of the older monuments, 
and they themselves have left no architectural re- 
mains behind them. They were not, however, 
entirely insensible to the charms of art, and after 
the first tenors of the invasion were over , they 
did not prevent the Egyptian artists from prose- 
cuting their calling. As the Normans in Sicily 
adopted the culture of the conquered Arabs , so 
the Hyksos turned to account the knowledge of 
art and the technical skill possessed by the Egypti- 
ans (p. cvii). The sculptures excavated at Tanis, 
the capital of the Hyksos (four sphinxes andpartic- 
ularly a group of river-gods in granite), are of 
Egyptian workmanship, and there is nothing to 
betray their origin in the Hyksos period except 
the type of the features, the bushy beards, and 
the thick tufts of hair (pp. 102-104). 

With the expulsion of the Hyksos begins a 
new period, in the history of art as well as in that 
of politics. The warlike and victorious monarchs 
of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties, in 
particular, have perpetuated their memory by 
astonishingly numerous monuments. The compulsory labour of 
captive enemies afforded the architects an opportunity of carrying 
out their most gigantic designs, while the achievements of their 
sovereigns, such as the campaigns of Thothmes, Amenophis , and 
Ramses, supplied the sculptors with an inexhaustible theme for 
the decoration of the facades of their temples. To this period of 
the new empire belong most of the Theban monuments. The taste 
for the great and the colossal, and for symmetry of proportion had 
attained its culminating point, but the stagnation of the lifesprings 
of art, the dependence of the drawing and colouring on formal 
rules, and the over-loading of the ornamentation with symbolical 
signs (such as the Urseus and the Hathor masks) become unpleas- 
ingly apparent. It can hardly, however, be said that the decline 
of Egyptian art had yet begun ; for this period lasted so long as to 
give rise to a general belief that the Egyptians had never possessed 
any other style, and entirely to obliterate the recollection of the 
more ancient and materially different period of development. At 

III. Lotus Column. 


the same time a careful inspection of the monuments of this period 
will convince the observer that no farther development could be ex- 
pected afterwards to take place on the basis of a system so lifeless 
and entirely mechanical. Shortly before the conquest of the country 
by the Persians, however, a slight improvement in artistic taste 
appears to have taken place. While the monuments of the Twenty- 
second and following Dynasties are unattractive , being mere 
reproductions of earlier works, the sculptures of the Twenty-sixth 
Dynasty (such as the alabaster statue of Queen Ameniritis of the 
XXV. Dynasty) exhibit a considerable degree of elegance and 
refinement. But this revival was of brief duration. After the 
establishment of the Ptolemsean dynasty the native art became 
entirely extinct, and the innate charms of Hellenic art, which even 
remote India was unable to resist, began to affect the hitherto strongly 
conservative and self-satisfied Egyptians (coinp. pp. clxxx et seq.). 

Having thus given a slight chronological outline of the pro- 
gress of Egyptian art, we must now endeavour to supplement it by 
a description of the chief characteristics of each period. Our 
attention will be chiefly directed to the monuments of the new 
empire, owing to their great number and extent. 

The Column in Egypt, as elsewhere, constitutes the most im- 
portant of all architectural members. Its absence indicates a very 
elementary stage of the art of building, when artistic development 
has yet to begin. The column imparts to the edifice an appearance 
of organic life, it lightens and breaks the outline of its different 
masses, and affords strength and support. When compared with 
the Greek columnar orders, the Egyptian column is of a very 
imperfect character. Its decoration and its form do not immediate- 
ly and exclusively express its proper office, as is the case with 
the Greek column, and the Doric in particular. Its dependence on 
its natural prototype, the wreath-crowned canopy-support, still 
continues apparent, and its proportions, though not altogether 
independent of rule, still appear too arbitrary. Lastly, the height 
and thickness of the columns do not stand in an appropriate 
ratio to the weight they have to bear. It must, nevertheless, be 
admitted that the eye is delighted with the brilliance of their 
colouring and the perfection of their execution. 

Egypt possesses a considerable number of different orders of 
columns. Some of these occur in the Old Empire only, while others 
are found for the first time in monuments of the New Empire, 
without, however, belonging to a higher grade of art. In the tombs 
of Beni-Hasan (XII. Dynasty) we have become acquainted with the 
polygonal or Proto-Doric column, and also with that with the bud- 
capital. The latter was perhaps suggested by a form of pillar which 
occurs in the tombs of the VI. Dynasty near Antinoe (the modern 
El-Bersheh). The surfaces of the pillars are hollowed out, and in 
the hollows rise lotus stalks, crowned with a bunch of buds or 



closed blossoms (Fig. IV"). Akin to the lotus columns of Beni 
Hasan is an order of column of the new empire, which was 
adorned partly with sculpture and partly with painting, and which 
afterwards gradually adopted the conventional form. This column 
tapers at its base, where it is encircled with a slight wreath of reed 
leaves. It also tapers again upwards, and in some cases presents a 
shaft painted with horizontal bands and hieroglyphics, and in 
others a shaft grooved so as to imitate the stalks of a plant fthe 


a i, 

V. Papyrus Columns. 

papyrus) which are bound together at the top with a ligature. The 
capitals, somewhat simple in form , and tapering upwards , are 
sometimes decorated on the lower part with a wreath of upright 
reed leaves, and sometimes, like the shafts, are treated as surfaces 
for painting, in which case their origin in the vegetable kingdom 
is indicated by a few painted buds only (Fig. V. a, 6). 

While the columns hitherto described performed the structural 
function in temples and tombs of supporting massive stone roofs, 
the order of columns with Calyx Capitals was chiefly used for the 
decorative purpose of enclosing the processional approach in the 
anterior halls of the temples, and was required to support but little 
weight. The shafts of these columns rest on round bases resem- 
bling disks, they taper downwards, and are treated as surfaces for 



painting. The flowers and leaves on the capitals sometimes seem 
to be attached superficially only (Fig. VI, a), while in other cases 
the leaves appear to form a wreath, growing out of a columnar 
stem, and leaning slightly outwards so as to assume the calyx form. 
Of this style the papyrus (Fig. VI, 6) and the palm (Fig. VI, c) 
formed the natural prototypes, and even at a late period several 

VI. Calyx Capitals. 

other very pleasing types were added. Another kind of column, which 
seems to have been much in vogue during the latest 
period of independent Egyptian art, is of inferior 
importance and artistic merit. It has a shaft ter- 
minating at the top in masks attached to four 
sides , usually representing the goddess Hathor 
with the cow's ears, and above these are placed 
miniature temple facades , forming a kind of 
abacus. Both in this case and in that of the Osiris 
pillars (Fig. VII), where the figure of the god, 
with the crook in his left hand and the scourge in 
his right, stands quite detached from the pillar, 
and bears no part of the weight, the structural 
function has been treated as a matter of very sub- 
ordinate importance. 

Immediately connected with the columns is 
the Entablature above them. The inner apartments 
of the temples were ceiled with stone beams ex- 
clusively, extending from the abacus (or crown- 
ing slab) of one column to that of another ; and 
the rectangular spaces thus formed were filled 
with slabs of stone, adorned sometimes with 
astronomical designs. The chief characteristics 
of the outer parts of the entablature are, that the 
architrave rests immediately on the abacus, and 
that there is a furrow hollowed out above it, 
forming a deep shadow. The architrave is gener- 
ally inscribed with hieroglyphics, so that its vil. Osiris pillar 



structural office is rendered less apparent ; but the concave mould- 
ing above it presents the appearance of a proper crowning cornice 
(Fig. VIII, 6), thus serving to counterbalance the effect of the 
inwardly sloping walls , and giving the building an appropriate 
finish. The hollowed cornice is usually embellished with up- 
right leaves or staves; and, when it crowns a portal, a winged 
sun-disc generally hovers over the centre. The architectural idea 
embodied in the entablature of the tombs of Beni Hasan is materi- 
ally different. Above the architrave lies a straight projecting slab, 



a, b 

Villa. Entablature from the Tombs of Beni Hasan. VIII6. Entablature 
with hollowed cornice. 

which presents the appearance of being borne by a series of beams 
(Fig. VIII, a). The resemblance here to cognate Oriental modes 
of building is very apparent, while the entablature above described 
is peculiar to Egyptian art. The crowning of the walls with the 
scotia, and its frame-like embellishment of roll-moulding, con- 
stitute the chief articulation of the edifice ; but this would have 
afforded insufficient relief had it not been supplemented with 
colouring, whereby the cold surface of the walls was covered with 
a pattern resembling that of a gorgeous carpet. 

In order that the traveller may thoroughly understand and ap- 
preciate Egyptian architecture, he should make himself acquainted, 
not merely with the different modes of building and their details, 
but with the peculiarities of the national religious rites. The costly 
stone edifices of the ancient Egyptians were used exclusively for 
religious purposes. It is an error to suppose that the temples con- 
tained the royal residences within their precincts ; the nature of the 
climate alone would have rendered them uninhabitable. The kings' 
palaces, as we learn from the representations of them in tombs, were 
edifices of a very light and airy description, adorned with balconies, 
colonnades , and bowers, and surrounded by gardens and ponds. 
They were built of brick and wood, and, as the sole object of the 
architects was to provide a convenient and pleasant dwelling, they 
were richly decorated with colouring. 

With regard to the architecture of the temples, it is important 

HISTORY OF ART. clxxiii 

to keep in view the fact, that they were neither destined for the 
reception of a congregation like Christian churches, nor, like the 
Greek temples, erected as mere receptacles for the image of the god. 
The Egyptian worshippers approached the temple precincts in 
solemn procession, and the profane remained outside, while the ini- 
tiated and the ordained penetrated to different parts of the interior 
in accordance with the degree of their knowledge of the divine 
myBteries, the high priest alone being privileged to enter the 
innermost sanctuary. 

The multitude would first arrive in their festively decorated 
boats by the great highway of the Nile, and they would then traverse 
the avenue leading to the temple, which was flanked by sphinxes 
on each side. The sphinxes consist of a lion's body with the 
head of a man (Androsphinx), or that of a ram (Kriosphinx), and 
according to an inscription at Edfu they were intended to sym- 
bolise the conflict of Horus with Typhon-Seth. The sphinx avenue 
led to the precincts of the temple proper, the Temenos of the 
Greeks, which were completely enclosed by a wall, built of bricks 
of the Nile clay, or, as at Edfu, of solid stone. The sacred lakes, 
generally two in number, and the sacred grove were usually the 
only accessories of the temple which lay without the precincts. 
At the end of the avenue the eye is confronted by two huge towers 
with the entrance between them, called the Pylons, which are in 
the form of truncated pyramids, with walls divided into sections 
by round staves, and affording admirable surfaces for plastic or 
pictorial decoration. The pylons and the portal between them are 
both crowned with the usual scotia. Under ordinary circumstances 
these pylons present a very imposing appearance, but their 
grandeur must have been much enhanced when they were festively 
decorated (as in Fig. IX) on solemn occasions, and when gaily hung 
with flags to welcome the arrival of the worshippers. Within the 
pylons, in the larger temples, lay a large open court (Peristyle), 
flanked on two or three sides with colonnades, and beyond it a 
large hall borne by columns (Hypostyle), of which those in the 
centre, differing in size and form of capital, marked out the route 
to be followed by the procession. In many of the temples a smaller 
columnar hall, and chambers of smaller size and decreasing height, 
all lying in the line of the processional Toute (and together called 
the Prosecus), separated the hypostyle from the small, dark, and 
secluded sanctuary, called the Adytum or Secus, sometimes con- 
sisting of a single huge hollowed block of stone , where behind 
rich curtains lay the symbol of a god and a sacred animal. The 
sanctuary was surrounded by a number of chambers of various 
sizes, and staircases led to the roof and to other apartments which 
either served as dwellings for the custodians and receptacles for 
the temple furniture, or for the celebration of sacred rites. 

Having thus glanced at the internal arrangements of the temple, 



we may now retrace our steps and rejoin the devout procession. 
The lower classes of the people (the 'Pasu'), forming the great bulk 
of the procession, were not permitted to advance beyond the sacred 
grove and the courtyard, where on certain days they offered sacri- 
fices. The 'Patu', or lowest grade of the instructed, the 'Rekhiu', 
or esoterics, who were initiated into the sacred mysteries, and the 
'Ammiu', or enlightened, advanced into the great hall, and from 
the portal of the Prosecus, or hall 'of the manifestation of majesty', 
they were permitted to beheld from afar the sacred emblem of 
divinity. These worshippers were now passed by the king and the 
officiating priests, who ascended in solemn procession to the roof, 
while the high priest entered the small and sombre chamber of the 

IX. Decorated Portal and Pylons. 

god. The annexed ground-plan of the S. temple at Karnak will 
render the foregoing description more intelligible (Fig. X), and 
analogous arrangements might easily be pointed out in the temples 
of other nations, such as those of Semitic race. The erection of 
obelisks or colossi (or both) in front of the pylons is also suscep- 
tible of easy explanation. The obelisks, the form of which was well 
adapted to break the monotonous outline of the walls, record in 
hieroglyphic inscriptions the victorious power bestowed on the 



Pharaohs by the god , while the royal statues remind beholders of 
the duty of monarchs to show their gratitude by erecting temples to 
the gods. The winged disk of the sun with the heads of the TJrseus 
serpent (p. civ) over every entrance has also a noteworthy signif- 
ication. It symbolises the victory of Horus over Typhon, and the 
triumph of good over evil ; and an inscription at Edfu informs us 
that, after the victory of Horus, Thoth (reason) commanded this 
symbol to be placed over all entrances. On the other hand the 
way in which architecture is constantly made subservient to 
painting , for the purpose of obtaining surfaces for symbols and 
inscriptions, is unpleasing. Every column, every pillar, every 
roof-beam, and every wall is embellished with raised or engraved 

X. Ground Plan of the S. Temple at Karnak. 

figures and characters, all of which are painted. The scenes which 
portray the victories of the Pharaohs, and their intercourse with the 
gods, are always accompanied by explanatory inscriptions, and even 
the simplest ornaments used under the New Empire have some 
symbolical signification. 

The form of temple above described sometimes required to be 
varied in consequence of the nature of the site. In Lower Nubia 
the sandstone rocks approach so near the Nile that the temples had 
to be partially or wholly excavated in their sides. At Girgeh, for 
example (Fig. XI), the pylons and the colonnaded courtyard were 
built in the open air in front of the temple, while the hypostyle and 
the sanctuary were excavated in the rock. The larger temple of Abu 
Simbel, on the other hand, including the pylons and the colossi, is 
entirely excavated in the rock. During the Ptolemsean era other de- 
viations from the traditional types came into vogue. Differences' in 
the forms of the capitals, in the ornamentation, and other details, 
as well as a more arbitrary disposition of the temple arrangements 
themselves, now clearly betray the invasion of Greek influences. 

Several of these late buildings, entirely enclosed by columns, 
with intervening walls rising to half the height of the columns, 
or even higher , so strongly resemble the Greek peripteral temples 
externally, that some internal similarity is involuntarily expected. 
The probable object of some of these edifices, namely to serve as 



enclos ures for sacred animals, proves them to be of purely Egyptian 
origin ; but , owing to the abnormal disposition of the different 
members, it is difficult to conceive them to be products of purely 
native art. Besides the temples in the island of Philae, the im- 

XI. Ground Plan of the Grotto of Girgeh. 

posing edifices of Edfu (Apollinopolis Magna), K6nrOmbu (Ombos), 
Esneh (Latopolis), Tentyris (Dendera), and Erment (Hermonthis), 
afford ample opportunities for the study of the Ptolemaean style of 
architecture, the impression produced by which is apt to procure 
for Egyptian art a less favourable general verdict than it strictly 

While the edifices dedicated to the service of the gods belong 
exclusively to the period of the new empire, there still exist Mor- 
tuary Temples the origin of which may be traced back to the re- 
motest periods of the ancient empire. The oldest of these temples 
are called Mastabas (comp. p. 173), and contained a chapel for the 
celebration of sepulchral rites, as well as a tomb. The kings, 
however, were not satisfied with a monument in which their 
tombs and mortuary chapels were united, but adjacent to their 
pyramids erected temples in which sacrifices were to be offered for 
the welfare of their souls. The handsome pillar-structure of granite 
and alabaster near the great Sphinx appears to have been a temple of 
this kind in connection with the pyramid of Chefren. Under the 
New Empire also the kings constructed their actual burial-places at 
a distance from the monuments dedicated to their memory. The 
deep rock vaults in the ravines of the royal tombs were the resting- 
places of their remains, while the great 'Memnonia' (which are 
placed exclusively on the W. bank of the Nile at Thebes) were the 
temples where rites were celebrated in their memory. The most inter- 
esting feature of the mortuary temples is their pictorial decoration. 
The subjects of those in the memnonia are of course the power and 
prosperity, the victories and achievements, of the monarchs, while 
the private chapels contained scenes from the domestic life of the 

HISTORY OF ART. clxxvii 

deceased. The memnonia sometimes covered a very extensive area, 
like that of Ramses II., which contained a library and a school. 
Most of them have pylons and large colonnaded halls, but it cannot 
now be ascertained whether they were uniform in their arrangements. 

By far the greater number of Egyptian sculptures are in im- 
mediate connection with architectural woTks. Colossal statues 
mount guard over pylons and pillars, and every available surface 
is adorned with reliefs. If these plastic works are to be fairly 
judged, they must be regarded as component parts of the building 
they adorned. Speaking of the colossal statues, Dr. Lepsius justly 
remarks : — 'The features of these statues, which even received 
divine honours, and were enthroned in, or in front of, temples in 
a commanding position, either as structural supports, or detached 
from the pillars behind, them, wear the same character of monu- 
mental repose as the statues of the gods themselves, and yet 
without the possibility of their human individuality being 
confounded with the universally typical features of the divine 
images'. — This is eminently the case with the colossal sitting 
statues, whose position (with their legs bent at a right angle, 
their arms firmly pressed against their sides , and their heads 
looking in a perfectly straight direction) may well be called stiff, 
but not properly conventional. Many peculiarities of Egyptian 
art, especially during the earlier period, are apt to be attributed to 
the imperative requirements of sacerdotal authority, but they 
are perhaps rather to be accounted for by the imperfection of 
artistic development. The sculptors exhibit great skill in detail, 
but they seem incapable of making their skill subserve the general 
effect of their works. They have obviously striven to represent each 
member of the body with the utmost fidelity, but they were inca- 
pable of combining them harmoniously. Thus, we generally 
see reliefs with the faces in profile, the chest nearly facing us, 
and the legs again in profile, a peculiarity which recurs in the 
works of other Oriental nations, and even in those of the Greeks of 
the early period. This defect was at length overcome by the Greeks, 
but of the Egyptian artists it continued permanently characteristic, 
just as their heroes invariably retain the primitive distinction of 
being delineated in much larger proportions than other persons. 
Hampered by these immutable rules as to proportion (which were 
modified twice only in the course of several thousand years), Egypti- 
an art appears to have been seriously checked in its growth, and 
to have entered, after a brief period of efflorescence, on a long era 
of what may be termed Byzantinism, — and yet in many respects 
the Egyptian sculptures merit our highest admiration. The artistic 
effects capable of being produced in any given material, such as 
granite, were always calculated with the nicest discrimination ; 
nothing capable of achievement is left undone, and beyond this 
nothing is attempted. The sculptors are notable for their knowledge 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. m 



of anatomy, for their accuracy in the delineation of muscle, for 
their skill in portraiture, and for their fidelity in representing 
animal life. Of all the Egyptian works the figures of the gods aTe 
perhaps the least happy. To us they seem to exhibit a want of taste 

and intelligence ; hut this is perhaps to be accounted for by the fact 
that they were intended to be worshipped only, and not admired. 
That the practice of art was very highly developed in Egypt is proved 
not merely by the great extent to which the division of labour was 
carried, but by the fact that the artists understood the process of 
copying figures by dividing them into squares and calculating their 
proportions so as to be able to reduce or enlarge them at pleasure. 
As all authorities, however, concur in pronouncing the Egyptian 
artists perfect in point of technical skill,- it would be superfluous 
to say more on this branch of the subject. 

Besides the painting of the Egyptian plastic works, another pe- 
culiarity is the incision of the reliefs, wMch recede from the surface 
instead of being raised above it. These 'coelanoglyphs', or 'reliefs en 
creux' , which somewhat resemble pieces of embroidery, produce 
nearly the same effect as paintings. Their object is the same, and 
the style of composition, design , and artistic execution are nearly 
identical. No attention whatever was paid to tastefulness in group- 
ing or uniformity of arrangement , the separate scenes being merely 
placed beside or over each other ; but, individually, these are re- 
markable for distinctness and excellence of execution, and they 
afford us a far more vivid picture of the life of the ancient Egypt- 
ians, their customs, their wars, and their religious rites, than 
any written chronicle could have afforded. In artistic finish, on the 
other hand, these scenes are defective, and the colouring has no in- 
dependent value , being merely used to make the figures stand 
out more distinctly, and imitating nature in the crudest possible 

In the provinoe of artistic conception we find Egyptian im- 


agination fettered by traditional bonds which it made no effort to 
break ; but in the practice of the handicrafts Egypt was perfect. 
The goldsmiths and workers in metal in particular had attained the 
most complete mastery of their craft ; they thoroughly understood 
all its ancillary arts, such as enamelling and Damascene work, and 
they were thus able to produce works of a degree of finish such as 
a highly civilised nation alone could execute and appreciate. 

The traveller should note the signification of some of the Sym- 
bols and Signs most commonly used in the ornamentation of the 

columns and other parts of the Egyptian temples. Thus, | is the 

crook or shepherd's staff, the emblem of the leader or monarch ; 
^\ a scourge, the symbol of kingly power. When both are in 
the hand of the same figure they perhaps import the power of 

restraining and of urging onwards. Then nr a seal , the symbol 
g 1 P / 

of life; T7 Nilometer, the symbol of steadfastness; \J the red 
U Jl W 

crown of Lower Egypt ; /I the white crown of Upper Egypt ; 

the united crown of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt; \L and the 

Urseus serpent , represented on diadems and suns by jOj. The 
Uraeus serpent, possessing the power of life and death, was 

the emblem of kingly power. The sceptre, J user, denoted author- 
ity of various kinds, power, wealth, and victorious strength. The 
sceptre T , which is read us, t'am, or ouab, indicates the name of 

the Theban nomos ; N — / , a basket, signifies a master ; V^/, a 
decorated basket, a festival, or solemn assembly, at which offerings 

were made in such receptacles ; \\ maa, an ostrich-feather, truth 
and justice ; t Jl ran, the frame surrounding the names of kings, 
signifies the name ; >yf kheper, the scarabaeus or beetle, the prin- 
ciple of genesis and regeneration. The precise meaning of the 
symbol V is unknown, but it is read sam, and signifies union. It 

is frequently observed at the foot of statues, entwined with aquatic 
plants, where it is symbolical of the union of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, and perhaps of the union of this world with the next. The 
lock 9 on the temple of a figure marks it as a child, generally the 
offspring of the gods or of the kings. 


IX. Greek (Alexandrian) Art in Egypt. 

By Professor Theodor Schreiber of Leipsic. 

Early Egyptian Art did not die out with the Pharaohs; both 
under the Ptolemies and, later still, under the Roman emperors, 
temples in the old style were raised, restored, or enlarged, and were 
adorned as before with statues, frescoes, and obelisks, while the 
worship of the old national gods was continued in them unchanged. 
But the new rulers and the Greeks who immigrated with them 
established Hellenic customs, art, and science in Egypt, as they had 
been established in the other kingdoms of Alexander's successors. 
Alexandria, the mighty creation of Alexander the Great, destined to 
be the centre of his empire, became, as the residence of his succes- 
sors, the Ptolemies, who distinguished themselves as patrons of 
learning , the central point of the intellectual interests of the Hel- 
lenic world, though Athens, of course, still retained some of her old 
supremacy, and Pergamum at a later date also entered the lists. 
In the Museum of Alexandria investigations concerned with the 
direct observation of men and things , were carried on side by side 
with the literary and historical studies of scholars. Poets and artists 
gathered in crowds at the brilliant court ; and the royal passion for 
building undertook tasks undreamt of by earlier Greek art, and 
which, indeed, with its limited resources, that art could never have 
achieved. East and West met in Egypt, and the most diverse peoples 

— Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Negroes from the interior of Africa, etc. 

— mingled there in the closest association , in which the Greeks, 
though the dominant element, adapted themselves to many of the 
native religious and social customs, and learned to keep their eyes 
open to the good qualities of their neighbours. Thus there arose in 
Egypt the neo-Greek culture which we are accustomed to call Hel- 
lenism. The earlier illiberal limitation of Greek interests to Greek- 
speaking countries was exchanged for a cosmopolitan liberality; clas- 
sical culture enjoyed a second flowering-time, which harbingered 
the culture of the Roman imperial epoch and indeed that of the 
Renaissance also. 

This new impulse , which put forth fresh shoots in all branches 
of literature , was especially advantageous to the plastic art of the 
Greeks, which found its chief centre at Alexandria. Purely Hellenic 
in its roots , this art (in contrast to the ancient classical art which 
lingered on unchanged in Athens) assumed under the above-men- 
tioned influences a character that is striking for its modern spirit. 
In many points it may be compared with the baroque style in modern 
art. Its historical importance consists mainly in the fact that it 
became the favourite mistress of the artists of Rome. In countless 
monuments of the imperial epoch the influence of peculiarly Alex- 
andrian models will be detected in the intermixture of Egyptian 
motives — Egyptian landscapes, Egyptian animal-figures, and iso- 


lated details borrowed from early Egyptian art. It is obvious, for 
example, that the celebrated statue of the Nile in the Vatican could 
have been conceived only under the influence of the Alexandrian 
school. In many other instances the careful student in European col- 
lections must have been struck by Greek works of art, whose subjects 
plainly suggest an Egyptian origin ; and a comparison of these sculp- 
tures with each other would show that in many cases their style and 
conception also exhibit a peculiar impress. The Egyptian collections 
in the larger museums afford the most convenient opportunities 
of studying the traces of this art, once richly developed but now 
historically almost extinct. These museums also contain relics of 
the Alexandrian art of the Greek or Roman period, the British Mu- 
seum and the Museums of Berlin and Turin being especially rich in 
this respect. 

The great buildings of the Greek period in Egypt have gradually 
disappeared almost without leaving a trace , though some lingered 
until this century, foT the simple reason that most. of them were 
built of marble which could be used conveniently as material for 
other buildings or for lime-burning. The majestic Alexandrian 
Serapeum with its forest of pillars has disappeared, leaving as its 
only relic the so-called 'Pompey's Pillar' which originally stood in the 
middle of the temple-court. Yet in size and conception this building 
was one of the greatest creations of ancient Architecture , and the 
first achievement of the new style originated by Deinocrates , the 
gifted architect of Alexander the Great, which exhibited a combina- 
tion of Oriental and ancient Greek forms. From the East were 
borrowed the art of wall-incrustation (here used for the first time), 
the principle of building domes with a sky-light at the apex (in the 
style of the Pantheon at Rome) , and the system of building upon 
terraces. The Serapeum , the common national sanctuary of the 
Greeks and Egyptians, was elevated high above the city by means of 
a huge substructure in several stories, which served as its basis. The 
lowest story of this foundation-building had domes of the kind 
described above ; the second, somewhat retreating, story was similar; 
and still higher were a third and a fourth story. The platform on the 
top , reached by a staircase of a hundred steps, formed a spacious 
temple-court, which was surrounded with colonnades and adorned at 
the entrance with propylaea and in the centre with the above-mentioned 
huge column , on which probably stood the statue of Alexander as 
founder of the city. The temple, with the colossal statue of Serapis, 
occupied the background. This colossus and the temple itself were 
experiments in the new style of incrustation just introduced from 
the East. The statue of Serapis is said to have included six different 
metals, besides all kinds of gems, but the exact method of its con- 
struction is still uncertain. It was apparently, however, related to 
the new style of wall-decoration, which can be minutely traced in 
its prototypes , beginning , and progress. The walls of Babylonian 


and Persian royal palaces were built of sun-dried bricks and then 
faced with slabs of alabaster, glazed tiles ; or even with gilded metal 
plates ; in like manner the brick walls in the buildings of the Ptolemies 
were covered — first of all, it is said, in the Serapeum — with slabs 
of marble, glass , or metal, and were adorned with friezes, reliefs, or 
mosaics. So late as the end of the 16th cent, the Italian traveller 
Filippo Pigafetta (1533-1604) saw in Alexandria fragments of wall- 
decoration 'of wonderful work', in houses that had survived from 
antiquity and were still inhabited; and even in the present day the 
heaps of rubbish which have gradually accumulated above the ruins 
of antiquity have been searched through and through for the real and 
imitation gems once used in this mural decoration. Extensive 
remains of marble incrustation, which was often combined with the 
rarest varieties of stone, have recently been found on the coast of 
Alexandria near the old Quarantine (i. e. in the region of the royal 
palaces), and have been examined by the German geologists Fraas 
and Schneider. From Alexandria this style of wall-decoration was 
introduced into Rome under the emperors ; but it had been known 
and practised centuries before on the Campanian coast , where this 
new decoration awoke to a new life, partly in the richest forms (as 
in the buildings of Baiae), and partly only in stucco or even painted 
imitations. The architectural paintings of Pompeii , which are 
entirely dependent upon Alexandrian prototypes, convey perhaps 
the best idea of the varied patterns of this art, and more especially 
of the peculiar character of the Alexandrian baroque style, which 
expressed all the freshness of its fancy in novel forms of columns 
and beams, in the charming grouping of spaces , and still more in 
the union of architecture with formal gardens. 

Not much more than the names have come down to us of a 
number of large buildings of the Ptolemies, each of which doubtless 
represented an architectural advance. Such were the Soma, or 
Mausoleum of Alexander the Great, the harbour-works (Heptastadion 
and Diabaihra) which united the city and the island of Pharos, and 
the Alexandrian Temple of Pan, which rose in the form of a hill. 
The last relics of the Telesterium, a temple built by Ptolemy II. 
outside the E. gate of the city for the celebration of the Eleusinian 
mysteries, were destroyed about the middle of the present century, 
before scholars had found time to examine them carefully. All that 
remains of the Greek Serapeum, in the necropolis of Sakkara, now 
lies buried again in the sands of the desert, except the sculptures 
brought to light in the first excavation, some of which are now 
left to disintegrate in the open air (comp. pp. 166 et seq.). Suffi- 
cient attention has not yet been paid to the position in architectural 
history of the technically unique Aqueduct of Alexandria, which 
was coaeval with the foundation of the city, and stretched its sub- 
cerranean canals along all the principal streets, supplying the 
cisterns which were found in every house and some of which are 


still in existence. Of the palaces and villas of the Ptolemies , of 
the celebrated lighthouse on the island of Pharos, of the Gymnasium 
situated on the Dromos or chief street, and of a few other buildings 
we learn from ancient authors enough at least to justify us in sur- 
mising that they served as models to the Roman architects for sim- 
ilar edifices. The building of Alexandria was the first example on 
a grand scale of the systematic laying out of a city on a homo- 
geneous plan, with its regular network of streets cutting each other 
at right angles and bordered with colonnades, its long vistas, and 
its symmetrically disposed public buildings ; and it was imitated in 
innumerable subsequent foundations. The latest of these was Antinoe, 
founded by Hadrian on the Nile, the lingering remnants of which 
were not finally destroyed until the present century. The Rue de 
Rosette in modern Alexandria marks the line of the ancient main 
street, which united the E. and W. gates of the fortifications ; and 
numerous remains of the double colonnade with which it once was 
bordered, are seen in the fragments of columns in the neighbouring 
houses and gardens. 

These comprehensive architectural undertakings were naturally 
accompanied by a corresponding activity in the domain of Sculpture. 
Both under the Ptolemies, and afterwards under the Roman em- 
perors, this art was especially employed, as it had been under the 
ancient' Pharaohs, in producing statues and busts of the royal family. 
Besides its monumental creations, of which scanty relics only are 
now extant, it was wonderfully prolific in genre compositions and 
decorative sculpture. The extant sculptures may be easily divided 
into three classes according to their style. The first class comprizes 
the works of native artists affected by Greek influence, who adhere in 
general to the traditional canon, but display a purer taste in the treat- 
ment of the face and in the attitude and modelling of the figure. 
Thus the colossal statue of a Macedonian king (said to be Alexan- 
der II.), which was found in the temple-precincts at Karnak and is 
now in the Museum of Gizeh (Room XL, No. 308), is executed, 
as regards its general arrangement, in conformity with the ancient 
Egyptian scheme of statues, while its face and hair are treated in a 
freer manner. The Egyptian sculptor of the portrait-statue of a native 
scribe found at Alexandria (No. 294 in the Gizeh Museum) has gone 
still further. Not only has he abandoned the crouching posture tradi- 
tional for such subjects, but he has also imitated as closely as possible 
the Greek style In the attitude, the shape of the head, and the folds 
of the drapery; though at the same time the stiffness of the position, 
and still more the pillar at the back with its hieroglyphic inscription, 
clearly announce the origin of the artist. A smaller group of sta- 
tues and reliefs are apparently the works of Greek immigrants, 
who brought with them, and practised unchanged, an art acquired 
abroad, and mainly inspired by Athenian ideals. Examples of 
this Alexandrian 'Ideal Style' are to be seen in the splendid Head 


of a Gaul in the Gizeh Museum , -which deviates considerably in 
style from the well-known realistic Gauls' heads of the Pergamen- 
ian school ; a sepulchral Stele in the same Museum (Room XL, 
No. 289) ; and the beautiful Head of Alexander in the British 
Museum. The most important achievement of this school was the 
above-mentioned colossus of SeTapis in the Serapeum at Alexandria, 
the work of a sculptor named Bryaxis, who seems to have been an 
immigrant from Caria ; and this may still be reconstructed in its 
details with the help of numerous larger or smaller copies. The 
colossus represented the mysterious deity sitting on a throne, with 
Cerberus by his side, and crowned with the corn-measure, the em- 
blem of fruitfulness. The grave countenance framed with flowing 
locks presented him as the ruler of the kingdom of the dead and as 
the beneficent saviour, in a manner .recalling the conceptions of 
Zeus, somewhat as the colossal head in the Gizeh Museum (No. 306) 
represents him. 

The sculptors of Smaller "Works of Art also were at first 
entirely dependent upon the Greek motherland. Thus for terracottas 
they borrowed models from Tanagra, so that numerous Egyptian 
terracottas have been found absolutely identical with the well- 
known Tanagrjrfigures. But it was just in the studios of these sculp- 
tors that an independent spirit manifested itself at a very early date. 
Their art emancipated itself from the imported forms and motives, 
and found a new method of expression for fresh materials supplied 
directly from the experiences and environment of the artists. This 
peculiarly Alexandrian art shows a character in complete contrast 
with the above-mentioned ideal school; its basis is the most uncom- 
promising Realism. Its favourite subjects, frequently treated in a 
humorous or satirical vein, were common scenes from the street- 
life of the metropolis , which seems in many points to have been 
similar to that of the modern Arab quarters of Cairo and Alexandria. 
Thus, for example, in a bronze group from the Delta (now in the 
Polytechnic at Athens) we see a Nubian fruit-seller crouching on the 
ground and snatching a siesta behind his tastefully arranged wares, 
while an ape, seated on his shoulder, carries on investigations in his 
master's hair. Another bronze , of similar origin and in the same 
collection, represents a slave with the typical head of the Akka 
negroes somewhat caricatured , hastily devouring a stolen piece of 
meat. From the same place also comes the basalt figure (now at 
Athens) of a Nubian boy carrying a burden on his raised left hand, 
while the elbow is supported on the hip, in a manner customary to 
this day. These three statuettes are masterpieces, not only in tech- 
nique but even more in their keen conception and reproduction of 
racial characteristics. Numerous specimens of similar street-types 
will be found among the Greek terracottas in the museums at Cairo 
and Alexandria. We can best see what were the favourite subjects 
of the Alexandrian sculptors, and how they were treated, from those 


familiar works of humbler art, which of course had their models in 
the higher branches ; from the designs on terracotta lamps ; and 
from the small bronze figures which are found in great numbers in 
the Nile Delta. Many of the motives would be well adapted for foun- 
tain-figures, if executed on a larger scale, and they were probably orig- 
inally devised for this purpose; such are, e.g., the boy seated on a stone 
with basket and fishing-rod (a bronze from the former Pugioli collec- 
tion at Alexandria), and. the recumbent figure of a Satyr leaning on his 
wine-skin, and causing a jet of water to issue from it (Gizeh Muse- 
um at Cairo). Many subjects again were taken from the theatre and 
the wrestling-ring, and still more from the popular pleasure-resorts 
in the streets ; for the Alexandrians, notorious for their love of 
pleasure and enjoyment of ridicule, took peculiar delight in jugglers 
and mountebanks of all kinds, and in dwarfs and cripples, etc. 
Caricatures, sometimes of the most doubtful character, thus form a 
considerable fraction among the productions of this art. At the same 
time the artists preserved also a certain strain of idealism, shown in 
their inclination to present these genre motives in mythological set- 
ting, as when they represent Satyrs and Cupids in all kinds of genre 
situations, Aphrodite beating the mischievous Cupid, Hercules stag- 
gering home intoxicated from the banquet, etc. 

The suitability of this art for decorative purposes is apparent 
even in these creations. But it makes a farther advance in this 
direction in the reliefs, the most developed form of which, the pictorial 
relief with landscape background, also took its rise under the in- 
fluence of Ptolemaic art. The so-called Campanian reliefs, a series of 
terracotta compositions which were placed side by side after the man- 
ner of a frieze, must, in spite of the fact that they have been found for 
the most part in Italy and are abundant in Italian museums (several 
good specimens in the Gizeh Museum, Room XLV, Cabinets A and 
G), owe their origin to Alexandrian studios, seeing that the ornament- 
al form of these friezes, and still more the Nile-scenes and the figures 
in the Egyptian style , which are sometimes accompanied by hiero- 
glyphics chosen at random, obviously point to this origin. 

The most fashionable art under the Ptolemies, in which Ptolemy II. 
Philadelphos engaged with his own hands, was the Greek Goldsmiths' 
Work (Toreutic). Its productions were used not only to adorn the 
royal table and the sumptuous rooms of the palace in the Bruchium, 
but also lent splendour to the processions which formed part of the 
brilliant court-festivals. From the description of one of these festivals 
which has come down to us through Kallixenos of Rhodes, the royal 
treasure of the Ptolemies appears to have been extraordinarily rich 
in the costliest gold and silver plate. But delight in gold and jewelry 
prevailed also among the simplest classes of the citizens, as is proved 
Dy the multitude of ornaments found in the Grseco-Roman necro- 
poles. We obtain an idea of the wares fashioned by the Alexandrian 
goldsmiths for these middle classes of the population, from the moulds 


and stamps, the stucco models, and other utensils and tools that have 
been preserved. It is more than probable that the magnificent silver 
treasures of Hildesheim and Villeret, the silver goblets of the Casa 
dell'Argenteria at Pompeii, and others of the most perfect extant 
specimens of Greek goldsmiths' work, are actually original produc- 
tions of Alexandrian studios. Considerable discoveries of this kind 
have been brought from Egypt within recent times. The Gizeh 
Museum contains a number of candelabra, censers, vases, and other 
good bronzes, the complete resemblance of which in form and de- 
coration to the Campanian copies now preserved in the National 
Museum at Naples can hardly escape notice. 

"While almost no documentary information about Alexandrian 
sculpture has come down to us from antiquity, we are, on the other 
hand, tolerably well informed as to the Painting that flourished in 
Egypt after Alexander the Great. We have documentary accounts 
of a number of important painters with their names and works. Anti- 
philos, a native of Egypt and a pupil of the little-known Ktesidemos, 
seems to have been the most famous of these. He was celebrated 
not only for his skilful execution but also for the versatility of his 
fancy; and he painted both portraits and genre-pictures as well as 
larger mythological compositions. Some of the subjects treated by 
him (Rape of Europa in sight of the horrified King Cadmus; Hesione 
freed by Hercules) are met with in Pompeian mural paintings, which 
we may therefore, perhaps, regard as direct copies. Among his 
portraits are mentioned two of Alexander the Great, and a hunting- 
scene with the portrait of Ptolemy I. The accounts of his genre- 
pictures are rather more important. In one of these he depicted a 
weaving-shop, with women weaving, and in another a dark room 
lighted only by the fire in a brazier, which a boy was trying to blow 
into flame. The half-light in the room and the reflection of the fire 
on the boy's face were said to be admirably reproduced. He dealt 
with a similar problem of colouring in his picture of the Aposkopeuon 
('On the Outlook'), representing a Satyr shading his eyes with his 
hand and gazing into the distance. We must therefore think of this 
artist as a master of chiaroscuro and of the art of representing 
transparent shadows and strong light-effects. Like a true Alexandrian 
he made a name for himself also as a caricaturist. His pictures of 
dancing jugglers (Grylli) have been copied in all possible variations 
on gems and in reliefs, and also in the wall-paintings at Pompeii. 

From this tendency towards the grotesque and comic there was 
developed a distinct branch in Alexandrian art, that, namely, of 
Satirical Painting. The idolatrous reverence for Homer, which had 
spread among the scholars and poets of Ptolemy's court and had, in- 
deed, reached the dignity of a cult with temples and images of its 
own, is said to have been satirized by Galaton, a painter of this 
school, in a picture which represented Homer in the act of relieving 
an overloaded stomach, while his worshippers extended their hands 


to catch the precious evacuations. Galaton probably lived about the 
time of Ptolemy Philopator; and a little later, under Ptolemy Philo- 
metor, a new branch of Alexandrian art, viz. Landscape-Painting, 
had already reached such a pitch of development, that Demetrios, 
an Egyptian landscape-painter, was able to attain consideration and 
prosperity in Rome, which at that time was little awake to the claims of 
art, and even to afford shelter to the banished ruler of his native land. 

Historical Painting had also its representatives in Egypt. We 
hear of a painting of the battle of Issos executed by 'Helena, daughter 
of Timon the Egyptian' ; and we may surmise , though we cannot 
prove, that this was the original copied in the celebrated Pompeian 
mosaic of Alexander the Great. At the same time numerous cir- 
cumstances point to the conclusion that after a certain date Alexan- 
drian painters and mosaicists were very largely employed in Pom- 
peii, and these would naturally make a free and unrestrained use of 
the favourite compositions of their native land. 

In Egypt itself no wall-paintings in the Greek style and of the 
better period have been found; none at least have reached the mu- 
seums. The painted sepulchral steles and vases exhibit a homely, 
unpretending, mechanical art in their figures. There is another large 
class of paintings comprising the Portraits attached to the heads of 
mummies , painted on thin wooden tablets , in tempera , or in en- 
caustic colours, or in a style uniting both these methods; and pro- 
bably the technical delicacy and freshness of conception which was 
still characteristic of Alexandrian painting at the imperial epoch 
expressed themselves in these. The practice of furnishing the 
mummy-covering with a portrait reproducing the features of the 
deceased dates from early Egyptian times. In the Hellenistic period 
masks modelled in stucco and coloured, or paintings upon wood were 
chosen for this purpose , in order that the features of the deceased 
might be portrayed as those of a living person. In most cases in 
fact, even in portraits of the rudest make , the lifelike expression 
is surprising. They look as though they were executed from the 
living model, so that the theory that they were posthumous portraits 
is not very probable. At the back of some of these portraits a layer 
of mortar, about an inch in thickness, has been found, and in others 
there are holes, which seem to have been meant for nails to fasten the 
picture to the wall; and from these circumstances we may conclude 
that portraits of this kind used to be painted as ornaments for rooms 
during the lifetime of the persons represented, and that they were 
removed from the wall and placed on the mummy-covering after 
death, except when it was preferred to substitute copies of the ori- 
ginals. From the investigations which Prof. Georg Ebers has devoted 
to this class of portraits, it would seem that most, if not all, of the 
specimens yet known come from the cemeteries of the Fayum. The 
persons represented are mostly Hellenistic Egyptians of Greek origin. 
but there are also found amongst them Graeco-Egyptian half-breeds, 


Romans, people of Ethiopian descent, and a tolerably large number 
of Semites (Jews and Phoenicians). For reasons which Ebers has 
more minutely explained and which are not merely stylistic , the 
best of these paintings cannot be more recent than the Ptolemaic 
period. They convey a high idea of the keen faculty of observations 
possessed by the painters, and of a usually free and light touch in the 
use of the pencil and paint-brush, which places these artists by the 
side of the best masters of modern art. These portraits have, moreover, 
a peculiar value in the history of art, as the only extant specimens 
of the remarkable style of work known as Encaustic Painting (wax 
painting), which obtained effects not much inferior to those of mod- 
ern oil-painting, and far exceeded it in point of durability. 

X. Buildings of the Mohammedans. 
Mosques. Dwelling Houses. 

By Franz Pasha, Architect at Cairo. 

The Mohammedan style of architecture in the valley of the Nile 
was not, as might perhaps be expected, the immediate successor 
of the Egyptian, but was separated from it by that of the early 
Christian epoch, a period of six or seven centuries. This new style 
was not of native growth, but was imported from abroad, being of 
Arabian origin, considerably modified by the forms of art which the 
victorious Arabs found in vogue among the Byzantines, and by 
those of Persian art of the era of the Sassanides. Different as the 
Arabian buildings at Baghdad and Cairo may appear from those at 
Tunis and in Spain, they all possess certain features in common. 
The fundamental idea of all Mohammedan architecture originated 
in the nomadic life of the Arabs. The tent was the prototype, 
alike of the house and of the temple. The walls in particular, with, 
their carpet-like decoration , and their extensive, unrelieved sur- 
faces, Temind one of this origin. This style of architecture is that 
of the fickle children of the desert, whose edifices, even after they 
had become a settled and stationary nation, continue to convey an 
idea of unsubstantiality, and who never attained to a clear per- 
ception of the proportion to be observed between the support and 
the burden to be borne. This defect is less apparent in cases where 
the Arabian builders were brought under the influence of more 
civilised nations, where they employed columns, entablatures, and 
other fragments of ruined edifices which they found available, or 
where they were aided by Byzantine or other foreign architects, 
than in purely Arabian edifices ; but in every ease the national 
characteristic is more or less distinctly traceable. 

The buildings most immediately connected with the national 
traditions are the Religious Edifices, the leading feature of which 
consists of the Court, such as that seen at Mecca, which dates from 
a period even earlier than that of Mohammed himself. The walls 


of the court , indeed , lost their primitive simplicity after their 
designers had been brought into contact with the colonnaded courts 
of Egypt and the Syrian regions, and the Columnar Court was thus 
developed ; but the Arabian builders avoided using or imitating 
Egyptian columns. They preferred the columns or remains of col- 
umns of the Alexandrian and Roman period, as the massive pro- 
portions of those of the Egyptian style were less appropriate to a 
light and open structure than the columns of the richly decorated 
Corinthian order. 

They borrowed their cornicings, which they employed but spar- 
ingly, and their mosaic ornamentation, such as arabesques, from the 
Byzantine models which they found in Syria and in the oldest 
Byzantine-Christian edifices of Egypt, and their pointed arches and 
domes chiefly from the region of the Euphrates. At the same time 
they contrived to impart to their works a certain individuality of 
character, partly by the elegance of their forms and the preference 
given to superficial over architectural decoration, and still more so 
by the peculiar character of their ornamentation, resembling the 
patterns of textile fabrics , and obviously imitated from wall- 
tapestry. Similar patterns appear also in their latticed windows, 
their carved doors, and their diapered balconies. 

The Exterior of these buildings is generally plain, consisting of 
a lofty, rectangular enclosing wall of quadrangular plan, but not 
entirely without relief in the form of projections and indentations. 
In the mosques there are usually minarets and domes projecting 
beyond this general outline, and this is still more commonly the 
case with the public fountains (sebll) and the mosque schools 
(medresehj above them. The portal, on the other hand, and certain 
perpendicular sections of the building of various widths, generally 
recede a little, the latter a few inches only, being again brought 
forward immediately below the cornicing to the level of the facade 
by means of a 'stalactite' corbelling. In these last also the windows 
are often inserted with little regard to symmetry. In the corners of 
the projections thus formed, as well as in the other angles of the 
building, we frequently find columns of marble inserted, or columns 
hewn out of the material of the building, and detached to the extent 
of three-fourths of their thickness. The whole plan of the stone 
facades, which is not devoid of a certain degree of grandeur, 
reminds us of those of the ancient Egyptian temples, although the 
Muslims were generally scrupulously careful to avoid every resem- 
blance to the pagan buildings. The portal is generally the richest 
part of the edifice. The windows are simpler, and less importance 
is given to the principal cornice than the height and other dimen- 
sions of the building would seem to demand. 

The Portals consist of rectangular niches, of such depth as to 
allow room on the left and right outside the door for the mastabas, 
or stone-benches used by the doorkeeper (bawwab). This door- 


niche in the mosques rises nearly to the full height of the facade, 
and terminates at the top either in a sphere, or in a polygonal naif- 
dome, partly ribbed, and partly embellished with pendentives or 
'stalactites'. The two perpendicular mural pillars of the niche 
approach each other towards the top, either in curved or in straight 
lines converging at an acute angle. In neither case, however, do they 
actually meet, the niche terminating above in a hemispherical dome, 
which springs from the converging lines. The form of the entrance 
varies considerably. In some cases it terminates above in an archi- 
trave, in others in a TOund or pointed arch, while fantastically 
waved or broken-arch forms are also not uncommon. The commonest 
style in the mosques is the architrave form with segmental relieving 
arches. A favourite practice was to pave the threshold with an an- 
cient block of red or black granite, even if covered with hiero- 
glyphics, and in many cases these venerable inscriptions are still 
traceable. In the mosques, on the resting-place in front of the door, 
is a low railing which marks the boundary to which the visitor may 
penetrate without removing his shoes or sandals. + 

The Windows are more commonly rectangular than arched, 
and are sometimes grouped in twos and threes, in which case they 
are often tastefully adorned with round, oval, or star-shaped ro- 
settes in plaster, perforated, and filled with coloured glass. This 
arrangement has many points of resemblance to the Byzantine 
and Romanesque styles. The windows in the facades are frequently 
surrounded with scrolls in low relief, and with flat bands or roll- 
mouldings. On the inside they are usually adorned with friezes in 
plaster with arabesques. 

Special importance was attached to the principal doors of mon- 
umental buildings, which, as a rule, were massively mounted with 
iron or bronze, or were constructed of pieces of wood of different 
colours, ingeniously fitted together. The portals of some of the 
mosques are embellished with bronze decorations , beautifully 
embossed and chased. The doors in the interior of the buildings 
are often richly inlaid with ebony and ivory. 

The Dome, a very salient feature in Mohammedan buildings, 
especially in the mosques and mausolea , varies much in form ; 
the base of the structure projects beyond the square ground- 
plan of the edifice, and the summit rises above the enclosing wall. 
The dome, which tapers upwards in an elliptical form and is 
adorned with knobs and crescents, is blended with the quadrangular 
interior of the mausoleum by means of pendentives ; while, ex- 
ternally, the union of the cube with the sphere is somewhat masked 
by the polygonal base of the dome. In some cases the transition is 
effected by means of gradations resembling steps, each of which is 

t In the more frequented mosques the custodians provide slippers for 

lisp nf Frn.nV visitors. "Pap. 1 niastrft 

the use of Frank visitors. Fee 1 piastre 


crowned with a half-pyramidal excrescence of the height of the step. 
These excrescences might be regarded as external prolongations of 
the pendentives of the interior, but do not correspond with them in 
position. The architects, however, doubtless intended to suggest 
some such connection between the internal and external orna- 
mentation. The domes are constructed partly of stone and partly 
of brick, the pendants being of stone, or of plaster and lath-work, 
and they are sometimes of considerable length. The finest are 
probably those of the Khalifs' Tombs. The greatly elongated domes 
of the Mameluke tombs have a second dome structure in their in- 
terior. The latter, lying much lower, supports walls placed in a 
radiating form, which bear the upper dome. One of these dilapi- 
dated tombs (p. 80) affords a good opportunity of examining this 
mode of construction. Near it there is also a dome with a lantern, a 
form quite foreign to the customary style of Arabian dome building. 

It is a mistake to suppose that the joints are not cut in a straight 
direction, but were formed in curved or broken lines which re- 
quired each stone to be an exact counterpart of its neighbour. 
This arrangement is occasionally seen in the case of straight or 
flat segment-shaped plinths, but even there this kind of con- 
struction is often merely simulated by means of inlaid marble of 
different colours. 

The Minarets (from the Arabic menareh, 'a signal' or 'signal- 
post') are generally square at the base, tapering upwards, story by 
story, until the form at length changes to that of an octagon or 
cylinder. On these towers the architects have expended their utmost 
skill, and the spectator will not fail to be struck by their graceful 
proportions. The highest story is sometimes formed of pilasters, 
or columns, which bear a roof, either consisting of one or more 
dome-shaped protuberances with the symbol of El-Islam, or of a 
simple conical point. They are generally built of substantial ma- 
sonry, and contain Winding Staircases of stone leading to the 
galleries of the different stories and to the balconies between them. 
From these last the mueddins summon the faithful to prayer 
(p. xci). The galleries are borne by projecting cornices, and the 
balconies by brackets of similar construction. The wooden rods 
and hooks at the top of the minarets are used for hanging up the 
lamps during the fasting month of Ramadan. The mosques were 
also formerly provided with external platforms (called mabkharas), 
on which incense used to be burned on high festivals, so as to 
diffuse sweet perfumes throughout the whole neighbourhood. The 
mosque of El-Hakim is now the only one which still possesses 
platforms of this kind. 

The Public Fountains (sebilsj, with the Mosque Schools (medresehs) 
on the first floor, are frequently included within the rectangular pre- 
cincts of the mosques, but they sometimes project from them in a 
circular form. The exterior of these buildings, and also of the open 


colonnades used for scholastic purposes, is frequently adorned with 
detached columns, which is not the case with the religious edifices. 

The Interiors of the mosques, on the other hand, are freely 
embellished with columns, the court being usually bordered by a 
colonnade, which is doubled or trebled on the side next the prayer- 
niche (kibla). 

Cairo presents no example of a distinct Arabian order of column, 
and hardly a single Arabian capital, those actually executed by Arabs 
(such as those adjoining the prayer-recess of the mosques) being 
imperfectly developed, and copied from Byzantine and Ptolemaean 
models. The form of capital which seems peculiar to Cairo is very 
simple and is also used as a base. Proceeding from the four corners 
of the abacus in curved lines are four surfaces which unite below 
with the ligature of the round or octagonal column. The numerous 
columns which adorn the mosques and private houses originally 
belonged, almost without exception, to Roman or Ptolemaean struc- 
tures, and sometimes to Christian churches. The Mohammedans 
did not, however, employ columns belonging to the ancient Egyptian 
temples unless they had already been remodelled and used in Greek 
or Roman structures. Thus the Roman pedestals with remains of 
hieroglyphics occasionally seen in the mosques must originally have 
belonged to Egyptian temples. The architects of the mosques col- 
lected the columns they required for their purpose with little regard 
to their dimensions. If they were too short, a pedestal, or a revers- 
ed capital was placed beneath them, regardless of the order to 
which it belonged. Ionic and Corinthian columns are mingled pro- 
miscuously, and a certain degree of uniformity in the architecture 
is only observed when the abacus is reached. On this last lies a 
second abacus of sycamore wood secured by a wooden bar, from 
which lamps are frequently suspended. 

The arches of the Arcades are almost invariably pointed, being 
at first round, while their sides go off at a tangent near the top ; or 
they gradually assume the keel-shape, being slightly curved inwards 
below in the shape of a horseshoe. There are also other forms which 
approach still more nearly to the Gothic pointed arch ; and there 
seems little doubt that this form, so early and so generally employed 
at Cairo, was exported thence to Sicily, and became the type which 
afterwards extended to Northern Europe. Beyond this resemblance 
in the form of the arch, however, and in some of the details of 
the windows, the pointed style possesses nothing in common with 
the Arabian. The Gothic gateway of marble between the mosques 
of Kalaun and Barkukiyeh (p. 70) in the Derb el-Nahhasin must, 
therefore, be regarded as a work executed under European in- 
fluence. The popular account of it is that it was brought from 
some island. 

The arcades of the mosques and other spacious halls are covered 
with a flat Ceiling of open-work, of almost uniform height. The 


junction of the walls and ceiling is generally masked by a pendent 
cornice, or a cornice with a frieze for inscriptions. The beams 
used in the construction of the ceilings are generally square at both 
ends to a length of 3-5 ft. , beyond which they are rounded below, 
and frequently carved. The interstices between the beams are 
sometimes divided into 'coffers' ; and proper coffered ceilings also 
occur, as in the mosque Salaheddin Yusuf in the citadel (p. 55). 
In the corners of the apartments , as well as under the principal 
architraves, pendants are generally placed to conceal the angles. The 
earliest ceilings appear to have consisted of palm-trunks, and to have 
been covered with boards of sycamore wood, which were often richly 
carved. The space immediately in front of the kibla (prayer niche) 
usually terminated in a dome borne by columns. Spherical and 
groined vaulting was used for smaller chambers only ; but the 
arcades of the Barkuk mosque (p. 76), with their depressed spher- 
ical brick vaulting , form an exception to this rule. In secular 
buildings the use of vaulting is much more frequent , as in the 
case of the city-gate Bab en-Nasr (p. 72) and other arched pas- 
sages. The entire groundfloors of palaces are also sometimes vaulted, 
and bridges and aqueducts were usually executed in barrel vaulting, 
or with pointed arches. 

The Decorations generally consist of panelling or flat paintings, 
destitute of structural meaning, while pilasters, cornices, and other 
architectural embellishments are rare. This species of ornamenta- 
tion was doubtless originally suggested by the carpets , fringes, 
and mats, used by the Arabs for covering their walls. The stalactite 
corbellings, on the other hand, which mask the union of the vertical 
with the horizontal parts of the building, and take the place of the 
vaulting used in western architecture , are of a more structural 
character ; but even these perform no real architectural function, 
and form a mere fantastic decoration of the angles of the domes. 

The panel and frieze decorations are either foliage, geometrical 
figures, or written characters. The Foliage is usually shaped in 
rectangular relief, with a few incisions to divide the broader 
surfaces. The moulding is generally more or less in conformity 
with the spirit of the classical style, but in the conventional 
arabesques the leaves and other paTts of plants of a southern 
climate are recognisable. The Geometrical Figures consist either 
of a kaleidoscopic arrangement of constantly recurring fantastic 
forms, or of a series of intertwined and broken lines. Lastly, 
the Arabic Written Characters with which the friezes are often 
decorated, and more particularly the Cuflc and Sullus characters, 
are peculiarly well adapted for ornamental purposes, as they 
resemble decorative foliage, although destitute of its strictly sym- 
metrical and continuous character. "When the writing is em- 
ployed for lengthy inscriptions in low relief, the ground on which 
it is placed is generally covered with slightly raised arabesques. 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. n 


Panels or friezes bearing inscriptions of this character produce a 
very rich and pleasing appearance. When viewed from a moderate 
distance, especially if enhanced by colouring, the broad characters 
stand out with great effect. The ground then resembles a network 
of lace , the delicate lines of the arabesques being indistinguish- 
able except on close inspection. Sultan Hasan's mosque (p. 52) 
contains a remarkably handsome frieze of this description. The 
large and bold characters on the mosques or private houses which 
strike the eye of the traveller are almost invariably texts from the 
Koran, while historical notices in a small running character are 
often inscribed on marble slabs over the entrances and on the lattice- 
work of the sebils, where they are sometimes carved in wood. Similar 
inscriptions also occasionally occur in the halls of the interior. 

The observer can scarcely fail to be struck with the apparently 
capricious way in which this ornamentation is distributed, the artist 
having sometimes lavished the whole richness of his arabesques 
upon certain spots to the neglect of others. "When this peculiarity 
is more closely examined, it will be found that the parts thus 
favoured are — (1) the Portals , which are embellished with a 
framework of rich friezes , with rosettes to mark certain points, 
with artistic sculpturing on the architrave, and with pendants in 
the ceiling of the niche ; [2) the Minarets, which it was customary 
to place over or adjacent to the portals, but seldom from structural 
motives ; (3) the external surfaces of the Dome, which are sometimes 
covered with arabesques, and sometimes with roll - mouldings 
or wreaths ; (4) the Kibla, with its handsome bordeT , its capitals 
and columns, which are often rich and beautiful , its fine mosaics, 
its miniature pseudo-arcades ; (5) the Pendants in the interior of 
mausoleums ; (6) the Ceilings ; (7) the Mimbar (pulpit), which is 
partly in stone and partly in wood. The lattice-work , windows, 
doors, couches or sofas (dikkeh), lanterns, and lamps are also much 
ornamented. These last are sometimes made of very curious 
enamelled glass, but few are now to be found in the mosques. 

Colour does not, perhaps, play quite so conspicuous a part in the 
Egypto- Arabian monuments as in the Spanish ; but the Egyptian 
artists, like those of the Alhambra , were also much addicted to the 
use of bright colours, especially red, blue, yellow, gold, and white. 
The ground of the decorative inscriptions is frequently deep blue, 
while the letters are usually gilded. On the whole, however, 
painting was never so highly developed here as in Spain , where 
the artists showed a certain appreciation of perspective by painting 
the lower parts of their walls with dark colours and gradually 
shading them upwards with lighter and more brilliant tints. In 
their colouring, as well as in their ornamental reliefs, it is obvious 
that the Egyptian artists aimed at producing effect by contrasts. 
The pavement consists of the richest marble mosaic, for the most 
part in dark colours, the walls are generally painted, and the cornice 


and ceiling richly coloured and gilded. In the more important 
private houses we sometimes find the walls covered with majolica. 
The traveller will also be struck with the beautiful effects of colour 
produced by the Inlaid Work in the kiblas of certain mosques (the 
tombs of Kalaun, Tulun, and Ka'it Bey), where marble, porphyry, 
mother-of-pearl , and Venetian enamel have been combined. In 
the case of Cabinet Work the colours used for inlaying are dark 
brown, black (ebony), white (ivOTy), and bronze. Externally the 
dark, yellowish stone of which the buildings were constructed 
produced a naturally pleasing effect, which the architects oc- 
casionally endeavoured to enhance by colouring every alternate 
course red or black; while important parts were adorned with 
marble mosaic, majolicas, panelling, and gilding. Owing to the 
mildness of the climate of Egypt much of the original colouring 
has been preserved , but it must not be confounded with the rude 
and staring painting of stone facades and marble ornaments exe- 
cuted on the occasion of the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. 

The secular edifices , like the sacred , and particularly the 
Dwelling Houses, have also their characteristic peculiarities. The 
ordinary town-houses are constructed of stone on the groundfloor, 
and generally have an overhanging upper story. The projecting 
parts sometimes rest on pillars, but more commonly on beautifully 
carved brackets of peculiar form, and are provided with a kind of 
bow-window, which serves the double purpose of ventilating the 
house and of affording a view of the street to the women concealed 
behind the lattice-work. The small perforated and generally octa- 
gonal balconies, with round holes at the bottom, are used for cooling 
the drinking-water in porous vessels (kullehs), whence they derive 
their name of Mushrebiyehs (from shardb, a draught). These bal- 
conies are rectangular in shape, buttheirsides are sometimes arched, 
and the lattice-work round them, composed of turned pieces of 
wood, often forms an ingenious and elaborate pattern. The roofs 
of these mushrebiyehs usually project in a tent-like form , and 
instead of cornices they have pendent friezes cut out of boards. 
The union of these projections with the surface of the wall below 
is generally masked by means of richly carved and elegantly waved 
mouldings with tasteful rosettes. Above the mushrebiyehs , which 
rarely extend to the height of the apartment within, there are 
usually introduced upper windows, with stucco frames, filled with 
stained, glass. — The Cornices of the houses project but slightly, 
curving a little outwards when pendentives are not employed ; 
and they are almost always crowned with pinnacles, which are often 
most elaborately executed. We may also mention the curious form 
of cornice seen in the Mameluke Tombs, where the projecting ends 
of the roof-beams are serrated. 

While bestowing their full meed of praise on the wonderfully 
rich ornamentation and other details of Arabian architecture, one 


cannot help feeling that the style fails to give entire aesthetic 
satisfaction. Want of symmetry in plan, poverty of articulation, 
insufficiency of plastic decoration, and an incongruous mingling of 
stone and wood, are the imperfections which strike most northern 
critics. The architects, in fact, bestowed the whole of their attention 
on the decoration of surfaces ; and down to the present day the 
Arabian artists have always displayed far greater ability in tracing 
elegant outlines, and designing the most complicated ornaments 
and geometrical figures on plane surfaces, than in the treatment 
and proportioning of masses. Although we occasionally see diffi- 
culties of construction well overcome, as in the case of the interior 
of the Bab en-Nasr , these instances seem rather to be successful 
experiments than the result of scientific workmanship. The real 
excellence of the Arabian architects lay in their skill in masking 
abrupt angles by the use of 'stalactites' or brackets. 

If we enquire into the causes of these defects in the develop- 
ment of art we shall find that the climate is one of the principal. 
Its remarkable mildness and the rareness of rain have enabled ar- 
chitects to dispense with much that appears essential to the inhab- 
itant of more northern latitudes ; and hence the imperfect de- 
velopment and frequent absence of cornices. The extraordinary 
durability of wood in Egypt , again , has led to its being used in 
the construction of walls, and in connection with stone, in a man- 
ner which would never occur to northern architects. Another 
circumstance unfavourable to the development of native art has 
doubtless been the ease with which the architects obtained abun- 
dance of pillars and capitals in ancient buildings ready to their 
hand. There were also political obstacles to the progress of art, 
such as frequent intestine struggles and dissensions, and the 
sway of despotic rulers and their servile officers ; and, lastly, the 
characteristic Egyptian tenacity and veneration for tradition and 
religious precept have not been without their influence. The ori- 
ginal design of the mosque, for example, was borrowed from Mecca, 
and no deviation could be made from its plan ; and this accounts 
for the invariable recurrence of the same forms in the mosques of 
Egypt. In a few instances architects ventured to introduce in- 
novations, but they never failed to revert sooner or later to the 
established style. The external architecture of private houses, 
however, being unfettered by religious considerations, might have 
progressed more favourably but for the powerful influence of super- 
stition and fear. An external display of wealth, according to the 
popular notion , drew upon its possessor the 'evil eye' of the cove- 
tous, the consequence of which was misfortune or death, while, on 
the other hand , it afforded the government a pretext for extorting 
heavy taxes from the occupant. It therefore became customary 
rith the Egyptians to restrict any appearance of luxury to the 
terior of their harems, where it is exhibited in the sumptuous 


furniture and hangings, and in the jewellery of the women. These 
indications of wealth are never seen except by the proprietor's nearest 
relations and the female friends of his wives, and are effectually con- 
cealed from the view of the government and of the general public. 
With regard to Sculpture and Painting it will strike the trav- 
eller that the modern Egyptian chisel and brush have been reserv- 
ed exclusively for the decoration of wall surfaces. Representations 
of animals occur rarely , while those of the human figure were 
prohibited by the Koran (comp. p. 14). The latter, however, are 
occasionally met with. One of the Tulunides, for example, caused 
a festal hall to be adorned with painted wooden statues of himself, 
his wives , and his favourite dancers ; and at Cairo there was 
even a famous manufactory of figures of men and animals at that 
period. In the 11th cent., as we are informed, there were two cel- 
ebrated painters at Cairo who vied with each other in the execu- 
tion of relief pictures. One of them painted a dancer, who seemed 
to be disappearing into the wall, while his rival painted another 
who seemed to be coming out from it. El-Kitami's picture of 
Joseph in the pit was also a far-famed work. On the whole, how- 
ever , these branches of art were but little developed, the Egypti- 
ans resembling the Israelites in this respect. The Arabs were 
more successful, however, in the prosecution of artistic handicrafts, 
and excelled in the embellishment of all kinds of implements in 
metal-work, enamel , inlaying , engraving , etc. Their decorative 
ingenuity, developed by these arts quite as much as by the wall 
decorations, and applied to textile fabrics also, has attained so 
wide a celebrity , that the word 'Arabesque' is now nearly synon- 
ymous with 'ornament'. The word 'Grotesque' was once similarly 
applied to the western style of decoration borrowed by Raphael 
and Giovanni da Udine from the 'Grottoes' of the Baths of Titus at 
Rome, and employed by them with singular success in the loggie 
of the Vatican , but this word has long since lost its original 

The Mosques are divided, in accordance with their religious 
importance, into two kinds : (1) those in which the sermon 
(khutbeh) is preached on Fridays, called Odmi'a; (2) those in which 
prayer only is offered daily except on Fridays, named Mesgid*, 
or Zawiya. The name mesgid, which has been imported from 
Constantinople, is less frequently used than Zawiya, which de- 
notes a small mosque, consisting of one chamber only. 

The Muslims also repeat their prayers at the grated windows of 
the mausolea of their saints [shikh, or weli ; see p. xcvi), behind 
which is visible a catafalque, covered with bright coloured carpets, 

+ It is from this word mesgid (which means a place for prostration), 
that we derive the word mosque, through the Spanish mezquita and the 
French motquie. 


but by no means invariably containing the remains of the holy man. 
These weli's, or tombs of shekhs, occur in every part of the coun- 
try, being frequently built into the houses, and are easily recognis- 
ed by their cubic form and their domes. They are rarely more than 
4-6 yds. square, and are generally whitewashed. The interior is 
often empty and infested with scorpions and vermin. 

Every Ga"mi'a has a court of considerable size, generally uncov- 
ered, called the Fasha, or Sahn el-Odmi'a, in the centre of which is 
the Haneftyeh, or fountain for religions ablution. On the E. side 
the court is adjoined by the Liwan , covered with carpets or mats 
(Hasireh), where the sacred vessels are kept. Between the Liwan 
and the court there often runs a railing (Maksura) which separ- 
ates the holy place of the Gami'a from the court. 

In the Liwan we observe : (1) the Kibla or Mihrdb, the 
prayer-niche turned towards Mecca ; (2) the Mimbar, or pulpit, to 
the right of the Kibla, from which the Khatib or Imam addresses the 
faithful ; (3) the Kursi (pi. Kerdsi), or reading-desk, on which the 
Koran (which is kept at other times in a cabinet of its own) lies 
open during divine service ; (4) the Dikkeh, a podium borne by col- 
umns, and surrounded by a low railing, from which the Moballain 
(assistants of the Khatib) repeat the words of the Koran, which is 
read at the Kibla, for the benefit of the people at a distance ; 
(5) the various lamps and lanterns (Tan&r, large chandelier; Tho- 
raiya, lit. 'seven stars', small chandelier ; Fdnus, lamp ; KandU, small 
oil-lamp). By the side of the Sahn el-Gami r a is another small court 
with a basin of water and other conveniences, which the faithful al- 
most invariably visit before entering the sacred precincts. Adjoin- 
ing the Liwan is usually placed the mausoleum of the founder of the 
mosque, and farther distant, by the principal entrance, is the Sebil 
(fountain) with the Maktab (elementary school). Under the Sebil is 
a cistern, which is filled during the inundation of theNile. These foun- 
tains are often richly adorned with marble and bronze railings. They 
are protected by a very projecting roof, and above them is the more or 
less handsome school hall. The railings whence the water is distrib- 
uted are usually approached by several steps. The interior of the Sebil 
consists of a single large chamber, the pavement of which is about 
3 ft. below the level of the surrounding soil, and in it the water 
drawn from the cistern is placed in vessels for distribution at the 
railings. Adjacent to the Sebils are sometimes placed troughs for 
watering animals. The water stored in these cisterns is generally 
in great request in June, when the Nile water becomes unwhole- 
some , assuming a green colour caused by the presence of myriads 
of microscopically small plants. The Medreseh usually consists of 
a single hall, with a storeroom for its simple furniture. 

Considered with respect to their ground-plans, the mosques are 
classed in two leading groups : (1) those of rectangular plan, with 
hypaethral columns or pilasters round the open court (see plan of the 


mosques of 'Ami, p. 88, and Barkuk , p. 77) ; and (2) those 
■which have a rectangular or cruciform court surrounded by closed 
rooms, like the mosque of Sultan Hasan and most of the tomb 
mosques, or those where the tomb is of large size compared with the 
Sahn el-Gami'a. 

The Tombs of the Muslims (comp. also p. xcix) are generally 
situated on high ground, uninfluenced by the moisture of the river, 
and sometimes in the desert. The chambers are destitute of decora- 
tion. "Within is a catafalque of stone resting on a more or less deco- 
rated pedestal, and bearing two upright columns (Shdhid) of marble 
or other stone, one of which, placed immediately over the head of 
the deceased, bears his name and age, with texts from the Koran. At 
the top of the shahid is represented the turban of the deceased, the 
form of which indicates his rank. Over the catafalques of persons 
of distinction are erected dome-shaped canopies, resting on four 
columns or pilasters , or their tombs have the closed form of those 
of the shekhs already mentioned. On festivals the catafalques 
and. hollow parts of the pedestals are covered with palm-branches, 
flowers, and basilicum. On these occasions the friends, and especi- 
ally the female relatives, of the deceased often spend whole days 
by the tomb, engaged in prayer and almsgiving. For these mourn- 
ers it was necessary to provide accommodation, and the result is 
that a complete mausoleum , with its rooms for the family , sebil, 
school, stables, custodian's residence , etc. . is often nearly as ex- 
tensive as the mosques themselves, while some of them are so large 
as almost to present the appearance of a small deserted town. To 
buildings of this kind the name oiHosh is applied. One of the most 
imposing of these is the tomb-mosque of Sultan Barkuk. 

The Dwelling - Houses , which rarely have more than two 
stories, are built in very various styles, but the following rules are 
generally observed in their construction : — (1) The principal 
rooms, particularly those of the Harem (p. cci), look into the court 
or garden, if there be one. (2) The windows looking to the street 
are small, placed very high, and strongly barred, while those 
of the upper floors are closed with mushrebiyeh (p. cxcv), which, 
however, are gradually being superseded by glass-windows with 
shutters. (3) The entrance-door (PI. 1, 1), behind which is the seat 
(Mastaba, PI. I, 2) of the doorkeeper, is generally low and narrow, 
and the passage (Dirkeh; PI. I, 3) leading from the street to the 
court is built in the form of an angle, to prevent people from seeing 
into the court. (4) The court (Hosh, PI. I, 4) is planted with trees and 
unpaved, and contains a well of water that has filtered through from 
the Nile. This water, however, is generally more or less bTackish, 
and is used only for washing purposes and for the cattle. (5) By 
the entrance to the court, and on the same level, is the Mandara 
(PI. I, 7), or reception-room of the proprietor , with at least one 
Khazneh , or cabinet (PI. I, 15), and other conveniences. The 


Mandara of the best class is of symmetrical construction, and the 
door is in the middle of one of the sides. The central part of this 
hall , called the Durk&'a , which is payed with marble mosaic and 
contains a fountain (Faskiyeh) , is one step lower than the sides 
on the right and left. The ground-plan is generally the same as that 
of the Ka'a (PI. I, 14). Opposite the entrance of the durka'a there 
is generally a 8uffeh, or kind of stand in stone or marble, on 
which are placed the household utensils for washing, drinking, etc. 
The more elevated sides of the Mandara , called the Ltw&n , are 
covered with carpets and mats, thus forming a kind of couch, and 
are never stepped upon except with shoeless feet. Visitors leave 
their shoes in the DuTka'a. Along the walls are often placed cup- 
boards, richly decorated with inlaid work and majolica. The ceil- 
ings are generally tastefully ornamented. Adjoining the court there 
is usually another hall , situated a little above its level , adorned 
with a column, and open towards the north. This is called the 
Takhta Bdsh, and is used in temperate weather for the same 
purposes as the Mandara. Lastly the Muk'ad (PI. I, 5), where the 

Plan I. 
Ground Floor, 

1. Entrance of the Honse. 2. Seat (Mastaba) for the doorkeeper. 3. Cor- 
ridor (Dirkeh). 4. Court (Hosh). 5. A kind of bower in which visitors are 
received in summer. 6. Fountain. 7. Mandara. 8. Servants' rooms. 9. Donkey- 
stable. 10. Saddle-room. 11. Eoom for fodder. 12. Door leading to the 
women's apartments (Bab el-Harim). 13. Staircase leading to the Takhta 
Bosh. 14. Principal saloon (el-Ka'a). 15. Khazneb. 16. Small court. 
17. Kitchen. 18. Bakehouse. 19. Privy. 



proprietor receives visits in summer, is usually raised, like the 
Takhta B6sh , half the height of the groundfloor above the level 
of the court, and is adorned with several columns , while below it 
are small chambers used as storerooms and for various other pur- 
poses, and frequently the well with its drawing apparatus. 

The principal part of the Harem (women's apartments), which 
in smaller houses is accessible from the court only by the Bab el- 
Haritn (PI. I, 12 ; II, 3), is the Ka'a (PI. I. 14). The ceiling of 
the Durka'a is higher than that of the Liwan, and has a dome in 
the centre with mushrebiyeh openings. The walls of the Liwan are 

Plan II. 
First Floor. 

1. Open hall (Takhta Bosh) or Mak'ad. 2. Cabinet. 3. Door of the Harem. 
4. Rooms of the Harem with mushrebiyehs. 5. Magazine. 6. Open courts. 
7. Guest-chambers with Ehazneh and privy. 8. Balkony with Mushrebiyeh. 

frequently lined with rows of shelves, with valuable porcelain, 
crystal, or plate. In the larger houses a separate staircase for the 
women-servants ascends from the groundfloor to the upper stories. 
On its way it passes the intervening floor forming their dwelling, 
which is built over the less important rooms of the groundfloor. 
Another door usually leads direct from the apartments of the pro- 
prietor into the harem (PI. I, 3). At the back of the building are 
kitchens and stables , and frequently a mill also. — In the 
country, and even at Cairo, the entrance-door is sometimes painted 
with very rude figures of camels , lions , steamboats , etc. , which 


are intended to indicate that the owner has performed the pil- 
grimage to Mecca (p. xcii). 

XI. The Arabic Language. 

Arabic helongs to the Semitic group of languages, and has no 
relationship with the tongues of Europe. A knowledge of Hebrew 
however, will materially facilitate the learning of Arahic. The 
golden era of Arabic literature is coeval with the introduction of 
El-Islam, and the Koran in the dialect of the Kureish (the 
family of Mohammed) is still regarded as an unrivalled model of 
style and language. But by the side of this literary Arabic flourished 
also various colloquial dialects, which were carried by the Arabs 
into the various provinces conquered for the Crescent, and there 
developed partly under the influence of the old local tongues. In 
this way arose the vulgar dialects of Arabic, of which that spoken 
in Egypt is one. In writing, however, an attempt was made to 
retain the older forms, and the written language of the present day 
known as Middle Arabic, occupies a position midway between the 
original classical tongue and the popular dialects. 

Egypt was conquered by the Arabs in the 19th year of the 
Hegira (640 A.D.) and the Coptic language was replaced by 
Arabic. The dialect of the latter developed in the valley of the 
Nile differs considerably in the pronunciation of the consonants, 
vocalisation, and accent from the ordinary Arabic dialects of Syria 
and elsewhere. Thus the letter g is pronounced hard in Egypt and 
soft in Syria (see p. cciv). The variations, however, are not so great 
as to prevent the Syrians and Egyptians being mutually intelligible. 

The pronunciation of the vowels is apparently liable to variation : 
thus besides the more correct Mimbar the form Mambar is also used; 
besides Maidan, both Medan and Midan are heard. A circumflex 
over a vowel denotes that it is long, and, in the case of a final syllable, 
that it is to be accentuated. A sharply defined and exact pronuncia- 
tion of the consonants is characteristic of Arabic and is absolutely 
essential to any satisfactory use of the language. The learner should 
endeavour at once to master the pronunciation of the more difficult 
Arabic consonants, such as £, _b, £, l>>, andU 19 , so as, for 
example, to be able to make a distinct difference between b It (house) 
and bed (eggs). Many of the sounds have no representatives in 
English. — Compare also for pronunciation the alphabet on p. cciv. 
Owing to the increasing intercourse between the native Egyptians 
and Europe, the former have of late adopted many words from other 
languages, chiefly from Italian and French. Many Arabic words have, 
moreover, long since been replaced by Turkish equivalents. The 
Egyptian dialect also contains many Coptic or ancient Egyptian 
words. Very few Europeans learn to pronounce Arabic accurately, 
even after a residence of many years in the country. 


The language of the peasantry and the inhabitants of the de- 
sert is purer and more akin to the classical language than that of 
the dwellers in towns. The Muslims generally speak more correctly 
than the Christians, being accustomed to a refined diction and 
pronunciation from their daily repetition of passages of the Koran. 
The chief difference between the language of the Koran and the 
modern colloquial dialect is that a number of terminal inflexions 
are dropped in the latter. 

Alphabet. The Arabic alphabet was developed from that of the 
Nabataeans, who in turn adopted their written characters from the 
Palmyrenes. In spite of its external attractions, it is one of the 
most imperfect in existence. In written or printed Arabic the 
short vowels are usually omitted and have to be supplied by the 
reader, a feat which demands considerable skill and experience. In 
the Koran, however, the vowels are all indicated by appropriate 
signs. It is greatly to be wished that the Arabs would adopt a 
simpler alphabet, with a regular use of the vowel-signs, and that 
they would agree to write the ordinary spoken language. The pre- 
sent condition of affairs not only seriously increases a stranger's dif- 
ficulties in learning the language, but is a serious obstacle to the 
education of the Arabs themselves. 

"We give below the sounds corresponding to the different letters, 
so far as it is possible to represent or describe them to the English 
reader. It should also be observed that in the following pages we 
use the vowel sounds of a, e, i, o, u as they are used in Italian (ah, 
eh, ee, o, oo). The t used in the Handbook is a contracted form of ei, 
and is used in preference to it, as it exactly represents the ordinary 
pronunciation (viz. that of a in fate). The original diphthong 
sound of ei is only used in the reading of the Koran and in a few 
isolated districts. Where a sound resembling the French u occurs 
it is represented by u (as in tuturi). This system of transliteration 
will be found most convenient, as the words will then generally 
resemble the forms used in German, French, and Italian, instead 
of being distorted to suit the English pronunciation. Thus : emir, 
which is pronounced 'aymeer' ; shekh (or sheikh) , pronounced 
'shake' (with a guttural k); tulul, pronounced 'toolool'; Abusir, 
pronounced 'Abooseer'; etc. 

Vowels. The short vowel symbols, Fathath, Kesrah, and Dum- 
meh (a, e, u), which are generally omitted, become long when con- 
nected with Alef, Wait, and Ye (a, I, i, <5, &, au). 

The numerous gutturals of Arabic render the language unpleas- 
ing to the ear. The consonants Nos. 15, 16, and 21, which are 
sometimes called 'emphatic', are very peculiar, and modify the 
vowels connected with them : thus after them a and w approach the 
sound of o, and i that of e . The sounds of the French w and eu 
(German u and o) are rare in colloquial Arabic. 











i— j 























Zg, Zen 




















c £n 


































accompanies an initial vowel, and is not 
pronounced except as a hiatus in the 

} middle of a word, 
as in English. 

&&th in 'thing', hut generally pronounced t or*. 

1 inSj 
5- tin 
I no 

Syria and Arabia like the French / (some- 
times also like the English J), but pro- 
nounced g (hard) in Egypt. 

a peculiar guttural h, pronounced with em- 
phasis at the back of the palate. 

like ch in the Scotch word 'loch', or the 
harsh Swiss German ch. 

as in English. 

as th in 'the', but generally pronounced d or z. 
like the French or German r. 

as in English. 

emphasised s. 

I both emphasised by pressing the tongue 
| firmly against the palate. 

an emphatic z, now pronounced like No. 11 

or No. 15. 
a strong and very peculiar guttural. 

a guttural resembling a strong French or 

German r. 
as in English. 

emphasised guttural k, replaced by the na- 
tives of Lower Egypt, and particularly 
by the Cairenes, by a kind of hiatus or 
repression of the voice. 

, as in English. 

Accentuation. If a word terminates with a long syllable 
ending in a consonant (indicated by a circumflex accent over the 


vowel), or with a syllable ending in a double consonant, the accent 
is placed on the last syllable (as in maghnatis, b&dingdn, aVm&z, 
ketebt, taghtdmm, each of which has the stTess on the last syllable]. 
If the last syllable has any other form, i. e. if it terminates in a vowel 
only, or in a consonant preceded by a short vowel, the accent in the 
case of a dissyllable is on the first syllable (as in gezmeh, btirnus, 
fUrsha, redi), and in the case of a trisyllable or polysyllable on the 
third syllable from the end (as m&rmala, m&hbara, mddenefi), ex- 
cept when the penultimate is a long syllable (as in sibdnikfi), in 
which case the accent is on that syllable. 

Address. The inhabitants of towns use the 2nd person plural in ad- 
dressing a person , or a periphrasis , such as gendbak (your honour), ha- 
dretak (your presence), or to a patriarch ghubtatkum, to a pasha sa'ddetak. 
Yd sidi (O sir) is also frequently used, and to Europeans, ya khawdgeh. 

Possessives. These are expressed by means of affixes. Thus, binti, 
my daughter; bintak (-ik when the person addressed is feminine), thy 
daughter ; bintu, his daughter ; binthd, or bintahd, her daughter ; bintnd 
or bintind, our daughter; bintkum or bintukum, your (pi. 1) daughter; bin- 
tuhum, their daughter. The idea of possession is colloquially expressed 
by the use of the word betd' ('property'), as el-'abd betd'i, my slave ('the 
slave my property'). 

Article. The definite article el or al is assimilated before dentals, 
sibilants, and the letters n and r: thus, esh-shems, the sun, etc. 

Demonstratives. In Egypt the word 'this' is rendered by de, fem. 
di; as er-rdgil de, this man; el-bint di, this girl. The Beduins use the 
old Arabic and Syrian hdda. 'These', d6l. 'That', dikha, dukha, dukhauwa, 
dikhaiya; plural dukhamma. 

Relative : elli, omitted after substantives used in a general sense. 

Interrogatives. Who, min; what, eh, &t,h. 

Declension. The substantive is not declinable. The genitive of a 
substantive is formed by simply placing it immediately after the sub- 
stantive to be qualified, the latter being deprived of its article: thus, 
ibn el-bdsha, the son of the pasha. The feminine terminations a, e, i are 
in such cases changed into at, et, it: thus mara, wife; marat el-kddi, the 
wife of the judge. 

Dual. The dual termination is Sn , fem. etin : thus seneh , year ; 
senetH, two years ; rigl, foot ; riglen, two feet. 

Plural. In the masculine the termination is in (as felldhin, peas- 
ants); in the feminine dt (as hdra, town, quarter, etc., pi. Mr At). The 
plural is, however, usually formed by a radical change of the vowel 
sounds of the singular , the change being effected in thirty or forty dif- 
ferent ways, so that it becomes necessary for the learner to note carefully 
the plural form of every substantive: thus, 'ain, spring, pi. 'uytin; tdgir, 
merchant, pi. tuggdr; gebel, mountain, pi. gibdl; kabileh, tribe of Beduins, 
pi. kabdil. 

Verbs. Many of the verbs consist of slightly differing cognate roots, 
connected somewhat in the same manner as the English verbs lay and 
lie. Each verb consists of a perfect and present imperfect tense, an 
imperative, a participle, and an infinitive. 

The above remarks are made merely in order to afford a slight 
idea of the structure of the language , the difficulties of which are 
such that few persons will venture to encounter them, unless they 
make a prolonged stay in the country. We should, however, re- 
commend the traveller to commit to memory the following words 
and phrases of everyday occurrence, a knowledge of which will often 
prove useful. 



one — wdhed, 

'Arabic Vocabulary, 

fern, wahdeh ; the first — el-dwwel, fern, el- 

two — etnen, - etnen ; 
three — teldteh, - teldt ; 
four — arbda, - arba ; 
five — khamseh, - khams ; 
six — sitteh, - sitt; 
seven — sab a, - seb'a; 
eight — temdnyeh, - tertian ; 
nine — Us' a, - Us a; 

ten — ' ashara, - asher ; 

11 — haddsher 

12 — etndsher 

13 — telatdsher 

14 — arbdtdsher 

15 — khamstdsher 

16 — sittdsher 

17 — sab'atdsher 

18 — temantdsher 

19 — tis'atdsher 

20 — ' ishrin 
30 — teldiln 
40 — arba in 
50 — khamsin 
60 — sittln 
70 — sab' in 

80 — temdnin 90 — tis'in 

the second 
the third 
the fouith 
the fifth 
the sixth 

auwaleh or el-ula. 

— tdni, fern, tdniyeh 

— tdlet, 

rdbe , - rdb' eh 

— khdmis, - khamseh 

— sddis, - sddseh 
the seventh — sdbe , - sdb eh 
the eighth — tdmin, - tdmneh 
the ninth — tdse', - tds'eh 
the tenth — ' dshir, - ' dshra 

100 — miyeh; before nouns, mit. 

200 — miten 

300 — tultemiyeh 

400 — rub'amiyeh 

500 — khumsemiyeh 

600 — suttemiyeh 

700 — sub' amiyeh 

800 — tumnemiyeh 

900 — tus amiyeh 
1000 — alf 
2000 — alf en 
3000 — telat aldf 
4000 — arbdt aldf 
5000 — khamast aldf 
100,000 — mit alf 
1,000,000 — milyHn 

once — marra wahdeh, marra 

or ndba 
twice — marraten 

thrice — teldt marrdt 

four times — ■ arba' marrdt 
five times — khams (khamas) marrdt 
six times — sitt (sitteh) marrdt 
seven times — seb'a marrdt 
eight times — temdn marrdt 
nine times — Us a marrdt 
ten times — 'ashara marrdt 

The substantives following numerals above ten are used in the 
singular; thus: 4 piastres, arba' kur&sh ; 100 piastres, mit kirsh. 

I, ana; thou, inteh, fem. enti; he, huweh ; she, hiyeh; we, ehna; 
ye or you, entu, or entum ; they, hum, or huma. 

Yes, ei/wa ; to be sure, na'am ; no, Id ; no, I will not, Id, mush 
'duz, or 'diz ; it is not necessary, mush Idzim ; not, md ; there is 
nothing, md fish ; I will, ana biddi ; wilt thou, biddak; we will, 
biddina; will you, blddukum. 

a half 

— nuss 

a third 

— tult 

a fourth 

— rub' a 

three fourths 

— nuss u rub' a 

a fifth 

— khums 

a sixth 

■ — suds 

a seventh 

— sub' eh 

an eighth 

— tumn 

a ninth 

— tus' eh 

a tenth 

— 'ushr 


I go, ana rdih ; I shall go, ana artih ; we shall go, neruh ; go, 
ruh ; will you not go, md teruh ; go ye, rUhu. 

See, sk&f ; I have seen, shuft. 

I speak, betkallim ; I do not speak Arabic, ana ma betkallim- 
shi bil-'arabi ; what is your name, ismak e. 

I drink, bashrab ; I have drunk, ana shiribt ; drink, ishrab. 

I eat, anabdkul, cnanawakil; I have eaten, anakalt; eat, 
kul ; we will eat, biddina ndkul. 

He sleeps, bindm ; he is now asleep, huweh naim ; get up, kumu ; 
I am resting, besterih or bastaraiyah. 

I have ridden, rikibt ; I mount, barkab ; I will mount , arkab ; 
I start, ana besdfir, or musdfir. 

I am coming, ana gdi ; come, ta'dleh, ta'dla, or ta'dl. 

To-day, en-nahdr-deh ; to-morrow, bukra ; the day after to-mor- 
row, ba'dehbukra; yesterday, embdreh; the day before yesterday, 
auwel embdreh. 

Much or very, ketlr ; a little, shuwaiyeh (shwaiyeh); good, tayyib ; 
not good, mush tayyib ; very good, tayyib kefir; slow, slower, shwaiyeh 
shwaiyeh, 'ala mahlak ; go on, yaltah, yallah. 

How much, kdm; for how much, bikdm; enough, bess ; how 
many hours, kam sd'a. 

For what purpose, min-shdn-eh or'ala-shdn-eh; no matter, md 
'alhh. This last is a favourite expression with the Arabs, who use 
it to express indifference and also as an apologetic interjection. 

Everything, hull ; together, sawa, sawa ; every, kull wahed ; one 
after the other, wahed, wahed. 

Here, heneh (Syrian hon) ; come here, ta'dla heneh ; come from 
here, ta'dleh min heneh ; there, hendk (Syrian hdnik) ; above, f6k ; 
below, taht ; over, 'ala ; deep, ghartilk, ghawlt ; far, ba'ld ; near, 
kuraiyib ; inside, guwwa ; outside, barra ; where, fen (pronounced 
by the Beduins wtn) ; yet, lissa ; not yet, md lissa (with a verb) ; 
when, emta ; after, ba'd ; later, afterwards, ba'dln ; never, abadan ; 
always, ddiman tamalli; perhaps, belki, yumkin, or yimkin. 

Old, kebir, 'atikkadim; deceitful, khdin; intoxicated, sakrdn; 
blind, a'ma; stupid, awkward, ghashtm; lazy, kesldn; strange, 
ghartb ; healthy, salim, sdgh sallm, tayyib, bis-sahha, or mdbsut (also 
'contented') ; hungry, gi'dn ; small , sughayyar ; short, kusayyar ; 
long, tawtl ; untruthful, kadddb ; tired, ta'bdn ; satisfied, shab'dn ; 
weak, da'if; dead, meyyit ; mad, magnun (Syrian mejnxln) ; trust- 
worthy, amln. 

Bitter, murr ; sour, hdmed; sweet, helu. 

Broad, 'arid ; narrow, dayyik ; large, 'azlm, kebir; hot (weather), 
harr, (of food, etc.) sukhn; high, 'ali; empty, khdli, fddi; new, 
gedid ; low, wdti ; bad, battdl ; dirty, wusekh ; dear, ghdli. 

White, abyad ; blaok, dark, iswid ; red, ahmar ; yellow, asfar ; 
blue, azrak ; green, akhdar. 

Hour, sd'a; what o'clock is it, es-sd'a kdm; it is 3 o'clock, es- 



sd'a teldteh ; it is half past 4, es-sd'a arba' unuss ; it is a quarter 
to 5, es-sd'a khamseh ilia rub'a. 

Forenoon, dahd ; noon, duhr ; afternoon (2'/2 hours before sun- 
set), 'asr ; night, lei; midnight, nuss-el-ltl. 

Sunday, ydm el-had , nehdr el-had ; Monday, ydm el-etnln ; 
Tuesday, ydm et-teldt; Wednesday, ydm el-arba' ; Thursday, 
ydm el-khamis ; Friday, ydm el-gum' a ; Saturday, or Sabbath, ydm 
es-sebt. Ydm or yUm (day) is generally omitted. Week, gum'a ; 
month, shahr, pi. ushhur. 

Instead of the Arabic names of the months used in Syria, the 
Egyptians employ the Coptic (ancient Egyptian) names of the solar 
months, which, however, are always about nine days behind the 
European months. Each Coptic month has thirty days, and in 
order to complete the year five or six intercalary days are added at 
the end (in the beginning of September). The European names, 
however, are gradually coming into general use. 






















Coptic tdba 


baramhdt , barm&deh 
























Coptic | ebib 






The intercalary days (which come after Misra) are called ayydm en-nesi. 

The Muslim months form a lunar year only (comp. pp. xcii, 
xciii). Their names are : Moharrem, Safar, Rabi' el-Awwel, RabV 
et- Tdni, Oemad el-Awwel, Oemad et- Tdni, Regeb, Sha'bdn, Ramaddn 
(month of fasting), Shawwdl, Dhil-Ki'de, Dhil-Higgeh (month of 
the pilgrimage). 

Winter, shita ; summer, slf; spring, rabi'; autumn, kharif; rain, 
matar ; snow, telg; air, hawa. 

Heaven, sema; moon, kamar; new moon, Midi ; full moon, 
bedr ; sun, shems ; sunrise, tulti.' esh-shems ; sunset, maghreb ; star, 
nigm, pi. nugfim; constellation, kaukab. 

East, sherk ; west, gharb ; south, kibla ; southern, kibli, kubli ; 
north, shemdl. 

Father, ab, or, before genitives and affixes, abd ; mother, umm ; 
son, tin, or weled, pi. Hldd; daughter, bint, pi. bendt; grand- 


mother, gidda, or sitt ; brother, akh, before genitives and affixes 
akhd, pi. ikhwdn; sister, ukht, pi. ukhwdt; parents, ah u umm, 
or walidtn ; -woman, mara, hurmeh ; women, harim, niswdn ; boy, 
weled; youth, fellow, gada', pi. gid'dn; man, rdgel, pi. rigdle; per- 
son, insdn, pi. nds, or beni ddam (sons of Adam) ; friend, habib, 
sdheb, pi. ashdb ; neighbour, gar, pi. girdn ; bride, 'arils ; bride- 
groom, 'arts ; wedding, 'urs. 

Cord for fastening the kuffiyeh, 'okdl; cloak, 'abdyeh; fez, 
larbtish ; felt cap, libdeh ; girdle, hezdm ; leathern girdle, kamar ; 
trousers (wide), shirwdl ; trousers (of women), shintydn ; European 
trousers, bantaldn ; long white blouse, galabiyeh ; jacket, waistcoat, 
salta, 'anteri ; dressing-gown, kuftdn ; coat (European), sitra ; skull- 
cap, taktyeh ; silk, harir ; boot, gezma ; slipper, babUg ; shoe, mar- 
fetlft, sarma ; wooden shoe, kabkdb ; stocking, shurdb ; turban, 'emma. 
Eye, 'en, dual 'Intn ; beard , dakn, lehyeh ; foot, rigl, dual 
riglln ; hair, sha'r ; hand , yedd, id, dual tdtn ; my hands, ideyyeh ; 
right hand, yemin ; left hand, shemdl ; palm of the hand, keff ; fist, 
kabda; head, rds; mouth, fumm; moustache, sheneb. 

Diarrhoea, ishdl ; fever, sukhdna,' homma ; China, kina; quinine, 
melh el-ktna ; opium, afiy&n ; pain, wag'a. 

Abraham, Ibrahim; Gabriel, Oabridn, Qebrail, Oubrdn; George, 
Girgis ; Jesus , Seyyidna 'ha (the Mohammedan name) , Yesu' 
el-Mesih (used by the Christians) ; John, Hanna ; Joseph , YHsuf, 
Y&sef; Mary, Maryam; Moses, MUsa; Solomon, Selimdn, Islimdn. 
American, Amerikdni, Malekdni; Arabian, 'ardbi; Arabs (no- 
mads), ' Arab ; Austria, Bildd Nemsa ; Austrian, Nemsdwi ; Beduin, 
Bedawi, pi. Bedwdn, 'Arab, 'Orbdn; Cairo, Masr, MedinetMasr; Con- 
stantinople, Istambill ; Egypt, Bildd Masr ; Egyptians (non-nomadic 
Arabs), Uldd 'Arab ; England, Bildd el-Ingiliz ; English, Ingilizi ; 
France, Feransa ; Frank (i. e. European) , Ferangi , Afranki , pi. 
Afrank; French, Feransdvii; Germany, Alemdnia; German, Ale- 
mdni ; Greece, RUm ; Greek, Rdmi ; Italy, Bildd Italia ; Russia, 
Bildd el-Moskof; Russian, Moskdwi, Mosktifi ; Switzerland, Switzera ; 
Syria, Esh-Shdm ; Turkish, Turki. 

Saint (Mohammedan), wali, well ; St. George (Christian), Girgis 
el-kaddls, mar Girgis ; prophet, nebi, or (applied to Mohammed) rasul. 
Army, 'askar ; baker, khabbdz, farrdn ; barber, halldk, mozeyyin ; 
Beduin chief, shikh el-' Arab ; bookseller, kutbi ; butcher, gezzdr ; 
caller to prayer, mueddin(j). xci) ; consul, konsul; consul's servant 
(gensdarme), kawwds ; cook, tabbdkh ; custom-house officer, gum- 
ruktshi ; doctor, hakim, plur. hukama ; dragoman, turgemdn (p. xxi) ; 
gatekeeper, bawwdb ; goldsmith, s&igh ,■ judge, kadi ; money-changer, 
sarrdf; pilgrim (to Mecca), hagg (Syrian hdjji), plur. hegdg ; police, 
zabtiyeh; porter, hammdl, sheyydl; robber, hardmi, pi. hardmiyeh; 
scholar, 'diem, pi. 'ulama; schoolmaster, fikih; servant, khadddm; 
soldier , 'askari ; tailor , kheyydt ; teacher , mo'allim ; village-chief, 
shikh el-beled; washer, ghassdl; watchman, ghafir, pi. ghufara. 
Bardekke's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. 


Apricot, mishmish ; banana, mdz ; beans (garden), fill, (lupins) 
Itibiyeh ; citrons or lemons, limdn ; cotton, kotn ; dates, baldh ; date- 
palm, nakhleh ; figs, tin ; flower (blossom), zahr, plur. ashdr ; garlic, 
t&m ; grapes, 'unab, 'enab ; melons (water), battikh, (yellow) kd- 
w&n, shamdm ; olives, zitun ; onions , basal ; oranges, bortukdn ; 
peach, kMkh (Syrian dorrdk) ; pistachios, fustuk ; plums, berk&k 
(Syrian khukh) ; pomegranate, rummdn ; St. John's tree (carob), 
kharr&b ; tree (shrub), shagara, plur. ashgdr. 

• Brandy, 'araki ; bread, 'esh (Syrian khubz) ; loaf, raghif, pi. aghri- 
feh; cigarette-paper, warakat sigdra : coffee, kahwa;egg, bid, (boiled) 
bed masluk, (baked) bed makli; honey, 'asal; milk, leben, (fresh) 
leben halib, (sour) leben hdmed ; oil, zet ,• pepper, ftlfil ; poison, simm ; 
rice, rwz ; salt, melh ; sugar, sukkar ; water, moyih ,• wine, nebid. 

Book, kitdb, plur. kutub ; letter, gewdb, makt&b. 

Carpet, siggdda, busdt ; chair (stool), kursi, plur. kerdsi ; gate, 
bdb , bawwdba ; hospital, isbitdlia; house, bit, plur. biytit; minaret, 
mddana ; monastery , dir , (of dervishes) tekiyeh ; mosque , gdmi' 
(or more rarely mesgid) ; prayer-niche , mahrdb ; pulpit , mambar, 
mimbar ; room, dda ; sofa, diwdn ; straw-mat, hasira ; table, sufra ; 
tent, khima, plur. khiyam, (Beduins') 'eshsha, bet; tent-peg, watad, 
plur. autdd ; tent-pole , 'amud ; tomb , kabr, plur. kubur ; window, 
shibbdk, plur. shebaklk, or tdka. 

Bridle , ligdm ; candle , sham' a ; dagger, khangar ; glass (for 
drinking), kubdyeh ; gun, bundukiyeh ; gunpowder, bdrud ; knife, 
sikklneh ; lantern, fdnus ; luggage, 'afsh ; pistol, tabanga, ferd ; rope, 
habl ; saddle, serg ; saddle-bag, khurg ; stick, 'asdyeh ; stirrup, rikdb, 
plur. rikdbdt; sword, sef. 

Bath (warm), hammdm ; cistern, Mr sahrig ; fountain (public), 
sebll; pond, birkeh, plur. birak; spring, 'ain, 'in. 

Charcoal, coal, fahm; fire, ndr; iron, hadid; lead, rusds; light, 
nur ; stone, hagar ; timber, khashab ; wood for burning, hatab. 

Anchorage, mersa ; harbour, mina ; island, gezireh ; land, main- 
land, barr ; Nile, bahr en-Nil , bahr ; Nile-barge , dahabiyeh ; pro- 
montory, rds ; river, nahr ; sea, bahr ; ship, merkeb, markab, plur. 
mardkib ; steamboat, wabur ; swamp, batiha, ghadir. 

Bridge, kantara ; castle, fortress, kal'a ; cavern, maghdra ; desert, 
hala, gebel ; district, native country, bildd ; earth, ard ; embank- 
ment, gisr ; hill, tell, plur. tulul ; market, sUk, plur. aswdk ; market- 
town, bandar; meadow, mergt; mountain, gebel, plur. gibdl; 
palace, kasr, serdyeh ; plain, sahl, (low ground) wata ; road, tarik, 
darb, sikkeh, (main road, high road) tarik sultdni, (by-road) hdra, 
darb, sikkeh; ruin, kharaba, birbeh; school, (reading) kuttab, (more 
advanced) medreseh, plur. maddris ; street, (main) shdri', (lane) 
zukdk; thicket, ghit; town (large), medineh, plur. meddin; valley, 
wddi ; wood, ghdba ; village, beled, kafr. 

+ The words merg and ghdba (forest) are almost unknown in Egypt, 
where neither meadows nor woods exist. 


Ass, homdr, plur. hamir; bee, nahla; bird, lir, plur. tiy&r, 
(small) 'asf&r, plur. 'asaftr; boar (wild), hallxif; bug, bakka; camel, 
gemel, plur. gimdl, fern, ndka ; camel for riding, hegtn ; fowl, farkha, 
plur. ferfikh (used in Upper Egypt for 'young pigeons') ; cock, 
dtk ; dog, fceifi, plur. kildb ; dove, hamdmeh ; duck , 5aM ; eagle, 
nitr ; fish, semaka, plur. semafc; fleas, berdgMt; fly, dubbdna ; foal, 
muftr ; gazelle, ghazdl ; hedgehog, kumfud ; hen, farr&ga (Syrian 
jejjeh) ; horse , ftosan, plur. ftfteZ ; leech, 'aiafca, plur. 'aiafc ; lizard, 
seWJj/eft; louse, feamieA; mare, faras; pig, fcftanstr; pony, kedfoh; 
scorpion, 'akraba, plur. "akdrib ; sheep, khartif, fem. na'$ra ; snake, 
ta'6an, Aaj/j/eft; stallion, fahl, hosdn; tortoise, zihlifeh; turtle, 
Ursa; vulture, rakham. 

On Arrival. For how much will you take me ashore ? (to the 
ship?) Tetalla'ni fil-barr bikdm? Tenezzilni fil-meilceb bikdm? 

For five francs, Bikhamas ferankdt; bikhamseh ferank. 

Too much ; I will give you one. Ketir, a'dik wdhed, bess. 

You shall take me alone ; or I will give you nothing. Tdkhudni 
(or tewaddlni) wahdi, willa md ba'dlkshi hdgeh. 

There are three of us. Ehna teldteh. 

Four piastres each. Kullu wdhed bi arba' kur&sh. 

Put this box (these boxes) into the boat. Nezzil ea-mnduk-deh 
(es-mnadtk-dol) fil feldke. 

At the Custom-House (Gwnruk). Open this box. Iftah es- 

I have nothing in it. Md fish hdgeh, md fihdsh hdgeh. 

Give me your passport. ^ Hdt et-tezkereh (bassdborto). 

Here is my passport. Aho el-bassdborto betd'i. 

I have no passport. Md 'andlsh tezkereh. 

I am under the protection of the English (American) consul. 
Ana fi hemdyet (or ana tahte) konml el-Ingilizi (el-Amerikdni). 

At a Caf£ (p. xxiii). Boy, bring me a cup of coffee. Hdt fingdn 
kahwa, ya weled (kahwa bisukkar, with sugar; mingher sukkar, or 
sdde, without sugar). 

Bring me a chair. Hdt kursi. Bring me water. Hdt li moyeh. 

Bring me a water-pipe. Hdt shtsheh (narglleh). 

Bring me a live coal. Hat wil'a (basaat ndr, bassa). 

Change the pipe (i.e. bring a newly filled bowl). Gheyyar 

At the Bath (p. xxvii). Fil Hammdm. Bring the wooden shoes. 
Hdt el-kabkdb. — Take me in. Waddini gHwwa. — Leave me for 
an little. Khalttni shwaiyeh. — I do not perspire yet. Mdntsh 
'arkdn lissa. — Rub me well. Keyyisni tayyib (melih). — It is not 
necessary to rub me. MHah Idzim tekeyyisni. — Wash me with soap. 


Ghassilni bisdbun. — Enough; it is sufficient. Bess ; yikeffi ; bikeffi. 
— Bring me cold water. Hdt mdyeh bdrideh. — Bring some more. 
Hdt kam&n. — We will go out. Nitla' barra. — Bring me a sheet 
(sheets). Hdt futa (fuwat). — Bring me water, coffee, a nargileh. 
Hdt mdyeh, kahwa, nargileh, — Where are my clothes? Fin hu- 
d&mi; hudumi fin? — Bring my boots. Hdt el-gezmeh. — Here 
is your fee. Khud bakshishak ; ddi el-bakshish betd'ak. 

Washing. Take the clothes to be washed. Waddi el-hudum 
lil-ghasil. (The articles should be counted in the presence of the 
washerman.) — How much does the washing cost? Kdm (kdddi e) 
temen el-ghasil? 

On the Journey. When will you start? Emta tesdferu? — 
We will start to-morrow at sunrise. Nesdfer bukra, ma'ash shems ; 
an hour before sunrise , sd'a kabl esh-shems ; two hours after sun- 
rise , sd'ettn ba'd esh-shems. — ■ Do not come too late. Md tit'akh- 
kharsheh. — Is everything ready ? Kull shi hdder ? — Pack ; load 
(the camel). Sheyyilu; sheddu. — Hold the stirrup. Imsik er-rikdb. 

— Wait a little. Istanna (istenna) shwaiyeh. 

What is the name of this village, mountain, valley, tree, spring? 
E (or tsK) ism el-beled de ; or el-beled-de ismo i (el-gebel, wddi, 
shegara, 'in)? 

We will rest , breakfast. Nestereyyah (nisterih) , niftar. — Is 
there good water there (on the way) ? Fi mdyeh tayyiba ( ftddarb) ? 

— Where is the spring ? Fen el- in ? — Keep at a little distance. 
Khallik ba'id 'anni. — Bring the dinner. Hdt el-akl, ettabikh, el- 
ghada. — Take away the dinner. Shil el-akl. 

Stop. Vkaf, 'andak. — Go on. Yalla. — Where are you going 
to ? Enta rdih fin ? — Where do you come from ? Qdi min in ? 

Shall we go straight on? Ner&hdughri? — Straight on. Dughri, 
dughri. — Turn to the left. Hawwud 'ala shmdlak. 

Do not be afraid of me. Md tkhafsh minni. — What am I to 
do ? Weana md U? — I will have nothing to do with it ; it does not 
coiicernme. Anamdlt. — What are we to do ? Eshel-'amal ;na'meli? 

sir, a gift. Bakshish , yd khawdgeh ! — There is nothing for 
you ; be off. Mdfish; rUh I 

Open the door. Iftah el-bdb. — Shut the door. Ikfil el-bdb. — 
Sweep out the room, and sprinkle it. Iknus (iknis) el-6deh u 

We will eat. 'Auzin ndkul. — Cook me a fowl. Itbukhli farkha. 

— Clean this glass well. Naddef tayyib el-kubaiyeh-di. — Give me 
some water to drink. Isklni, idini moiyeh. 

At a Shop (see p. 44). What do you want? What are you 
peeking? 'Auz i? 'Aiz e? — What may it cost? Bikdm deh? Deh 
bikdm? — What does] this cost (what is it worth)? Byiswa kdm? 


— That is dear, very dear. Deh ghdli , ghdli ketlr. — Cheap, sir. 
Bakhis , yd sidi. • — No, it won't do. Ld, md yisahhish. — Yield a 
little. Ztd shwaiyeh. — Give the money. Hdt el- flti.s. — Change 
me a piece of gold. Isrif li-gineh. — For how much will you take 
the gold piece? Tdkhod el-gineh bikam? 

Salutations and Phrases. Health (peace) be with you. Es- 
saldm 'alekum. Answer : And with you be peace and God's mercy 
and blessing. V 'allkum es-saldm warahmet Allah wa barakdtu. 
These greetings are used by Muslims to each other. A Muslim greets 
a Christian with — Thy day be happy. Nehdrak sa'id. Answer: Thy 
day be happy, blessed. Nehdrak sa'ida wemubdrak (umbdrak). 

Good morning. Sabdhkum bil-khir, or sabdh el-kher. Answer : 
God grant you a good morning. Allah isabbehkum bil-khlr. 

Good evening. Misdkum bil-kher, or meslkum bil-kher. Answer : 
God vouchsafe you a good evening. Allah yimesslkum bil-khSr; or 
messdkum Allah bil-kh&r. — May thy night be happy. LUtak sa'ideh. 
Answer : Leltak sa'ideh we mubaraka. 

On visiting or meeting a person , the first question after the 
usual salutations is: How is your health ? Ezeiyak, or kef hdlak 
(kefMfak)? Thanks are first expressed for the enquiry : God bless 
thee; God preserve thee. Allah yibdrek fik; Allah yihfazak. 
Then follows the answer: Well, thank. God. El-hamdu liildh, 
tayyib. — The Beduins and peasants sometimes ask the same 
question a dozen times. 

After a person has drunk , it is usual for his friends to raise 
their hands to their heads and say : May it agree with you , sir. 
Hanfan, yd sldi. Answer : God grant it may agree with thee. 
Allah yehanntk. 

On handing anything to a person : Take it. Khud (Syrian 
dunak). Answer : God increase your goods. Kattar Allah kherak, 
or kettar kherak. Reply : And thy goods also. Vkherak. (This form 
of expressing thanks, however, will not often be heard by the 
ordinary traveller, as the natives are too apt to regard gifts 
presented to them by Europeans as their right.) 

On leaving : Good bye. 'Al Allah. Or : To God's protection. Ft 
amdn Illdh. Or : Now let us go on. Jalla bina. — The person leav- 
ing usually says nothing, unless when about to start on a long jour- 
ney, in which case he says : Peace be with you. Ma'as-saldma. 

On the route : Welcome. Ahlan wasahlan, oimarhaba. Answer: 
Twice welcome. Marhabten. 

I beg you (to enter, to eat, to take something). Tafaddal 
(tefaddal, itfaddal); fern tafadddli (itfaddali) ; plur. tafadddlu 
(itfadddlu, tefaddalu). — Will you not join us (in eating)? Bis- 
millah (literally 'in God's name'). Answer : May it agree with you, 

Take care; beware. Vka (tta); fern, tiki (xCi). 


I am under your protection ; save me. Fa'rdak (fi'ardak). — My 
house is thy house. BUI bitak (p. 45) — Be so good. Emel ma'ruf. 

What God pleases ('happens', understood). Mdshallah (an ex- 
clamation of surprise). — As God pleases. Inshallah. — By God. 
Wallah , or wallahi. — By thy head. Wahydt rasak. — By the life 
of the prophet. Wahydt en-nebi. — God forbid. Istaghfir Allah! 

XII. Works on Egypt. 

The traveller who desires more than a mere superficial acquain- 
tance with the land of the Pharaohs, the history of which is the 
most ancient and in some respects the most interesting in the 
world, should of course before leaving home read some of the 
standard works on the subject, and also select a number of others 
for reference or entertainment during the journey. This is all the 
more necessary if the traveller is entirely ignorant of the ancient 
and modern languages of the country, in which case he will find it 
difficult, if not impossible, to institute independent enquiries as 
to its manners, literature, and art. From the appended list, which 
might easily be extended, the traveller may make a selection in 
accordance with his individual taste. Those indicated by asterisks 
are among the most indispensable. 

A very complete bibliography of Egypt will be found in Prince Ibra- 
him Hilmy't Literature of Egypt and the Soudan from the earliest times 
to the year 1885 inclusive; 2 vols, fol., London, 1886-87. Among the leading 
foreign authorities on Egypt are Lepsivis 'Denkmaler aus jEgypten und 
./Kthiopien', Champollion't 'Monuments de l'Egypte et de la Nubie', Rotellinfs 
'Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia', and the 'Description de l'Egypte' 
published by the members of the French expedition. 

With regard to the Greek and Roman writers on Egypt, see p. 135. 
The Arabian historians are mere chroniclers, who narrate a series of facts 
and traditions, and are entirely deficient in method and the faculty of 
criticism. The following are the most important writers on the general 
history of Egypt: — El-Mat'Udi (d. 956), of Fostat; Ibn el-Athir (d. 1232), 
of Mossul in Syria; Ibn KhaldUn (d. 1406), one of the most learned of 
Arabian authors, a philosophical historian, and chiefly famous for the pre- 
face to his history, which was printed at Biilak, in four volumes, in 1868 ; 
Abulfidd (d. 1331), prince of Hama in Syria. The following are authors 
of important works on limited epochs of Egyptian history and of vahiahle 
descriptive works : — El-Makrizi (d. 1442, at Cairo), the author of a geo- 
graphical, physical, historical, and political description of Egypt, and of 
Cairo in particular, printed at Bulak in 1854; Abul-Mahdsin (d. 1469), the 
author of a detailed history of Egypt from the Arabian conquest nearly 
down to the time of his death ; Es-SiyAti (d. 1506), of Siut in Upper Egypt ; 
El-Mantift (d. 1624) ; Abu Shdma (d. 1224'), who wrote the' history of Nur- 
eddin and Salaheddin ; Bahdeddin (d. 1234), who for many years was a 
follower of Sa,l&iin ;'Abdellatlf (d.1232), a physician at Baghdad, the author 
of a very important and interesting description of Egypt. 

Histokical, Descriptive, and Scientific Wokks. 
Berkley, E., The Pharaohs and their People; London, 1884. 
"Birch, Dr. S., Sir Gardner Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians ; London, 

1878. — Ancient History from the Monuments: Egypt, down to B.C. 

300; London, 1875. 


"Brugsch, B., L'Exode et les Monuments Egyptiens; Leipzig, 1875. — 
Egypt under the Pharaohs, transl. from the German by P. Smith, 
1874; condensed and revised ed. by M. Broderick, London, 1S91. 

Budge, Wallis, The Dwellers on the Nile; London, 1883. — The Nile 
(published by, and obtainable only from, Messrs. Thomas Cook & Son); 
London, 1890. 

Bunsen, ft ft J., Egypt's Place in Universal History; trans, from the 
German by C. H. Cottrell, with additions by S. Birch ; London, 1867. 

Darmesteter, J., The Mahdi; London, 1885. 

Dicey, E., England and Egypt; London, 1881. 

Dilmichen (J.) and Meyer, Geschichte des alten ^Egyptens; Berlin, 1877 
(specially useful for the ancient geography). 

Ebers, 0., Egypt, Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque, translated 
from the German by Clara Bell and furnished with notes by Dr. Sam. 
Birch; 800 illustrations; new edition, 2 vols., London, 1887. 

Erman, A., Life in Ancient Egypt, translated by H. M. Tirard; London, 

"Lane, E. W., Modern Egyptians ; new ed., London, 1882. 

Leon, E. de, Egypt under its Khedives; London, 1882. 

Le Page Renouf, Hibbert Lectures (1879). 

"Lepsius, ft B., Letters from Egypt, Ethiopia, etc. ; London, 1853. 

Marielte , F. A. F. , Outlines of Ancient Egyptian History , trans, by 
M. A. Brodrick ; London. 1890. — Monuments of Upper Egypt ; Lon- 
don, 1877. 

Maspero, 6., Histoire Ancienne des Peuples de l'Orient; 3rd ed., Paris, 
1884. — Egyptian Archaeology, transl. by Amelia B. Edwards ; Lon- 
don, 1887. 

APCoan, Egypt as it is; London, 1877. 

Merval, Du Barry de, Architecture iSgyptienne ; Paris, 1873. 

ililner, Alfred, England in Egypt; London 1892. 

Osburn, W., Monumental History of Egypt; London, 1854. 

Palmer, W., Egyptian Chronicles; London, 1861. 

Paton, A. A., Egyptian Revolution, from the Period of the Mamelukes 
to the death of Mohammed 'Ali ; 2nd ed., London, 1870. 

Perring, J. E., The pyramids of Gizeh; London, 1842. 

Perrot & Ghipiez, History of Art in Ancient Egypt, translated from the 
French by W. Armstrong; London, 1883. 

"Petrie, W. M. Flinders, History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the 
Hyksos; London, 1894 (Vol. I. of an illustrated History of Egypt in 
6 vols.). — Ten Years' Digging in Egypt ; London, 1893. — The Pyramids 
and Temples of Gizeh; London, 1885. 

Poole, Reginald Stuart, The Cities of Egypt; London, 1883. 

Poole, Stanley Lane, Egypt, in Sampson Low's series of manuals of For- 
eign Countries; London, 1881. 

Rawlinson, <?., History of Ancient Egypt; London, 1881. — Ancient Egypt 
('Story of the Nations' series); London, 1887. 

Records of the Past, Translations of Egyptian Inscriptions by Dr. Birch 
and others; London, 1874 et seq. 

Royle, ft, Egyptian Campaigns 1882-85; 2 vols., London, 1886. 

Sandwith, J. It., Egypt as a Winter-Eesort ; London, 1889. 

Sharpe, S., History of Egypt; new ed., London, 1877 (most useful for 
the Ptolemsean, Roman, and Byzantine periods). — Egyptian Hiero- 
glyphics ; London, 1861. 

Shelley, Q. E., Handbook of the Birds of Egypt; London, 1872. 

Vyse,. H., The Pyramids of Gizeh; London, 1842. 

Wallace, D. M., Egypt and the Egyptian Question; London, 1883. 

"Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, The Ancient Egyptians (new edition by Dr. 
Birch, see above). 

Wilson, Sir ft, From Korti to Khartum; London, 1885. 

Zinclee, F. B., Egypt of the Pharaohs and the Khedive; London, 1873. 


Works of a moke Popular Character, and Works of Fiction. 

About, Le Fellah ; Paris, 1869. 

Arabian Nights, by Lane; London, 1841. The learned editor is of 
opinion that these popular tales were written in 1474-1525, being 
based mainly on earlier traditions, that they were probably compiled 
by an Egyptian, and that they afford an admirable picture of Arabian, 
and particularly of Egyptian, life at that period. 

Bovet, F., Egypt, Palestine, and Phoenicia, translated from the French 
by Canon Lyttleton; London, 1883. 

Cooke, Leaves from my Sketchbook ; Second Series ; London, 1876. 

Curtis, Wm., Nile Notes ofaHowadji, or The American in Egypt. ; Lon- 
don, 1351. 

Ebers, (?., Series of novels on Egyptian subjects, all of which have 
been translated into English. 

Eden, F., The Nile without a Dragoman; London, 1871. 

Edwards, Amelia B., Pharaohs, Fellahs, and Explorers; London, 1891. — 
A Thousand Miles up the Nile ; London, 1877. 

Fleming, O. (Julia Fletcher), A Nile Novel; new ed., London, 1833. 

'Gordon, Lady Duff, Letters from Egypt; London, 1865, 1877. 

"Kingsley, C, Hypatia; London, 1863. 

Lane-Poole, Stanley, Social Life in Egypt; London, 1884. 

Leland, Egyptian Sketchbook; London, 1873. 

Moberley Bell, C. F., From Pharaoh to Fellah; London, 1889. 

Moore, T., The Epicurean; London, 1864. 

Petrie, W. M. Flinders, Egyptian tales ; London, 1895 (a selection of the 
ancient tales of Egypt). 

Poole, Mrs. Sophia, Englishwoman in Egypt; London, 1844-48. 

Ravmsley, 3. />., Notes for the Nile (with metrical renderings of ancient 
Egyptian hymns, etc.); London, 1892. 

Smith, A. ft, The Nile and its Banks; London, 1868. 

Stuart, B. Villiers, Egypt after the War ; London, 1883. — Nile Glean- 
ings; London, 1879. 

Taylor, Bayard, Life and Landscape from Egypt to the Negro Kingdoms 
of the White Nile, 2nd ed. ; London, 18S5. 

Taylor, Canon Isaac, Leaves from an Egyptian Note-Book; London, 1888. 

Twain, Mark, The New Pilgrim's Progress; various editions. 

Warner, Chas. Dudley, My Winter on the Nile; London, 1881. 

Werner, Carl, Nile Sketches ; folio, London, 1871-72. 

Whately, M. L., Bagged Life in Egypt; new ed., London, 1870. — Among 
the Huts in Egypt; 3rd ed., London, 1873. — Scenes from Life in 
Cairo; London, 1882. 

Wilson, Erasmus, F. R. 8., Cleopatra's Needle, with Brief Notes on 
Egypt and Egyptian Obelisks ; London, 1877. 

Classical scholars visiting Egypt should provide themselves with the 
2nd book of Herodotus, the 17th book of Strabo, and the let book of Dio- 
dorus Siculus (comp. p. 137). 

Additional books on Upper Egypt are mentioned in Baedeker's Upper 

1. Approaches to Egypt. 

The time-tables and handbooks of the various steamship companies 
(see below) give full information both a' to the direct sea-routes from 
England and as to the steamers from Mediterranean ports. Particulars 
of the overland routes (see p. 2) from England to the Mediterranean 
will be found in Bradthaw's Continental Railway Guide (2«.). the advertise- 
ment pages of which also contain some shipping information. The P. & 0. 
Co. issues tickets for the sea-route out and the overland route home, or 
vice vend. Heavy baggage should in all cases, if possible, be sent round 
by steamer. — Travellers from the United States may sail direct from 
New York to Naples or Genoa by German steamer, and proceed thence 
by one of the steamers mentioned at pp. 2. 3. 

Travellers who desire to return from Egypt by one of the larger mail 
lines should secure a berth as soon as possible by applying to the ship- 
ping offices in Cairo (p. 29), as these steamers are apt to be crowded 
from February to April inclusive. The days and hours given below for 
the arrival and sailing of the steamers are approximate only, except in 
the case of the terminal ports. At intermediate ports the steamers are 
sometimes behind itinerary time, and not unfrequently a day or two in 
advance. In either case they proceed at once on their voyage. — One of 
the best routes for returning is that via Naples (p. 2), as the temperature 
of Naples and Home forms a pleasant intermediary between the warmth 
of Egypt and the colder climate of N. Europe. A similar remark applies 
to Pegli, Nervi, and other places on the Riviera conveniently reached 
from Genoa (p. 3). 

Alexandria is almost 30° E. of Greenwich, and its time is 1 hr. 59 min. 
in advance of Greenwich time; that of Cairo is 2 hrs. 5 min. and that 
of Port Sa'id 2 hrs. 10 min. in advance of Greenwich. 'Central Europe 1 
time (observed on German and Italian railways, etc.) is 1 hr. in advance 
of Greenwich. 

Alexandria , the chief seaport of Egypt, is regularly visited by 
British, French, Austrian, Italian, Russian, Greek, and Egyptian 
steamers. Port Sa'id and Isma'iliya, on the Suez Canal, are 
touched at hy the vessels of the great Australian, Asiatic, and East 
African lines. — Cairo may be Teached by rail in 3 l /2 nrs - ' rom 
Alexandria ot Isma'lliya , and in 9*/2 hrs. from Port Sa'id. The 
railway from Port Sa'id is a narrow-gauge line as far as Isma'lliya, 
where carriages must be changed (p. 211 ; 1 hour's halt), so that it 
saves trouble to remain on board the steamer as far as Isma'lliya, 
especially as through-tickets to Cairo by this route are issued in 
Europe (comp. p. 2). 

a. Steamers from England direct. 

1. Steamers of the Peninsular and Orient al Steam Navi- 
gation Co. ('P. & 0') leaving London (Royal Albert Docks) every 
Thurs. or Frid., sail via Gibraltar, Malta , and Brindisi (see p. 2) 
in 12-13 days to Port Sa'id and Isma'iliya (fares 1st. cl. 202., 2nd 
cl. 122. ,• return-tickets 322., 182.), whence a special train is run 
to Cairo on the arrival of the steamer. — Steamers of this company 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. 1 

2 Route 1. APPROACHES 

also, leaving London every fortnight, sail via Gibraltar and (9 days) 
Naples to Port Sa'id and Isma'Uiya. Passengers for Alexandria 
(same fares as to Isma'iliya) change steamers at Naples (see below). 
— Return-tickets are available for four months. 

2. Steamers of the Orient and Pacific Co. ('Orient Line'), 
leaving London (Tilbwy Docks) every alternate Frid., sail via Gib- 
raltar and (9 days) Naples to Port Sa'id and Isma'Uiya (fares 20i., 
12f.; return-tickets 32l. , 18/.). Return -tickets are available for 
four months. 

3. Steamers of the North German Lloyd ('NorddeutscherLloyd'), 
for Australia or China, leaving Southampton fortnightly, sail via 
Genoa and Naples to Port Sa'id and Isma'Uiya (fares from London, 
201. 6s., 121. 6s.; return-tickets 32Z. lis., 19J. 10s.). Thence to 
Cairo by rail (fares from London, 21l., 10,1. 13s. 6d.,- return-tickets 
34i., 20l. 5s.). Return-tickets are available for six months. 

4. Steamers of the Papayanni, Moss, Anchor, Ocean, and Leyland Lines 
sail from Liverpool to Alexandria at irregular intervals (fare about 152.). 

b. Steamers from Mediterranean Ports. 


may be reached from London via Bale in 59 hrs. by ordinary train (fare 
121. 6s. 6<J. or SI. 18s. Gd.) ; or in 48 hrs. by the 'P. & 0. Brindisi Express', 
leaving London every Frid. evening (fare, including sleeping-car ticket, 
16Z. 14s. 3d.; tickets obtainable only from the P. & 0. Co., 122 Leaden- 
hall St., E. 0., or the International Sleeping Car Co., 14 Cockspur St., 
S.W.). — Genoa is 30 l /t hrs. from London via, Paris and Mont Cenis (fares 
11. 9s. 3d., bl. 4s. 6(Z.). — Venice is 42 hrs. from London via, Bale and the 
St Gotthard (fares Si. 15s. Od., 61. Ss. Od.). — Naples is 50 hrs. from London 
via Paris, Mont Cenis, and Rome (fares 11?. is. 5d., 11. 17s. 2d.). — Mar- 
seilles is 25 hrs. from London (fares %l. 18s. Od., U. 16s. Od.). A 'Mediter- 
ranean Express' leaves Paris for Marseilles , etc., three times a week in 
winter, once a week in summer; passengers from London by this train 
pay bl. Os. Id. in addition to the ordinary 1st class fare. 

The chief lines of Steamers to Alexandria are : — 

1. From Brindisi (Grand Hotel des Indes Orientales, first class). 
Austrian Lloyd steamer (Trieste boat, see p. 3) every Sat. at mid- 
night, reaching Alexandria on Wed. at 5.30 a.m. (fares 1st cl. 88 
florins in gold, 2nd cl. 59 fl.); returning from Alexandria every 
Tues. at 9 a.m., reaching Brindisi on Frid. evening. — Navigazione 
Generale Italiana (Venice boat, see p. 3) every alternate Frid. morn- 
ing, reaching Alexandria on Mon. morning (fares 180 fr. 60, 113 fr. 
60 c, including wine) ; returning from Alexandria every alternate 
Thurs. morning, reaching Brindisi on Sun. morning. 

2. From Naples (H6tel Bristol, West End, Grand Hotel, all of 
the first class; Riviera, 8-10 fr.), P. $ 0. steamer every alternate 
Sun. at 4 p.m. (in connection with mail-steamer from London, see 
above), reaching Alexandria on Thurs. morning (fares 10i., &l.); re- 
turning from Alexandria every alternate Sat. at 3 p.m., reaching 
Naples on Wed. morning. — Navigazione Generale Italiana (Genoa 
boat, see p. 3), every Wed. evening, reaching Alexandria on Sun. 

TO EGYPT. 1. Route. 3 

morning (fares 222 fr., 164 fr.) ; returning from Alexandria every 
Wed. afternoon, reaching Naples on Sun. morning. 

3. From Venice (H6tel Buropa, Royal Danieli, Grand Hotel, all 
of the first class, with corresponding charges ; Britannia, well man- 
aged; Italia; Luna; Citta di Monaco, etc.). Navigazione Generate 
Italiana, every alternate Tues. morning, via Ancona, Bari, and Brin- 
disi (arriving Thura. afternoon , see p. 2) , Teaching Alexandria 
on Mon. morning (fares 251 fr. 10, 164 fr. 10 c); returning from 
Alexandria every alternate Thurs. morning, reaching Venice on 
Wed. morning. 

4. From Genoa (Grand H6tel Isotta, de Genes, du Pare, all first 
class; de la Ville; des Etrangers, etc.). Navigazione Generate Ital- 
iana, every Sat. (every fourth voyage on Mon.), via. Leghorn (ex- 
cept every fourth voyage), Naples (see p. 2), and Messina, reaching 
Alexandria on the second Sun. following (fare 1st cl. Si. 14s., 
food 6*. 6d. or 9». Gd. per day extra, according to steamer) ; return- 
ing from Alexandria on Wed., Teaching Genoa the following Wed- 
nesday. — Twice a month these steamers go on to Port Sa'id. 

5. From Marseilles (Hotel Noailles , de Marseille, du Louvre 
et de la Paix, all of the first class ; Petit Louvre ; Colonies). Steam- 
ers of the Messageries Maritime) leave Marseilles every alternate Sun. 
at 4 p.m., reaching Alexandria on Thurs. (fares, by Mediterranean 
packet on Sat, 300 fr., 210 fr. ; by India and China packet on Sun., 
350 fr., 260 fr.); returning from Alexandria on Sun., reaching 
Marseilles on Thursday. Return-tickets , available for four months, 
at a reduction of 10 per cent. — The India and China packets (fort- 
nightly) call also at Port Sa'id and Isma'iliya. 

6. From Trieste (Hotel de la Ville , Delorme , both near the 
quay; Europa, near the station): Austrian Lloyd steamers leave 
Trieste every Frid. at 1 p.m., touching at Brindisi (see p. 2; 
arriving at 9 p.m. on Sat.), and reach Alexandria on Wed. after- 
noon (fares 120 fl., 80 fl. in gold) ; returning from Alexandria on 
Tues. at 9 a.m., reaching Trieste on Sat. afternoon. — Another 
steamer of the same company sails every fourth week by the longer 
route via Fiume and Corfu to Alexandria. 

7. From Constantinople : Russian Steamers sail every Thurs. afternoon 
via Smyrna to Alexandria, In 4-5*days. — Khedivieh Mail Steamers (managed 
by Thos. Cook ife Son. Ltd.) start every Wed. afternoon for Alexandria via 
Smyrna and (40 hrs.) the Piraeus (Athens) ; returning on Wed. afternoon. 

Arrival at Alexandria (comp. Map, p. 20). The perfectly 
flat N.E. coast of Egypt, and even Alexandria itself, are not visible 
to the steamboat passenger until very shortly before the vessel en- 
ters the harbour. We first observe the lighthouse rising conspic- 
uously above the level and colourless line of the coast. Before pass- 
ing Bab el-' Arab the steamer takes a pilot on board and is steered 
by him through a narrow, shallow, and rocky channel (Boghaz) into 
the harbour. As the passage can only be effected by daylight, ves- 
sels arriving in the evening must ride at anchor outside until next 



morning. In the background , to the right , we observe Pompey's 
Pillar (p. 15), and, on the coast, the Chateau of Meks (p. 21); 
to the left, on the prominent Ras et-Ttn ('Cape of Figs', p. 16), the 
palace of the Khedive and the Arsenal. Most of the steamers lie 
alongside the quays ; only those of the Messageries Maritimes and 
of the Khedivieh Co. cast anchor, but in both cases the processes 
of landing and embarking are well arranged. 

As soon as the brief sanitary inspection is over, the porters and 
commissionnaires swarm wildly on deck, vociferating in half-a-dozen 
different languages , and with animated gesticulations precipitate 
themselves upon the travellers' luggage. The best plan, especi- 
ally when ladies are of the party, is to secure the services of one of 
Cook's or Gaze's agents, who relieves the traveller of all trouble, 
assists in clearing luggage at the custom-house, and conducts the 
travellers to the special omnibuses for the hotels or railway-station. 
These agents are recognizable by the official caps, while the Arabs 
in the service of these firms bear large brass plates on their breasts. 
A sum of 15-20 pias. generally covers the total expenses of landing 
etc., but a great deal of trouble is saved by procuring a landing- 
ticket when booking one's berth, etc. before leaving home. — The 
Custom House Examination, which takes place on shore, resembles 
the process in Europe. 

The chief lines of Steamers to Port Said and Isma'iliya are 
the following : — 

1. From Brindisi. Steamers of the P. # 0. Co. leave Brindisi 
every Sun. night in connection with the Brindisi Express (see 
p. 2), reaching Port Sa'id and Isma'iliya on the following Thurs. 
(fares 1st cl. 10i., 2nd cl. Gl. ; return-tickets 16i., 10i.), returning 
from Alexandria fortnightly. 

2. From Naples. P. fy O. steamers leave Naples every second 
Sun. at 4 p.m., reaching Port Sa'id and Isma'iliya on the following 
Thurs. (fares 10i., 6Z.) ; returning from Isma'iliya and Port Sa'id on 
"Wed. or Thursday. — Steamers of the Orient Line leave Naples 
every second Sun. for Port Sa'id and Isma'iliya (fares 10J., 6Z.); 
through fare to Cairo, including railway, 15 1.~); returning from these 
ports on Wed. and leaching Naples on Sunday. — North German 
Lloyd (Southampton boat ; see p. 2) steamers , leaving Naples every 
alternate Wed. evening, reaching Port Sa'id on the following Sun. 
(fares 200m., 150m.; to Isma'iliya 10 m. extra each class); and 
returning also fortnightly. — The East African liners of the Ham- 
burg-American Steam-Packet Co., leaving Naples every fourth Wed. 
reach Port Sa'id on the following Mon. (fares 200 m., 150 m.). — 
Navigazione Postale Italiana steamers twice monthly to Port Sa'id ; 
see No. 4 on p. 3. 

3. From Genoa. NorthGerman Lloyd steamers, every alternate Mon. 
via Naples (see above), reaching Port Sa'id the following Sun. ({fares 

Wagner *■ D«bf«. I.rij>«j 

ALEXANDRIA. -J. Route. 5 

250 m., 180 m., to Isma'iliya 10 m. extra each class). — A steamer 
of the Rotterdamscke Lloyd leaves Genoa for Port Sa'id every alter- 
nate Thursday. — Navigations Generate Italiana steamers twice 
monthly to Port Sa'id ; see under No. 4 on p. 3. 

4. From Maesbilles. The India and China packets of the 
Messageries Maritime*, leaving Marseilles every alternate Sun. at 
4 p.m., reach Port Sa'id on the following Frid. (fares 400 fr., 300 fr.) ; 
returning from Port Sa'id every alternate Sun. or Sat., reaching 
Marseilles on Thurs. following. — A steamer of the Nederland 
Steamship Co. leaves Marseilles every alternate Frid. for Port Sa'id. 

Ahbival at Port Sa'id. As in the case of the approach to Alex- 
andria, the low sandy coast is still out of sight for some time after 
the steamer meets the yellowish - green water opposite the Nile 
mouths. The lighthouse and the masts of the ships in port then 
come in sight and finally the huge breakwaters of the harbour. The 
custom-house examination for passengers landing here takes place 
on shore ;• luggage going on to Isma'iliya is not examined until 
that port is reached. For landing in small boats, when the steamer 
does not lie up beside the quay, Y2 fr. ; but comp. above. 

For the steamboat voyage on the Suez Canal to IsmaHltya, see pp. 211- 
209. — Railway from Isma'iliya to Cairo, see pp. 194-191. 

2. Alexandria* 

Hotels. (It may again be remarked here that all the hotels in the 
East charge a fixed sum per day for board and lodging, exclusive of 
liquors , whether the traveller takes his meals in the house or not.) 
Hotel Khedivial (PI. a; G, 4), at the corner of the Eue Che"rif Pacha and 
Rue de Rosette, near the principal station (p. 6); Hotel Abbat (PI. b; 
F, 4), in the Place de l'Eglise. At these two, 60 pias. daily for R. and 
three meals; R. from 25, L. 2, A. 4, B. 6-8, dej. 20, D. 20-25 pias. — Second 
class : Hotel dd Canal de Suez, Boulevard Rainleh ; Hotel des Voyageurs , 
Rue de l'Eglise Ecossaise, moderate; Hotel Bonnard, R. 3, B. 1 fr. 

Cafes. Paradiso, between the Place Mehemet-Ali and the sea, oppo- 
site the Rue des ScEurs. 'Cafe" noir' in the European style, or 'cafe' fort' 
in the Arabian, 1 pias. per cup. There are several other cafes in this 
quarter, mostly kept by Greeks, with evening concerts (sometimes female 
orchestra). — Restaurants. VUnivers, in the street leading from the Ex- 
change to the Boulevard Eamleh; Marie Fix, Rue de l'Eglise Ecossaise 
(German, beer). — Beer. Dockhom, Fink, both in the street leading to the 
Cafe Paradiso. — Bars. Spathis, next the Restaur. l'Univers; Monferrato, 
Rue Cherif Pacha, opposite the Exchange; Pappa, in the same street, next 
the Exchange. 

Baths. European: at the hotels (see above). Arabian (comp. p. xxvii): 
in the Rue Ras et-Tin, opposite the Zabtiyeh (police-office). — Sea Baths in 
the Port Ueuf ; better at San Stefano near Ramleb (see p. 22). 

Clubs. Club Khe'divial, on the first Uoor of the Exchange, handsomely 
fitted up, patronized by Europeans of all nations; introduction by a member 
necessary ; after a week visitors must purchase a ticket of admission. — 
Club Mohammed 'Ali, Rue de Rosette, opposite the Hotel Khedivial. Numer- 
ous newspapers at both, and also in the reading-room of the Exchange. — 
The Athenaeum is a scientific and artistic society, founded and directed by 
Sir Charles Cookson, British Consul-General. 

Cabs. The fare for a short drive in the town, without luggage, is 
2-3 pias., per hr. 8-10 pias., for an afternoon 10-12 fr., from 5 p.m. on, 
5-7 fr. ; on Sun. and Frid. fares are raised. A bargain should always be 

6 Route 2. ALEXANDRIA. Consulates. 

made beforehand, especially for longer drives, e.g. to Kamleh, to which a 
cab may sometimes be secured for 20 pias. Hurried travellers are recom- 
mended to use cabs. 

Donkeys (now rarely used by strangers), per ride of >/4 hr. 1-2 pias.; 
per hour 4-5 pias. ; longer excursions according to bargain. 

Commissionnaires (p. xxi), who are useful when time is limited or 
when the traveller's cabman speaks Arabic only, abound. They charge 
20-30 pias. per day, but may be hired for temporary purposes for 4-5 pias. 
Offers to escort the traveller to Cairo and even up the Nile, should be 
disregarded, as the only suitable dragomans are to be found at Cairo in 

Post Office (PI. P; F, 3, 4), open from 7 a.m. to 7.30 p.m., except for 
two hours after noon. Letter-boxes at the hotels and in several of the 
streets, but those in the side-streets are said to be not always secure. 
France has a post-office of its own, opposite the English telegraph-office. 

Telegraph Offices. Egyptian (PI. T; F, 4) in the Exchange ; English 
(PI. E T; F, G, 4), at the W. end of the Boulevard Kamleh, opposite the 
street leading to the Exchange. The English wires may not be used for 
inland telegrams (comp. p. xix). 

Consulates (comp. p. xx). British, Boul. Bamleb : consul-general, Sir 
Chas. A. Cookson; vice-consul, Mr. Arthur David Alban. — American, St. 
Mark's Buildings, Place Mehemet-Ali: consular agent, Mr. Jos. Hewat. — 
French, Place Mehemet-Ali: consul-general, M. Barrere; consul, M.Monge. 
— German, Rue de Rosette: Hr. Becker; vice-consul, Count Castell-Ruden- 
haitsen. — Austrian, Rue de Rosette : Count Wass ; vice-consul, Baron von 
Leonhardi. — Italian, Boul. Ismail: Sign. G. de Martino; vice-consul, Sign. 
Machiavelli. — Belgian, Rue de Rosette : Prosper-Remy, vice-consul. — 
Dutch, Rue de Rosette: Hr. Schiitz. — Russian, at Messala: M. de Yilliers, 
vice-consul. — Spanish, Sen. de Ortega Morejon. — Swedish, Rue du Tele- 
graphe Anglais : Mr. Barker. — Danish, Rue de Rosette : Vicomte de Zogheb, 
consul-general; M. de Dumreicher, vice-consul. — Greek, M. Byzantios, 
consul-general; M. BuJ 'fides, consul. 

Steamboat Offices. Peninsular & Oriental Co., Place Mdhemet-Ali; 
Orient Line, Rue du Telegraphe Anglais (Moss & Co.) ; Messageries Maritimes, 
Boulevard Ramleh (Jul. Ricard); Austrian Lloyd, Place Mehemet-Ali; 
Navigazione Generate Italiana, Rue Tewfik Pacha (Woivodich); North Ger- 
man Lloyd , St. Mark's Buildings, Rue de la Poste ; Austrian Lloyd, Place 
Mehemet-Ali ; Compagnie Russe, Rue Mosquee-Attarine ; German Levant Line 
(from Hamburg), Rue Mosquee-Attarine (Okella Ratib Pacha) ; Compagnie 
Khidiviale, at Thos. Cook & Son (Egypt) Ltd. (see below). 

Tourist Agents. Thos. Cook <k Son (Egypt) Ltd., Place Mehemet-Ali; 
H. Gaze <fc Sons, Place Ste. Catherine; Ugo Orvieto's Agenzia d'Arrivi. 

Railway Stations. Central Station, for all lines except that to Ramleh, 
near the Porte Moharrem Bey (PI. C, 5). The station for Ramleh (PI. H, 3) 
is at the Port Neuf. 

Booksellers, both English and French, in the Rne Cherif Pacha, on 
the S.W. side of the Exchange. Photographs and knickknacks in the 
same street. — Photographs. Reiser, at the corner of the old Exchange 
and the Boulevard Kamleh, opposite the English telegraph-office ; Lassave, 
Fiorillo, Rue Che>if Pacha; Fettel <b Bernard, Boulevard Ramleh. — Paint- 
ings of Eastern landscapes and genre-scenes from Sconamiglio, in the Hotel 
Khedivial. — Several Newspapers (in French, English, and Italian) are 
published at Alexandria. 

Bankers. Banque Jmpiriale Ottomane, above the old Exchange, oppo- 
site the back of St. Mark's Buildings ; Bank of Egypt, Rue Tewfik Pacha ; 
Anglo-Egyptian Banking Co., Rue Cherif Pacha; Cridit Lyonnais, Rue Cherif 
Pacha; etc. Most of these have branches in Cairo, a few also in Syria. 

Physicians. Dr. Mackie, English; Dr. Varenhorst Pasha, Dr. Kulp, Dr. 

SchiessBey, Dr. Walther (skin and ear diseases), German ; Dr. Kartullis, 

Greek ; Dr. Zancarol. Dentists : Dr. Love ; Dr. Keller, Swiss. Oculist, Dr. 

Tachau. All the addresses may be obtained at the chemists' (see below). 

Chemists. Otto Huber, Ruelberg, both in the Rue Cherif Pacha. 

Harbour. ALEXANDRIA. 2. Route. 7 

Hospitals. The Deaconnesses' 1 Institute, Avenue de Moharrem Bey, is 
an admirable establishment, managed by Dr. Varenhorst. European Hospital, 
Boulevard Ismai'1 Pacha; Egyptian Hospital & Foundling Asylum, near the 
Ramleh station, an admirable institution, with modern appliances, managed 
by Dr. Schiess. 

Shops for all kinds of European articles are to be found in the Eue 
Cherif Pacha and the Place Mehimet-Ali : e.g. Cordier, Chalons, Camoin. 
Ready-made clothing: Meyer <k Co., Stein, Goldcnberg, etc. The Arabian 
bazaar presents no attraction. — Cigars and Cigarettes at H. C. Flick's and the 
Maison Hollandaise, in the Rue du Telegraphe Anglais, opposite each other. 

Churches. English (PI. 1; F, 4), Place Me'he'met-Ali, Rev. E. J. Davis; 
service on Sundays at 11 and 3 o'clock. — Presbyterian (PI. 2; F, 3), r Rev. 
Wm. Cowan ; service at 11. — Protestant Church (PI. 3 ; F, 3), Rue de l'liglise 
Anglaise; German and French service on alternate Sundays at 10. — Ro- 
man Catholic: St. Catherine (PI. 4; F, 4) and Lazarist Church (PI. 5; F, 4). 
— Two Greek Churches. — Several Synagogues , etc. 

At Alexandria there are eight different Freemasons' Lodges, which, 
however, possess two buildings only, called the Loge des Pyramides or 
English Lodge (Boul. Ismail) and the Scottish Lodge (Okella Neuve, Place 

Theatres. The large Zizinia Theatre (PI. Z ; G, 4), in the Rue de Rosette, 
opposite the German consulate, is frequently closed, even in winter. Italian 
and French operas are given ; after Jan. 1st alternately in Alexandria and 

Disposition of Time. The town may be inspected in 1/2-I day. Trav- 
ellers who have never seen an Oriental town will be interested in ob- 
serving the street scenes and the picturesque faces and costumes ; but to 
those returning home Alexandria presents an almost European appearance, 
and is unattractive. The official names of the streets are little used or 
known. Starting from the Place Mehemet-Ali (p. 14), we may first ride 
or drive to Pompey's Column (p. 15) and the Catacombs (p. 15). We then 
return to the Place Mehemet-Ali and traverse the long Rue Rds et-Tin to 
the palace of that name (p. 16). If time permits, a drive may also be taken 
(best in the afternoon) along the Mahmudtyeh Canal to the public gardens 
of Oinenet en-Nuzha (p. 20). 

Alexandria, called Iskanderiyeh by the Arabs and Turks, the sec- 
ond town of Egypt, and one of the most important commercial cities 
on the Mediterranean, is situated at the W. extremity of the Nile- 
delta, on the narrow sandy strip separating Lake Mareotis from the 
sea, in E. long. 29° 58' 30", and N. lat. 30°2'4". It contains a 
population of 200,000, of whom about 50,000 are Europeans (Franks), 
chiefly Greeks and Italians, but including also some French and 
British, and a few Germans, etc. The Mohammedans live almost 
exclusively in the N. and "W. quarters of the city, the Europeans in 
the E. quarter, in the villas on the Mahmudiyeh Canal (p. 20), and at 
Ramleh (p. 22). 

Alexandria has two Hakbours , one to the E., the so-called 
'New Harbour', now accessible only for fishing-boats, and one to the 
W. (PL A-D, 2-5), the only one now used by larger craft. In anti- 
quity the E., or 'Great Harbour' as it was called, was preferred, for 
it was then much better sheltered than at present, by a massive 
mole that has since disappeared. The approach to the W. harbour, 
the Eunostos, or harbour of those 'returning home in safety', was 
rendered dangerous by shoals, and was not freely used until the time 
of the later Roman emperors. Under the Arabs it was the chief 
haven, and afterwards came to be called (erroneously) the 'Old 

8 Route 2. ALEXANDRIA. Climate. 

Harbour'. Since 1871 it has been enlarged by the addition of an 
Outer Harbour, about 1800 acres in area. This is protected by a 
breakwater nearly 2 M. in length, constructed of solid masses of 
masonry and forming an obtuse angle. The broad horizontal surface 
is 10 ft. above the level of the water at low tide. A second pier, or 
Molo, nearly 1000 yds. in length, protects the Inner Hai bour, which 
is about 475 acres in area and on an average 27 ft. deep. From the 
beginning of this pier a series of new quays extends along the whole 
E. side of the harbour to the Arsenal (p. 16). The port is entered 
and cleared annually by upwards of 2000 steamers, more than half 
of which are under the British flag. The Mahmudiyeh Canal (p. 14), 
which connects Alexandria with the Nile, enters the inner harbour 
by several locks (PI. C, 5). The chief exports are cotton (over 250,000 
tons in 1892), grain, cotton-seed, beans, rice, sugar, onions, etc. 

The Climate of Alexandria is differentiated from that of Cairo 
by the influence of the sea. In Alexandria the coldest month (Jan- 
uary) has a mean temperature of 69° Fahr., the warmest (August) 
80° Fahr. , as compared with 53, 7 ° and 85° (in June) at Cairo. In 
winter the temperature never sinks so low at night as is the case at 
Cairo (comp. p. lxix). 

1. History and Topography of ancient Alexandria. 
Alexandria was founded in B.C. 332 by Alexander the Ortat, 
and forms a magnificent and lasting memorial of his Egyptian cam- 
paign. With the foundation of the city are associated a number 
of legends to the effect that the coast, opposite the island of Pharos, 
was specially pointed out by divine omens to the Macedonian 
monarch as a suitable site for the foundation of a new seaport, t 
The most important earlier harbours on the N. coast of Egypt were 
those of Naucraks, at the W. (Canopic) mouth of the Nile, chiefly 
used by Greek vessels after the 26th Dynasty (664-625 B.C.), and 
Tank and Pelusium, on the N.E. side of the Delta, to which Egyptian 
and Phoenician vessels only seem to have been admitted. Alexan- 
der conceived the plan of founding a new and splendid seaport 
town in Egypt , both to facilitate the flow of Egypt's wealth to- 
wards Greece and the Archipelago, and to connect the venerable 
kingdom of the Pharaohs with that widely extended Greek em- 
pire which it was his great ambition to found. The site chosen 

t A venerable old man is said to have appeared to the king in a dream 
and to have repeated to him the following lines from Homer (Od. iv. 54, 55) : 

'One of the islands lies in the far-foaming waves of the sea, 

Opposite Egypt's river, and its name is Pharos". 
The following incident was also regarded as a favourable omen. As Deino- 
crates, the king's architect, was marking out the plan of the town and 
the sites of the principal buildings, the white earth used for the pur- 
pose ran short, and he supplied its place with the flour belonging to his 
workmen. The flour soon attracted numerous birds, by which it was 
speedily devoured, whereupon Aristander pronounced this incident to be a 
prognostication of the future wealth and commercial prosperity of the city. 










History. ALEXANDRIA. 2. Route. 9 

by the king was opposite the island of Pharos, near the ancient 
Egyptian village of Bhakotis, between the Mediterranean Sea and 
the Mareotic Lake (p. 23), which was connected with the Nile by 
several navigable channels. The choice was both judicious and far- 
seeing. For the older, and apparently more favourably situated 
harbours at the E. end of the Delta, close to the Red Sea, were ex- 
posed to the danger of being choked by the Nile mud, owing to a 
current in the Mediterranean, beginning at the Strait of Gibraltar, 
which washes the whole of the N. African coast. Deinocrates, the 
architect , was entrusted with the planning and building of the 
new city. 

After Alexander's death, when his empire was divided among 
his generals, Ptolemy I. Soter (323-286 B.C.) came into possession 
of Egypt. The population of the city increased greatly, and it at- 
tracted a large number of Jewish settlers, to whom Ptolemy assigned 
a suburb on the coast, towards the E. During his wise and upright 
reign Alexandria became a great resort of artists and scholars, in- 
cluding Demetrius Phalereus, the orator, who founded the famous 
library, Apelles and Antiphilus, the painters, Euclid, the mathe- 
matician, and Erasistratus and Herophilus, the physicians. A hi- 
story of Alexander the Great written by Ptolemy himself has un- 
fortunately been lost. Under his successor, Ptolemy 11. Philadtlphus 
(286-247 B.C.), was founded the Museum, a splendid pile dedi- 
cated to science and poetry , in which scholars dwelt as well as 
studied and taught. Among its distinguished members were Sosibius 
and Zoilus, the grammarians; Strato, the natural philosopher ; Ti- 
mochares and Aristarchus, the astronomers; Apollodorus, the.physi- 
cian ; Hegesias, the philosopher ; Zenodotus, Theocritus, Callima- 
chus, and Philetas, the poets ; and the versatile Timon. It was about 
this period that the Old Testament was translated from Hebrew 
into Greek , the new version being called the Septuagint from the 
tradition that seventy translators were engaged in the work. Under 
Ptolemy III. Euergetes (247-222 B.C), Aristophanes of Byzantium, 
the grammarian and critic, became the director of the Museum, 
while the mathematical school was superintended by Eratosthenes 
of Cyrene, the founder of the science of mathematical geography. 
At this period Alexandria was also the residence of the orator Lycon 
of Troas, of the poets Apollonius, the Rhodian, and Lycophron, and 
of the great astronomer Conon. 

Notwithstanding the continual dissensions among the Ptolemies 
with regard to the succession to the throne (p. cxv, cxvi), which 
seriously disturbed the peace of the city, the fame of Alexandria, 
as the greatest centre of commerce in the world and the chief seat of 
Greek learning, steadily increased, and in B.C. 48, when the Ro- 
mans interfered in the quarrels of Cleopatra VII. and her husband 
and brother Ptolemy XIV., had reached its zenith. After the murder 
of Pompey at Pelusium, Caesar entered Alexandria in triumph 

1 Route 2. ALEXANDRIA. Topography of 

(p. cxvii), but was attacked by the citizens and the army of Pto- 
lemy XIV., and had considerable difficulty in maintaining himself 
in the Regia (see below). Caesar was afterwards conquered by the 
charms of the Egyptian queen, but Antony fell more fatally into her 
toils, and spent years of revelry with her at Alexandria (42-30). 
Augustus treated Alexandria with clemency, and enlarged it by 
the addition of the suburb of Nicopolis on the E. side of the city. 
At this prosperous period Alexandria is said to have numbered 
more than half-a-million inhabitants , consisting of Egyptians , 
Greeks, Jews, Phoenicians, and Italians, all of whom were anim- 
ated in common with the spirit of enterprise which attracted them 
to the recently founded city. The Greek element predominated, 
next in importance to which was the Egyptian, while a numerous, 
but exclusive, Jewish community was settled here as early as the 
4th cent. B.C. 

The Greek scholar and traveller Strabo (B.C. 66-24) describes Alexan- 
dria as it was in the decades immediately before the beginning of our era, 
in the 17th Book of his Geography. The former island of Pharos had been 
united to the mainland by an embankment known as the Heptastadium 
(see below), and on the E. extremity of the island rose the famous light- 
house built in the reign of Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, which was regarded 
by the ancients as one of the wonders of the world, and gave its name 
of 'Pharos' to all lighthouses afterwards erected. It bore the inscription : 
'Sostratos, the Cnidian, son of Dexiphanes, to the gods who protect 
mariners'. Its original height is said to have been 400 ells (590 ft.), and 
though even in antiquity it threatened more than once to collapse, a 
fragment of the ancient tower still stood erect until about 1350. In the 
15th cent, its site was occupied by fortifications ('Fort du Phare'). The 
Heptastadium , a vast embankment of seven stadia in length (1400 yds.), 
as its name imports, was constructed by Ptolemy Soter, or his son Phila- 
delphus. It was pierced by two passages, bridged over, and before Cae- 
sar's time served also as an aqueduct. Having since that period been ar- 
tificially enlarged by debris from the ancient city, thrown into the sea, 
as well as by natural deposits, it has attained a width of more than 1600 
yds., and now forms the site of a great part of the modern city. 

Among the Principal Quarters of the ancient city Strabo partic- 
ularly mentions the Necropolis or city of the dead, at the extreme W. 
end, 'where there are many gardens , tombs , and establishments for em- 
balming bodies' ; Rhakotis, 'the quarter of Alexandria situated above the 
ships' magazines', chiefly inhabited by Egyptians; the Regia or Royal 
City, which was walled in, and contained the palaces and public build- 
ings, on the mainland between the Lochias and the Heptastadium; the 
Jews' Quarter, situated to the E. of Lochias. Outside the Canopic gate, on 
the E., lay the hippodrome, and farther to the E. was the suburb of Nico- 
polis, SO stadia from Alexandria, which possessed an amphitheatre and 
a racecourse, and where the quinquennial games were celebrated. 

The town was regularly built, with streets intersecting each other 
at right angles. The main artery of traffic seems to have been the long 
street, beginning at the Canopic gate (comp. p. 16), which is probably in- 
debted for its long existence to the conduit constructed under it at an 
eaTly period, and still supplying the cisterns with Nile water. Excavations 
have brought to light distinct traces of the old pavement, which consisted 
of blocks of granite , and have established the fact that the street was 
a"bout 45 ft. in width, or double that of the other streets. On each side 
of the eauseway ran foot-pavements with arcades. An almost equally 
important cross-street, probably constructed in the 2nd cent, after Christ, 
traversed the E. part of the city from N. to S. Here, between two cause- 
ways, each 20 ft. in width, has been found a deep band of soil, on which 

Ancient Alexandria. ALEXANDRIA. 2, Route. 1 1 

probably grew a row of trees ; and this street was also provided with a 
water-conduit. The side-streets were 23 ft. in width. 

Of the Principal Buildings of ancient Alexandria the scanty relics 
of only a few can be identified (p. 15). The locality least free from 
doubt is the site of the Paneum, which according to Strabo was 'an artifi- 
cial circular mound , resembling a rocky hill , to which a winding way 
ascends'. This spot is doubtless identical with the modern Kom ed-Dik, 
the highest ground in the town (p. 16). — The Gymnasium probably lay to 
the W. of this point. 

The theatre , the Sema or Soma , and the Museum were situated 
in the quarter of the Royal Palaces (Regia; afterwards called Bruchium) 
and occupied 'a fourth or even a third part of the whole extent of the 
city'. The Alexandrian Theatre lay opposite the island of Antirrhodus, 
so that the spectators had a view of the sea in the background. The 
Sema or Soma was an enclosed space , within which were the tombs of 
the kings and that of Alexander. Adjoining the tomb of Queen Cleo- 
patra stood a temple of Isis, remains of which have been discovered at 
the intersection of the Nabi Daniel Street and the Greek Hospital Street. 
This discovery should go far to settle the site of the eagerly-sought tomb 
of Alexander. 

The Museum probably stood on a site to the E. of the church of St. 
Athanasius. According to Strabo, it contained 'a hall for walking, another 
for sitting , and a large building with the dining-room of the scholars 
residing at the Museum.' This 'hall for walking' was an extensive court 
shaded with trees and provided with fountains and benches, while the hall 
for sitting was used for purposes of business and study. The members 
of the Museum were arranged at their repasts according to the schools to 
which they belonged (Aristotelians , Platonlsts, Stoics). Each department 
elected a president, and the body of presidents formed a council, whose de- 
liberations were presided over by the 'neutral' priest appointed by govern- 
ment. With the vast and artistically embellished buildings of the Museum 
various other important establishments were connected. The most import- 
ant of these was the famous Alexandrian Library, which contained 400,000 
scrolls as early as the reign of Ptolemy It. Philadelphus, while in Caesar's 
time, when it was burned, the number had risen to about £00,000. The 
library lay to the N. of the Museum, near the harbour. Besides the revenues 
enjoyed by the Museum in its corporate capacity, a yearly salary was paid to 
each member from the time of Philadelphus downwards. Parthey estimates 
the members in the time of the first Ptolemies at one hundred at least, but 
it was probably much smaller at a later period. The Alexandrian School 
was chiefly celebrated for its distinguished professors of the exact sciences, 
including geography, astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, natural history, 
medicine, and anatomy. Among its most celebrated scholars were Eratos- 
thenes and Strabo, the geographers; Hipparchus and Ptolemseus, the 
astronomers; Archimedes, the mechanician; Euclid, the founder of geo- 
metry; and Herophilus and Erasistratus, the anatomists. The branch of 
learning most successfully cultivated by the members of the Museum, 
however, was grammar, or philology, as it would now be called. 'The 
task of transmitting to posterity in a pure form the whole of the knowledge 
and intellectual creations of an earlier period may perhaps be regarded 
as the noblest aim of philology, and this task was most ably performed 
by the philologists of Alexandria. It is to their critical labours that we 
owe the preservation of the Greek literature, which has exercised so 
great an influence on the culture of the West and on modern history gener- 
ally'. In these words Parthey sums up the result of the labours of the 
Alexandrian scholars, whose individual merits we cannot here discuss. 

The site of the Serapeum, or great temple of Serapis, which Strabo 
mentions very briefly, may be approximately determined by the fact that 
Pompey's Pillar stood in the midst of it. The god to whom it was 
dedicated was introduced by the Ptolemies , in order that both Greeks 
and Egyptians might have a deity recognised by both, who should be 
worshipped in common. To the Greeks he was introduced as Pluto, while 
the Egyptian priests called him Osiris-Apis (comp. p. 167). The Temple of 

12 Route 2. ALEXANDRIA. History. 

Serapig, when completed, is said to have been surpassed in grandeur by 
no other building in the world except the Roman Capitol. It lay to the 
W. of Alexandria, outside the city (like all the temples of Serapis in 
Egypt)) on an eminence ascended on one side by a carriage-road and on 
the other by a flight of steps, leading to a platform with a vaulted roof 
borne by four columns. Beyond this were colonnades containing chambers 
set apart for the worship of the god, and a number of lofty saloons which 
at the time of Philadelphus contained a library of 42,000 vols. This collec- 
tion was afterwards much enlarged, and is said to have comprised 300,000 
vols, at a later period. Most of the extant images of Serapis are of dark 
stone; that of Alexandria is said to have consisted of emerald. On its head 
was the calathos, and at its feet lay Cerberus, with the heads of a wolf, a 
lion, and a dog, around which was entwined a serpent. 

Under the successors of Augustus , Alexandria was repeatedly 
the scene of civil dissensions. In A.D. 69 Vespasian was proclaimed 
emperor by the Alexandrians, his election having been to a great 
extent due to the influence of the philosophers then resident at the 
Museum. In Trajan's reign (98-117) the Jews, who constituted 
one-third of the whole population , caused sanguinary riots ; the 
Jewish quarter was destroyed and the ruins seem to have choked the 
adjoining lake-harbour (on Lake Mareotis), which may, however, 
have been previously in great part silted up. Under the following 
emperors also the sciences continued to flourish at Alexandria. In 
the reign of Hadrian (117-138 A.D.J, Valerius Pollio and his son 
Diodorus, and Apollonius Dyscolus, the grammarians, Ptolemy 
Chennus , the mythographer, Appian, the historian, and Claudius 
Ptolemy, the astronomer , lived at Alexandria ; and. the emperor 
himself, who visited the city twice, held public disputations with 
the professors at the Museum. In A.D. 176 Marcus Aurelius (161- 
180) came to Alexandria for the purpose of quelling an insurrection, 
but treated the citizens with great leniency, and attended the lec- 
tures of the grammarians Athenseus, Harpocration, Hephaestion, 
Julius Pollux, and others. Lucian also lived at Alexandria at this 
period, in the capacity of secretary to the prefect of Egypt. In 199 
Severus (193-211) visited Alexandria, and established a senate and 
a new municipal constitution. The visit of Caraealla (211-217), 
whom the citizens had previously derided, was fraught with disaster. 
Having attracted the whole of the male population capable of 
bearing arms to one spot, he caused them to be massacred in cold 
blood. He closed the theatres and the public schools, and to prevent 
future rebellions he caused a wall fortified with towers to be 
erected between the Bruchium and the rest of the city. 

Christianity early found its way to Alexandria. According to 
tradition the Gospel was first preached to the Alexandrians by St. 
Mark (whose bones were removed to Venice in 828), and it is an 
historical fact that the Christian community was already numerous 
in the time of Hadrian (2nd cent.). The first great persecution of 
the Christians, which took place in the reign of Deeius (250), was a 
terrible blow to the Alexandrians. The city had for a considerable 
time been the seat of a bishop, and had since 190 possessed a 

History. ALEXANDRIA. 2. Route. 13 

theological school , presided oyer by Pantaenus and at the 'begin- 
ning of the 3rd cent, by Clement of Alexandria, who endeavoured 
to combine Christianity with the Neo-Platonism which sprang up 
about this period at Alexandria and was taught by Ammonius 
Saccas, Herennius, Plotinus, Porphyrins, Jamblichus, and others. 
A second persecution took place in 257, during the reign of Va- 
lerian; and shortly afterwards, in the reign oiQallienus, the plague 
carried off a large portion of the population. The incessant revolts 
which broke out in Alexandria and other parts of Egypt led re- 
peatedly to the elevation of usurpers and rival emperors to the 
throne. Thus, Firmus was proclaimed emperor at Alexandria as a 
rival of Aurelian, and Probus owed the purple mainly to the Egypt- 
ian legions. The Alexandrians afterwards revolted against Dio- 
cletian (284-305) and declared themselves in favour of Achilleus ; 
but Diocletian besieged the city, took it by storm, and chastised 
the inhabitants with great severity. 

Christianity, however, still continued to gain ground, and Al- 
exandria was even regarded as the chief seat of Christian erudition 
and of the orthodox faith. The dogmatic dissensions between Anus, 
who filled the office of presbyter, and Athanasius, who afterwards 
became a bishop, at length broke out, and were fraught with dis- 
astrous consequences. Alexandria was also soon obliged to yield to 
Constantinople its proud position as the centre of Greek thought 
and science. The sanguinary quarrels between the Athanasian 
party and the Arians under their unworthy bishop Georgius further 
contributed to the rapid decline of the city. On the accession of 
Julian to the purple the pagans of Alexandria again instituted a 
persecution of the Christians. In the reign of Theodosius (379-395), 
however, paganism received its death-blow, and Theophilus, the 
patriarch of Alexandria, displayed the utmost zeal in destroying 
the heathen temples and monuments. The famous statue of Serapis 
was broken in pieces and burned in the amphitheatre amidst shouts 
of derision from a Christian crowd. The material prosperity of the 
city also fell off so greatly, that the municipality was no longer able 
to defray the cost of cleansing the Nile and keeping the canals open. 
After the death of Theophilus (in 413) the revenues of Alexandria 
were still farther diminished by the proceedings of the new patriarch 
Cyril, who led the armed mob against the synagogues and expelled 
the Jews from the city ; and in 415 the learned and beautiful pagan 
Hypatia, daughter of the mathematician Theon, was cruelly murdered 
by an infuriated crowd. Under Justinian (527-565) all the still exist- 
ing heathen schools were finally closed, and the few scholars of any 
eminence who had remained till then were obliged to leave the place. 

In 619 Alexandria was captuTed by Chosroes, King of Persia, 
but the Christians were left unmolested. Ten years later Heraclius 
succeeded in recovering possession of Egypt, but the troops of the 
Khallf Omar soon afterwards invaded the country and took Alexan- 

14 RouteV. ALEXANDRIA. Place Mehtmet AU. 

dria after a prolonged siege. In December, 641, Amr Ibn el- Asi, 
'Omar's general , entered the city ; but by order of his master, he 
treated the inhabitants ■with moderation. The decline of Alexan- 
dria now became rapid in inverse Tatio to the growing prosperity 
of the newly-founded capital on the Nile, the modern Cairo. Dur- 
ing the middle ages Alexandria sank into insignificance. Its com- 
merce received a death-blow by the discovery of the sea-route to 
India Tound the Cape of Good Hope, and the discovery of America 
entailed new losses. After the conquest of Egypt by the Turks (in 
1517) the city languished under the infamous regime of the Mame- 
lukes, the harbours became choked with sand, the population dwind- 
led to 5000, and the environs were converted into a sterile and 
marshy wilderness. 

The deoay of the once powerful seaport was at length effectually 
arrested by the vigorous hand of Mohammed 'All (see below), who im- 
proved the harbours and constructed several canals. The chief 
benefit he conferred on Alexandria was the construction of the 
Mahmudiyeh Canal (begun in 1819). which was so named after the 
reigning Sultan Mahmud. By means of this channel the adjoining 
fields were irrigated anew, and Alexandria was again connected with 
the Nile and the rest of Egypt, the products of which had long found 
their only outlets through the Rosetta and Damietta mouths of the 
river. The enterprising pasha also improved the whole canal-system 
of the Delta, the works being superintended chiefly by French en- 
gineers. The subsequent viceroys also made great efforts to im- 
prove the prospects of the town ; and the Egyptian cotton-trade, 
which received a strong impulse from the American war, and found 
its chief outlet through Alexandria, proved a source of great profit 
to the citizens. The town suffered severely during Arabi's rising in 
1882 (p. cxxxi), and a great part of the European quarter was laid 
in ashes ; but the external traces at least of this misfortune have 
well-nigh disappeared. 

2. Modern Alexandria. 
The great centre of European life is the Place Me hornet- AH 
(PI. F, 3, 4), about 500 paces long and 100 paces broad, which is 
embellished with trees. In the centre rises the Equestria n Statue of 
Mohammed ' All (PI. M. A.), the founder of the reigning dynasty of 
Egypt, designed by Jaquemart, and cast in Paris. The statue is 
16 ft. in height, and stands on a pedestal of Tuscan marble 20 ft. 
in height. As the Mohammedan religion forbids the pictorial or 
plastic representation of the human form, the erection of this mon- 
ument was long opposed by the 'Ulama , or chief professors of 
'divine and legal learning'. This square was the principal scene of 
destruction in 1882. It is once more surrounded by handsome new 
buildings. On theN.E. side stands the English Church (PI. 1 ; F, 4), 
adjoined by St. Mark's Building (PI. 8 ; F, 4), belonging to the 

Catacombs. ALEXANDRIA. 2. Route. 15 

British community and used as a school and for official purposes ; 
on the E. side is the International Tribunal (PI. Tr. ; F, 4). These 
are the only buildings which escaped the fury of the natives in 1882. 
Beside St. Mark's Building is a bust of General Earle, who' fell at 
Birbekan in 1885. — From the centre of the W. side of the square 
runs the long and straight Rue Ibrahim, constructed through an 
old and crowded Arab quarter. 

From the S. corner of the square we reach the triangular Place 
de VEglise, or Square Ibrahim (PI. F, 4), the former name being 
derived from the Roman Catholic church of St. Catharine situated 
here. The Rue de la Colonne Pompee leads hence to the S. to the 
Porte de la Colonne Pompee, or Porte du Nil (PI. F, 5). 

Outside this gate we pass a large Arabian cemetery, lying on 
the right, and soon reach an eminence covered with rubbish and 
fragments of ruins, on which rises *Pompey's Column. (PI. E, 6; 
Arab. 'Am&des-Sawdri). The monument is composed of red granite 
from Assuan, which has withstood centuries of exposure to the 
elements ; and it is now the only important relic of antiquity in 
the city. The pedestal, composed of several blocks which once 
belonged to other buildings, was formerly covered by the earth and 
is much damaged. The height of the column, together with the 
disintegrated, or perhaps never quite completed, Corinthian capital, 
and the pedestal , is 104 ft.; the shaft is 67 ft. high, and is about 
9 ft. in diameter below, and not quite 8 ft. at the top. The propor- 
tions produce an exceedingly harmonious effect. The pillar was 
probably erected at the same time as the Serapeum (p. 11), the 
terraced erection of which it crowned. At the beginning of the 4th 
cent, after Christ, a Roman prefect named Pompeius caused a de- 
dicatory inscription to be carved upon it to the 'holiest autocrator, 
the town-genius (uoXioiiyo;) of Alexandria, the unconquered Dio- 
cletian'. But this prefect did not erect the column ; still less has 
it anything to do with Pompey the Great. — The cemetery at the 
foot of the pillar is very extensive. The images of kings and frag- 
ments of columns in the vicinity probably belonged to the Serapeum 
(p. 11). 

Following the road a little farther, and diverging to the right 
near the Gasworks, we skirt the S. slope of a low plateau and in 
about 10 min. reach the Catacombs (PI. D, 7). 

From this point to the vicinity of the Serapeum (see above) the slop- 
ing, rocky ground is honeycombed by a great number of subterranean 
passages and tomb-chambers. The traveller's guide (or cabman) will 
fetch the keeper who is generally in the neighbourhood (2 pias. ; other 
offers of assistance should be rejected). A brief visit should first be paid 
to Two Gbodps of Tombs on the S. Slope; in the first of which are a 
wall of rock with numerous tomb-openings, and a large chamber in three 
parts hewn out of the rock, with a considerable sarcophagus ; and in the 
second (sometimes under water) another sarcophagus decorated with carv- 
ings. The traveller should then proceed round the S.W. shoulder of the 
hill to the W. Gkodp of Tombs, discovered in 1893 by Dr. Botti (p. 17) and 
highly interesting. We descend a zigzag path to the Itt Chamber, adjoining 

16 Route 2. ALEXANDRIA. Bos et-Tin. 

which are ten larger side-chambers or chapels, with entrances marked 
by columns, a continuous architrave with toothed-moulding, and pedi- 
ments. On the pediment to the right is a cross, while the carving of the 
left pediment has been destroyed. The last three chapels are unfinished, 
the niches alone being hollowed out. At the back of the first chamber 
is the 2nd Chamber, with two niches on each side and one in the middle. 
In the second niche to the left is an air-shaft. At right angles to these 
chambers is the 3rd Chamber, with shelf-tombs ; and farther to the right, 
in the same line as the first two, is the large 4th Chamber, with about 
50 shelf-tombs. Those in front to the right exhibit early Egyptian paint- 
ings': thj Urseus-snake, the Hathor-cow, below, to the right and left; to 
the left a human (or divine) figure, to the right, serpents, both defaced. 
On the inner sides of the entrance are other figures : hawks with out- 
spread wings, etc. The chambers contained numerous bones and skulls, 
and are connected with each other by means of several holes. The ex- 
cavations are still going on. 

The main portion of the Arab quarter lies on the ancient Hepta- 
stadium (p. 10), between the E. and the "W. harbours. Its chief 
thoroughfare is the Rue Rds et- Tin (PL F, 3), which begins at the 
N.W. corner of the Place Me'hemet Ali (p. 14), tTaveTses the Arab 
quarter, and then bends to the "W. to traverse also the adjoining 
Turkish quarter (PL D, E, 2), on what was formerly the island of 
Pharos (p. 10), with less narrow streets and handsome houses and 
gardens. Both these quarters present interesting scenes of Oriental 
life. The street endsat the viceregal — 

Palace of Has et-Tln (PI. B, C, 1, 2), a name signifying 'pro- 
montory of figs'. The palace, which was built by Mohammed 'Ali 
and restored by Isma'il Pasha, is uninteresting. The balcony, 
however , commands a fine view of the extensive harbour. (Ad- 
mission by ticket procured at the Consulate.) The Harem, a sep- 
arate building, facing the sea, is built on the model of the seraglio 
at Constantinople. A visit to the neighbouring Lighthouse (PL A, 2) 
is very interesting, especially in the early morning, but admission 
is granted only to those provided with an order from the governor, 
which may be obtained through the British or American consulate. 
The Naval Arsenal (PL D, 1) is not worth visiting. 

The Rue de Rosette (PI. F-I, 4), leading to the E. from the 
centre of the city, is another important thoroughfare. It corresponds 
with the E. half of the ancient main street (p. 10), and the Porte 
de Rosette (PL K, 4), at its E. extremity, occupies the site of the an- 
cient Canopic Oate. — On the top of the K6m ed-Dik (PL H, I, 5 ; 
115 ft. ; comp. p. 11), a hill to the S. of the Rue de Rosette, is 
the Teservoir of the water-works opsned in 1860. The water is pump- 
ed up by steam-power from the Moharrem-Bey Canal, a branch of 
the Mahmudiyeh Canal. 

The house known as 'Kirkor', in the E. part of the Rue de Rosette, 
accommodates at present the newly-founded Museum of JEgypto- 
Grseco-Roman Antiquities. This museum is the practical outcome 
of the united efforts of the Athenaeum Society (p. 5), the municipal 
authorities, and the directors-in-chief of Egyptian Antiquities, sup- 
ported by the present Khedive. The private collections of earlier 

Museum. ALEXANDRIA. 2. Route. 17 

decades have long since found their way abroad.^ The discoveries 
made at Alexandria were taken, under Mariette and Maspero (p. 94), 
to the Museum of Gizeh., but have been brought back since the 
establishment of the Alexandria Museum. The curator of the mu- 
seum is the energetic Dr. Botli, director of some of the excavations 
near Alexandria, who discovered the tombs of Hadra in 1892, 
and has recently explored the remains of the Serapeum. — The 
museum is open on Mon., Tues., Wed., Thurs., and Sat., 9-12 and 
4-6 (adm. 2pias.), and onFrid, and Sun., 8-12 (adm. 1 pias.). The 
catalogue, which may be purchased at the entrance (Notice des Monu- 
ments exposes au Musee Oreco - Romain d'Alexandrie , 1893 , by 
G. Botti), is not necessary for the ordinary visitor. 

Early Egyptian Monuments. — Boom A. Case A : Mummies of the 
22nd Dynasty (.980-810 B. C.) ; Osiris myth ; deities from Memphis and 
Thebes. — Case B : Above, Small tomb-figures found at Der el-Bahri (p. 120), 
of the 18th, 22nd , and 26th Dyn. , the best being Nos. 304, 306, 313-315, 
359, 361, 36'2, 362b (Psammetikh , son of Amneritis) ; below , Amulets of 
the dead, scarabsei, grotesque figures of Hercules (Bes), Ammon feathers, 
sacrificial bulls, etc. ; at the bottom of the case, alabaster Canopic vases. — 
Case 0: Lid of the sarcophagus of Khunsu-em-heb, Priest of Ammon, of Thebes, 
also from Der el-Bahri (sarcophagus, see p. 121). The representations on 
the lid refer, on the left side, (1) to Isis and Nephthys, (2) to Nut, mother 
of the sun , who receives Khunsu-em-heb into her bosom , and (3) to 
Osiris; on the right side, Osiris andlsis-Nephthys, Khunsu-em-heb offer- 
ing a libation; on the edge, to the right, disk (sun-disk), Urreus-serpent, 
tomb-genii, etc. — In Case E, opposite, is the inner lid of the same sar- 
cophagus, similarly adorned. — Case O: Breast-cloth of a mummy, 
representing the Judgment of the Dead; the soul of the deceased stands 
erect in mummy-form beside the goddess Ma; Anubis and Hor weigh the 
heart of the deceased against Truth. The wreath in the middle of the 
case was found in the sarcophagus of Khunsu-em-heb, and is thus at least 
3000 years old. 

Ilonuments of the Graeco-Roman Period. — Boom B. From right to 
left, window-side : 1749. Marble foot with sandal, connected at the top 
with a bust of Serapis ; on the back, serpents representing Osiris and 
Isis, with the child Horus seated on the latter; dedicated as a votive 
offering for recovery, attained or besought, by Pakeitis Zosimos and 
Ailios Doryphoros. — In this and the following room is a series of 
basalt statues and statuettes, some of which recall Sarzec's discovery at 
Tello by their archaic sharp-edged forms. They were found in the course 
of excavations carried on by M. E. Grebaut at Dimeh near Birket el- 
Kurun. Their date and stylistic position are still undecided. — Case C: 
Terracotta figures of animals. Statues of Venus. Eemains of the wall- 
covering from Tell el-Yehudiyeh (comp. Gizeh Museum, Boom XLIV). In 
the central compartment! 1197. Greek sepulchral stele, representing a 
man seated, staff in hand, in an arm-chair, of very distinct and delicate 
workmanship; 1742. Greek tombstone, with a boy holding a bird in hi3 
hand and playing with a dog. — Case B: Alexandrian terracottas from 
the Fayum. Upper row : figures of Harpocrates ; lower row : dancing 
Hierodules. — Adjacent, two marble figures of the triple-bodied Hecate, 
much damaged. — Case A: Alexandrian terracottas from the Fayum, in- 
cluding an interesting series of terracotta figures relating to the mystery- 
worship of the Thesmophorion, outside the Bosetta gate: 811-828. De- 
meter with the torch; 829. Kore; also, 867-876. Isis ; 877-932. Horus ; 788-792, 
Jupiter; 793 et seq., Jupiter- Ammon ; 7H5-810. Serapis. 

Boom C. From right to left, window-side, opposite the entrance: 
1782. Portrait-statue of Eirenaios , in basalt , found at Dimeh and, as 
stated by the Greek inscription on the mantle-border between the legs, 
dedicated by Eirenaios to the god Soknopaios. In the Olass-Cases C, 6, 

Baedekbk's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. 2 

1 8 Route 2. ALEXANDRIA. 


and E : Mummies from el-Rubayat in the Fayum , with portraits painted 
upon wood in the encaustic manner (the Semitic type of the faces in case E 
is unmistakable), 2nd cent, after Christ. — Case A: Chiefly sepulchral 
utensils from the E. necropolis of Alexandria. Small, smoothly worked 
vessels, mostly without ornament. On No. 2032 a woman's head is painted ; 
No. 2034 is Cyprian, after an Egyptian model. — S. side : Marble statuette 
of Bellerophon upon Pegasus , placed against a marble pillar probably 
used as j, the_ support of a table (trapezophoros) ; the motion is vividly con- 
ceived, but the execution is mediocre. In front, 1774. Torso of a lime- 
stone statue of Athene; 1773. Marble head, perhaps of Demeter; 1775. 
Head from a statue of a Muse. — Case B. In the upper section : Terracottas 
from the iayfim, small vases, and glass. The terracotta figures include: 
1079-1090. Adonis; 1091-1103. Aphrodite, crouching, as Anadyomene, etc.; 
1104-1123. Eros, erect or sleeping; 1131-1142. Caricature-subjects from 
the circus; 1143-1168. Theatrical types from Alexandrian comedy. Also 
humorous subjects, some in caricature, notably 1152 (212T). Frog playing 
on a lyre and seated on a fiah, perhaps intended as a burlesque of Arion 
on the dolphin. 2129. Vivacious figure of a comedian. — In the central 
cross-compartment: Fragments of caskets in ivory and horn. — In the 
centre of the room: Two mummy-coverings with gold masks from El- 
Rubayat in the Fayum. At the top of Glass- Case D, Roman glass vessels; 
below , Alexandrian cinerary urns. The works in marble include the 
following : 1720. Portrait-bust of a young Roman, with an admirably re- 
produced expression of intelligence, self-reliance, and strength of will; 
1717. Head of Asklepios, in sketchy but admirably characteristic work- 
manship, of the pre-imperial epoch. — "1727. Roman female head; the hair 
(now wanting) was formed of a separate detachable piece of marble, which 
could be replaced by another when the fashion of dressing the hair altered ; 
the ears were originally adorned with jewels. The back of the head is 
flat, and ornamented with an egg-and-bead moulding, proving that the 
marble was previously used for some architectonic purpose. — Upon the 
wall-cases are cinerary urns of a kind peculiar to Alexandria, excavated 
in 1885 at Hadra (Eleusis) , most of them with simple polychrome orna- 
mentation (garlands, gorgons' heads, etc.) upon a white ground. Inscrip- 
tions painted or engraved on the vases give the names of the deceased 
whose ashes the urns contained, and frequently also the names of the 
official superintendents of the interment, and a date. Among the names 
occur those of mercenaries serving under Ptolemy IV., V., and VI., and 
of Greek theori attending the religious festivals at Alexandria. 

Corridor of Inscriptions. Sepulchral reliefs and inscriptions of 
various epochs. To the right and left of the entrance to Room C are two 
tombstones of a white and highly porous limestone, resembling Attic 
sepulchral steles in form ; the depression in the centre contained the now 
obliterated painting of the deceased. Room E contains additional specimens 
in better preservation. 

Passage. In the centre of the N. side : 1818. Colossal marble bust 
of Isis, recognizable from the folds of the garment on the breast. 1820. 
Limestone relief from Alexandria: to the left, the bearded Osiris-snake 
wearing the Egyptian double crown (pshent) , in the coils the serpent- 
wand of Hermes ; to the right, the Urarus-snake of Isis with the sun-disk 
upon her head and the sistrum; between these, Demeter with the corn- 
measure and torch (comp. the similar relief in Room D). *1817. Greek 
tombstone with the representation of a lady named Stratonike, lying on 
her death-bed , with two female attendants. The imitation of Egyptian 
art in the treatment of this relief, which is modelled within the incised 
outlines without any deepening of the background, is noteworthy. Sim- 
ilar imitation may be observed also in other works. 1824. Colossal head 
of Serapis, in a decorative style , from the early imperial epoch. 1828. 
Fragment of a sarcophagus of the kind originated at Alexandria, the 
characteristic ornamentation of which is in the form of garlands in relief, 
the garlands being suspended from ox-skulls, putti, eagles, candelabra, or 
(as here) figures of Victory. 

Koom D. Monuments chiefly of the late-Roman epoch. In the upper 

Museum. ALEXANDRIA. 2. Route. 19 

division of Case A is a rich collection of lamps of various dates, some 
from the Fayum. Those with a black glaze and three ears of corn on 
the back, as trade-mark, are of Alexandrian origin. The subjects most 
frequently represented are Aphrodite in the shell, Isis , and Serapis. In 
the central division are Christian lamps and theatrical masks in clay. . — 
In the upper division of Case B, to the right, are terracottas from Kom 
el-Khugafa near Alexandria (1892); to the left, "2162. Small marble head 
with a good and realistically faithful portrait of Alexander the Great (the 
resemblance to the so-called 'Azara bust' in the Louvre, which is authen- 
ticated by an inscription, is unmistakable). In the lower division is a 
collection of so-called 'Menas-flasks', round and flat terracotta ampuls, 
with the figure of St. Menas, a soldier under Maximinus , who suffered 
martyrdom by beheading in A. D. 296 and was buried at Alexandria. — 
Qlau-Cate C, and Show-Gases D-G: Textile fabrics and embroidery from 
Akhmim (10th cent, after Christ). In the middle of the room is a marble 
relief from Alexandria with two serpents representing Isis and Agatho- 
dsemon (or Osiris?). 

Room E. Cinerary urns from the Jewish cemetery at Khatby, to the 
E. of Alexandria (vases of similar form have also been found near Jeru- 
salem). On the walls are Alexandrian tombstones , some with paintings 
in good preservation. 1849. Stele from Sarapia (Kom el-Khugafa). Wall 
Caie A contains some interesting terracotta figures resembling those from 
Tanagra, and a small bronze figure of Serapis bearing a cross .on her back. 

Room F. In a tablet on the wall to the left of the entrance is the 
original plan of the excavations completed in 1867 by Mahmud Bey 
for the Khedive Isma'il. This plan, rediscovered by Dr. Botti, enabled 
Mahmud to determine the extent of the streets of ancient Alexandria and 
the position of some of its principal buildings. Adjoining are plans of 
more recent excavations; a diagram of the course of the antique sub- 
terranean aqueduct, part of which is still in use, etc. On the walls 
also are some late-Roman and Coptic inscribed stones. In the middle 
of the room is a collection of coins of the Ptolemaic and imperial epochs. 
— We now proceed through the second Corridor of Inscriptions to — 

Room G, which contains votive stones, bases and steles with inscrip- 
tions of historical interest, and casts of earlier discoveries made in 
Egypt. — 2450. Cast of the stele of Alexander II., son of Alexander the 
Great, found in 1870 in the foundations of the mosque of Shekhun at 
Cairo. The inscription, which is dated in the seventh year of Alexan- 
der II. 's reign, refers to the recapture and restoration by Ptolemy, son of 
Lagos, of the temple-treasures carried off by the Persians. Ptolemy still 
calls himself 'Satrap of Egypt' and resides in the 'fortress of King 
Alexander I. which was originally called Rakoti' (meaning the new royal 
residence of Alexandria). The original is now in the museum at Gizeh 
(Boom XXXVI, p. 108), as is also the original of the Stone of Tanis (2451- 
2453); see p. 109, Gizeh Museum, Room XL, No. 289. — 2454. Cast of the 
celebrated Rosetta Stone, now in the British Museum (comp. pp. cxxxiii, 
225), with an inscription in hieroglyphic (or sacred), demotic (or popular), 
and Greek characters, which supplied the key for the deciphering of 
the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions. No. 2456 mentions the 
Samothracian mysteries; 2461 refers to the despatch to Sinai of an offi- 
cer named Sotirikos , belonging to Ptolemy VII. 's body-guard. — 1871. 
High-relief of Leda, Jupiter as the swan, and Cupids, found by Naville in 
the Fayum, of exceedingly crude and distorted workmanship (Coptic?). — In 
the middle of the room : *1848. Colossal marble arm of good workman- 
ship, probably Roman, perhaps the remains of an honorary statue of an 
emperor. The sphere in the hand is unusually small if it is intended to 
represent the terrestrial globe; found at Benha, the ancient Athribis. 

Room H. To the left, at the entrance, 1849. Cast of a basalt relief, 
now in the British Museum, with the figure of Hermes walking, remark- 
able for its imitation of the archaic style ; found on the site- of the 
temple of Serapis built by Ptolemy Euergetes I. at Canopus; Beneath, 
marble head of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. — Case A contains sepul- 
chral vases of the Alexandrian variety described above (Room C), includ- 


20 Route 2. ALEXANDRIA. Environs. 

ing 2468. Cinerary um of the cavalry-colonel Menekles of Crete, who was 
buried at Eleusis in the fifth year of the king (Ptolemy IV. Philopator), 
i.e. 217 B. C. — Case B: Cinerary urns and terracotta figures from Kom 
el-Khugafa, the W. necropolis of Alexandria, and from Ibrahimiyeh, the 
E. necropolis. — Gate C: Small alabaster figure of the goddess Neith, from 
the ruins of Sais. — In the middle of the room, Olass- Case J) : 2867 et seq. 
Fragments of Greek and Syrian papyri; 2870-2875. Wooden writing-tablets 
covered with wax ; 2876-2910. Potsherds (ostraka) with demotic (2876-2881), 
Greek (2881-2885), and Coptic inscriptions; 2850-2866. Wooden tickets 
with the name of the deceased, to be fastened on the neck or breast of 
mummies for the purpose of identification ; adjacent, hair-net of gold 
thread and a gold ring from a sarcophagus, from Abukir. — Case JE: 
Coptic MSS. ; "1804. Small marble figure of Apollo seated' upon the Del- 
phic omphalos, an admirable work of the early Ptolemaic period, found 
at Alexandria. 1853. Cast of the figure of a fettered barbarian kneeling 
beneath a trophy, the fragment of a Roman group, in which the same 
figure was repeated on the other side of the trophy (original in the 
British Museum). — Case I: Articles discovered at Hadra in 1894, includ- 
ing limestone figures of two sphinxes and a hawk. In the compartment 
above , Upper part of a terracotta figure of a mother carrying her child 
on her shoulder (exactly in the modern style, p. 40). In the two upper 
divisions of the case are Alexandrian caricature-figures in terracotta, some 
very coarse. — Case K: Articles found at Hadra. In the upper corner, 
to the left, two fragments of broad glass-mosaic plaques with floral 
patterns, of the kind used by Alexandrian architects for lining walls. 

The CoDKT.of the museum contains a few statues, inscriptions, and 
architectural fragments. 

A new building for the museum is in course of erection in the 
same street, next to the Town House. A number of sarcophagi have 
already been removed thither, also a fine female statue in the Greek 
style , statues of Serapis and of the seated Hercules, and a number 
of Egyptian monuments. 

Mr. Ed. Friedheim, at the British Consulate, in the Boulevard Ramleh, 
possesses a collection of Italian, Spanish, and Netherlandish paintings 
of the 17th cent., and also numerous modern works, which he courteously 
shows to strangers on previous application. Fine view. 

3. Environs op Alexandria. 
A pleasant Dbive (carr., p. 5) may be taken as follows. Turn- 
ing to the right outside the Porte de Rosette (PI. K, 4), leaving the 
European cemeteries to the left, and avoiding the road which leads 
in a straight direction to Ramleh, we pass the water-works on the 
left ('Distribution des Eaux'; PI. K, 5), cross a small mound of 
ancient rubbish , ■ and reach the Mahmudiyeh Canal (p. 14). To 
the right is the viceregal chateau Nimreh Teldteh ('Number Three'), 
with its garden. We turn to the left, drive for a short time along 
the canal, and soon reach the entrance to the Ghinenet en-Nuzha, 
or public garden (usually called the Jardin PastrS). Europeans will 
be interested by the profusion of exotic plants which thrive here 
in the open air. The gardens are a full hour's walk from the Place 
Mehemet-Ali. Nuzha is a station on the Meks railway, mentioned 
below. A little higher up is a fine garden belonging to Sir John 
AntoniadU, a rich Greek merchant, who has liberally thrown it open 
to the public. (A pleasant road leads straight on hence to Ramleh, 

Environs. ALEXANDRIA. 2. Route. 21 

p. 22.) — Retracing our steps, and following the bank of the canal, 
■which lies on the left, we observe on the right a long succession of 
villas and gardens, including the above-mentioned chateau Nimteh 
Telateh, with its handsome entrance, and the chateau and garden 
of Moharrem - Bey (PI. 1 , 6). We may now re-enter the city by 
the Porte Moharrem-Bey, or by the PoTte de la Colonne Pomptfe. 

The somewhat uninteresting Excursion to Mbks may be made 
either by railway or by road (carr., p. 5). In the former case we 
start from the principal station (PI. G, 5), pass the intermediate sta- 
tions of Hadra (the ancient Eleusis) and Nuzha, cross the Mahmudiyeh 
Canal, and then turn towards the W. (comp. PI. C, B, 7). The road 
{PI. C, B, A, 6) traverses the dirty suburb of Qabri, which occupies 
the site of the ancient Necropolis (p. 10). Near the railway-station of 
Gabri is an English club, with a racecourse ('Hippodrome', PI. B, 7 ; 
races in spring). Between the road and the railway is an old palace 
with a mosque, converted into a Quarantine (PI. A, B, 7) or lazza- 
retto. In the friable limestone of the coast-hills are a number of 
tomb-chambers ; but most of them have been destroyed by the in- 
roads of the sea, and are now covered up. These chambers, which 
contain nothing interesting, have been styled the Baths of Cleo- 
patra. Farther on, to the left of the road, is the grotesque half- 
ruined Chateau ofMeks, with its numerous domes and slender towers. 
It was erected by the viceroy Sa'id Pasha, who used to reside here 
in summer. To the right , close to the sea, is the Bab el- Arab 
('Beduin Gate'), the extremity of a line of fortifications extending 
between the sea and Lake Mareotis (p. 23). The quarries of Meks 
supplied the material for the construction of the new hartour-works. 
No fewer than 30,000 artificial blocks, weighing 20 tons each, 
and 2 million tons of natural blocks of stone were thus used. 

Ramleh: is connected with Alexandria by a road beginning at 
the Porte de Rosette and by two railways. On one of the railways, 
however (Abuktr-Rosetta line, p. 223, starting from the principal 
station, PI. G, 6), there is only one train daily to Ramleh. 

The Direct Railway to Ramleh has a special station near the 
'New Harbour' (PI. H, 3, 4), to the N.E. of the town. Trains run 
hence hourly on week-days and half -hourly on Sun. (fares 6 or 
3*/2 pias.). To the W. of the station stood, down to March, 1880, the 
famous obelisk called Cleopatra' sNeedle, dating from the time of the 
Pharaohs, but erected here by Tiberius. It was sold to the city of 
New York by the Khedive Isma'il. 

It was only the public sympathy with the young Khedive Tewfik, who 
looked upon the operation as a legacy of his father's government, that 
prevented a popular outbreak while this interesting relic was raised by 
American machinery from the place it had occupied for 1800 years and 
removed to the specially constructed vessel that was to convey it to New 
York. The obelisk now forms one of the prominent features of the Central 
Park in New York. — A companion obelisk, that lay for centuries prone 
in the sand by the side of Cleopatra's Needle, now adorns the Thames 
Embankment at London. 

22 Route 2. RAMLEH. 

The so-called Roman Tower (PI. H, 3), 1/4 M - to the E. of the 
station, seems to be of Arabian origin. — Projecting into the sea, to 
the left, soon after the departure, is the small Fort Silseleh. "We 
here obtain a retrospect of the sickle-shaped S.E. side of the town. 

The railway then traverses the rubbish heaps of the ancient 
Nicopolis, the large E. suburb of Alexandria founded by Augustus 
on the site of his final victory over the adherents of Antony. On an 
eminence to the left of the station of Sidi Oaber is the ruined vice- 
regal chateau of Mustafa Pasha, built by Isma'il Pasha near the 
remains of theKasr el-Kay dsereh ('Castle of Caesar'), which provided 
material for the chateau. A small ruined temple was found close to 
the sea. Beyond Sidi Gaber is a Chateau, built in 1891 as a summer- 
residence by the mother of the present Khedive. The Catacombs 
situated to the N.E. of this point are almost entirely destroyed. — 
The train now passes a series of villas and gardens full of luxur- 
iant vegetation, the most attractive of which lie beyond the fourth 
of the five stations. 

6V2M. Ramleh (i.e. 'sand') is a modern place, consisting chiefly 
of numerous country-houses, some of which are occupied by Alexan- 
drian families throughout the whole year. It possesses water-works 
of its own, and has several pensions for summer-visitors. The finely- 
situated club-house at San Stefano is a fashionable resort from Alexan- 
dria (large rooms, good cuisine, and excellent sea-bathing). On the 
way to the sea the traveller will observe a few relics of the Greek 
and Roman periods. — Between Ramleh and Abukir (p. 223) is the 
new viceregal villa of Muntazah. 

3. From Alexandria to Cairo. 

130 M. Railway. Express train in 3'/3-3'/2 hrs., fares £E. 1. 5pias. or 
52pias. ; ordinary train in 6'/4 hrs., fares 88, 44pias. ; return-tickets, available 
for a week, £E. 1. 32 pias. or 66 pias. Luggage up to 25 kilogrammes (55 lbs.) 
may be taken in the carriage free. The tariff for luggage in the van is 
very complicated; 70 kilogrammes (154 lbs.) from Alexandria to Cairo cost 
about 25 pias. — Travellers should reach the station at least half-an-hour 
before the advertised time of departure and should engage the commis- 
sionnaire of the hotel or an agent of Cook or Gaze (p. 6) to assist in 
booking their luggage, an operation carried on by the employe's with 
those alternations of apathetic indolence and violent hurry which are so 
characteristic of Orientals. — The more important stations have buffets 
in the European style, where cold meat, fruit, wine, and liqueurs may 
usually be obtained. Fine mandarin and other oranges, and also water, are 
hawked on the platforms (3-5 oranges '/4-1 pias. ; overcharges are a matter 
of course). — The Alexandria and Cairo line, the first railway constructed 
in the East, was made under Sa'id Pasha in 1855. 

The railway to Cairo traverses gardens towards theN.E., andbeyond 
Sidi Gaber diverges to the right from the line to Rosetta (p. 223). 
To the left is the ruin of the Kasr el-Kaydsereh (see above), situated 
on the coast, with the chateau of Ramleh (p. 22) in the distance. 
It then crosses the Mahmtidlyeh Canal (p. 14) and skirts its S. 
bank nearly as far as stat. Damanhur (see below). To the left lies 

DAMANHUR. 3. Route. 23 

the Lake ofAbuktr (Beheret Ma'adtyeh) ; to the right is Lake Mareotis 
(Beheret Maryut) , the water of which washes the railway embank- 
ment at places during the period of the inundation. 

The Lake Mareotis, or Mareia, as it was also called in ancient times, 
bounds Alexandria on the S. side. In Strabo's time it was filled from the 
Nile by means of numerous canals, both from the S. and E., which 
brought great traffic to this inland harbour, while the sea-harbour was 
more important for the export trade. The lake , which lies 8 ft. below 
the sea-level, waa once surrounded by a luxuriantly fertile tract of country, 
irrigated from the Nile as early as the time of Herodotus. The banks once 
yielded excellent white wine , which has been extolled by Horace and 
Virgil , and is mentioned by Athenseus as having been particularly 
wholesome. Egypt now produces very little wine , but reminiscences 
of its culture in the region of Lake Mareotis are still preserved in 
the name Karm (i. e. 'vineyard', pi. kurum) , which the Arabs apply to 
some ancient ruins here , and in numerous wine-presses hewn in the 

During the Arabian and Turkish regime the waters of the lake 
gradually subsided , but in 1801 , during the siege of Alexandria , the 
English cut through the neck of land between the lake and the sea near 
the so-called liaison Carrie, a little to the W. of Abukir, thus laying an 
extensive and fertile region under water and destroying about 150 vil- 
lages. The present Es-Sett marks the spot where the fatal cutting was 
made and afterwards closed. Mohammed 'Ali did all in his power to 
repair the damage and to improve the environs of Alexandria, but about 
100,000 acres of cultivable land are said still to be covered by the sea- 
water. The water is now evaporated for the sake of its salt , the right 
to manufacture which is farmed out by government. 

We observe at intervals the sails of the barges on the Mahmu- 
diyeh Canal, and long strings of laden camels traversing the 
embankments. 17 M. Kafr ed-Daw&r was the point at which 
Arabi erected his strongest fortifications in 1882, after the English 
had occupied Alexandria andRamleh. — 28M. Abu Horns, a group 
of mud-hovels. — The Arab villages seen from the lofty railway 
embankment present a curious appearence. 

38V2 M. Damanhur (second station at which the express stops, 
reached in 1 hr.), the capital of the province of Behe'reh, with 
23,000 inhab. , was the ancient Egyptian Tema-en-Hor (city of 
Horus) , and the Roman Hermopolis Parva. The town lies on an 
eminence and contains some tolerably substantial buildings. Among 
them are several manufactories for the separation of the cotton 
from the seeds, and above them tower several minarets. The 
Arabian cemetery lies close to the railway. In July, 1798 , Bona- 
parte, on his victorious expedition to Cairo, selected the route via. 
Damanhur, which at the time was so excessively parched and 
burned up that his soldiers suffered terribly, while he himself 
narrowly escaped being taken prisoner by the Mamelukes. In Nov. , 
1802, the Mamelukes here inflicted a signal defeat on the Turks. 
A large market is held at Damanhur on Sundays, and a smaller one 
on Fridays. 

To the S.E. of Damanhur, on the ancient Canopic arm of the Nile, 
near the modern Nebireh, lie the ruins of Naucratis, a Greek commercial 
city, founded by Aahmes. The ruins, discovered by Prof. Flinders Petrie 
and excavated in 1885, do not repay a visit. 

24 Route 3. KAFR EZ-ZAIYAT. From Alexandria 

Branch Railwat from Damanhur to Er-Ramantyeh, see p. 222. — To 
Bosetta, see p. 224. 

53V2 M. Teh el-Bdrud, a -village with a large mound of ruins, 
is the junction for a branch-line skirting the "W. coast of the Nile- 
delta. None of the express-trains stop here. 

This Branch Line is an alternative route to Cairo, but is of no 
importance to tourists. There is only one train daily fin 4 hrs.). The 
stations are insignificant. The last one is Emb&beh (p. 92), beyond which 
the line crosses the Nile by an iron bridge and enters the Zabtiyeh station 
at Cairo (p. 27). 

The cultivated land becomes richer, and we pass villages and 
groups of trees, including tamarisks. The train reaches the broad 
Rosetta arm of the Nile, crosses it by a long iron bridge (fine 
view to the left), and enters the station of — 

64 M. Kafr ez-Zaiyat (third station at which the morning-ex- 
press stops, l 1 ^! 11 - after leaving Alexandria; the afternoon-express 
does not stop here). The town, which carries on a busy trade in grain, 
cotton, and the other products of the Delta (p. lxxiv), lies on the 
right bank of the river. — Excursion to the ruined site of Sais, the 
modern Sa el-Hager, see R. 14 d. 

The Delta in Winter. 'The fields are still wet at places, and straight 
canals are seen in every direction. All the cereals grown in ancient times 
still flourish here , and the slender palm still rears its fruit-laden crown 
beside the less frequent sycamore, with its slender umbrageous foliage. 
The cotton-plants are successfully cultivated where the soil is well irrigated, 
and form extensive plantations of underwood, bearing a profusion of yel- 
low, red , and white blossoms , which somewhat resemble wild roses. 
Vineyards are rare , but they sometimes occur in the northern part of 
the Delta, the plants being trained on the trellis-work which we often 
see represented in the paintings ot the ancient Egyptian tombs. The 
water-wheels (sakiyeh) are turned by buffaloes and donkeys , and some- 
times by camels or by steam ; and the water-pail (shadiif) , though less 
common than in Upper Egypt, is occasionally plied by slightly clad men 
and boys. The canals are flanked with embankments to protect the fields 
from inundation, and the paths on these banks are enlivened with strings 
of camels, donkeys with their riders, and men, women, and children on 
foot. From a distance the villages look like round, grey hillocks, full of 
openings , and around them rise dovecots and palm-trees. On closer 
examination we distinguish the mud-huts , huddled together on rising 
ground where they are safe from the inundation. Many of these hamlets 
are adorned with very handsome groups of palms, while the minarets 
which overtop the larger villages and towns seem to point as devoutly 
to heaven as our Gothic church-spires'. (Ebers, 'Goshen', etc.) 

76 M. Tanta (2 hrs. from Alexandria, l 1 /2l ir - from Cairo). 

Opposite the station is an Inn kept by a Greek. The Greek Restau- 
rant on the Canal, near the Bazaar, is patronised by European merchants 
from Cairo and Alexandria during the fair of Tanta. 

Consular Agents. British, Mr. Jos. Ingiis; German, D. Dahhdn; 
French, M. Athanasi. 

Tanta, the thriving capital of the province of Oharbtyeh, 
which lies between the Rosetta and Damietta arms of the Nile, 
with a population estimated at 35,000 souls, possesses large public 
buildings, bazaars, and an extensive palace of the Khedive. 

The Mosque of the Seyyid el-Bedawi, having been recently 
restored, presents a handsome appearance. The large court contains 
the basin for ablutions (pp. xci, cxcviii). 

to Cairo. TANTA. 3. Route. 25 

Beyyid Ahmed el-Bedawi is probably the most popular saint in Egypt, 
and the most' frequently invoked. He is said to have been born in the 
12th cent, at Fez , or according to others at Tunis , and to have settled 
at Tanta after a pilgrimage to Mecca. He is credited with the possession 
of great personal strength , and is therefore invoked in times of danger 
or exertion, and by women also who desire the blessing of children. 

Travellers may generally visit the mosque without an attendant, but 
must not omit to deposit their shoes at the door. During the fair, however, 
which attracts among other visitors a number of fanatical Mohammedans 
from countries rarely visited by Europeans, it is advisable to procure the 
escort of the shekh of the mosque , to whom an introduction may be 
obtained through the consular agent (fee 1-2 fr.). 

The catafalque of the saint is covered with red velvet richly 
adorned with embroidery } and is enclosed by a handsome bronze 
railing. The dome is still unfinished. One large and two small 
schools are connected with the mosque. The sebil, or tank, with 
the small medreseh (school) above it, situated in the space adjoin- 
ing the mosque, is older. 

The most important of the three annual Fairs op Tanta is that 
of the 'molid' (nativity) of the saint in August. The other two fairs 
are in January and April. Each fair lasts from one Friday to the 
following, presenting an interesting and picturesque scene , but too 
often marred by the licentiousness so prevalent among Orientals. In 
August upwards of half-a-million persons congregate here from all the 
Eastern countries bordering on the Mediterranean, and from the Moham- 
medan part of Africa. The streets are lined with booths and stalls, as 
at European fairs ; and a number of European merchants are also to be 
met with. Beggars and pilgrims farther contribute to swell these vast 
crowds, and the merchants themselves usually combine a pious visit to 
the shrine of the saint with their commercial business. In August and 
April we also encounter here the greater number of the Ghawazi and 
'Awalim (comp. p. xxvi), of the singing and dancing and unveiled women, 
and of the jugglers and showmen of every kind who dwell on the 
banks of the Nile. Dervishes with dishevelled hair and ragged clothes, 
cripples, and idiots, who are treated with great respect, are clamorous 
for bakshish ; and pilgrims returning from Mecca are saluted with flags 
and symbols at the gate of the mosque. On the first Friday of each fair 
the vast concourse of visitors, headed by the chief authorities of the 
town, move in procession towards the mosque of the sainted Seyyid. In 
the large space set apart for shows, adjoining the horse-market, the 
jesters usually attract a numerous audience. When they pronounce the 
name of Allah the whole of the assemblage seated around bow their 
heads with one accord. The gestures of terror and astonishment made 
by the children and negroes at the performances of the jugglers are very 
amusing. Among the most popular exhibitions are those of the obscene 
Karagyiiz, the coarse 'AH Kaka, and the dances performed by men in 
female dress (comp. p. xxvi). The fair of Tanta may indeed almost be 
regarded as a modern Teflex of the pilgrimage to Bubastis (p. 192) de- 
scribed by Herodotus. 

From Tanta to Mahallet iJ«Jft, Mans&ra, and Damietta, see p. 221. 

A short branch-line' runs from Tanta to the S. to Shibin el-Kdm, a 
small town on this side of the Rosetta branch of the Nile, and to (25 , /2M.) 
Men&f, the central point of the Meniftyeh, one of the most fertile regions 
in the Delta. 

Beyond Tanta the train traverses a fertile tract , and before 
(87 M.) Birket es-Sab'a crosses a small arm of the Nile. A number 
of cotton-cleaning mills afford an indication of the wealth of the 
country. A little farther on, near Benha, on the Damietta arm of 
the Nile, is a large viceregal palace, where 'Abbas Pasha (p. cxvix), 

26 Route 3. BARRAGE DU NIL. 

Said Pasha's predecessor, was murdered in 1854. The train cross- 
es the Damietta branch of the Nile. 

101 M. Benha (reached from Alexandria in 2 3 /a hrs. , from 
Cairo in 3 / 4 hr. ; Tailway to Zakazik and the Suez Canal , see 
p. 191), oxBenhael-'Asal, i.e. 'Benha of the honey', is famous for its 
red oranges and mandarins, which are much esteemed at Cairo. 
Excellent grapes are also produced here. 

To the N.E. of Benha, not far from the town, and intersected by the 
railway, are the insignificant ruins of the ancient Athribis, the 'heart- 
city' of antiquity, situated in the 10th Homos of Lower Egypt, and named 
K6m el-Alrib and Atrib or Etrib. Athribis was founded under the Pharaohs, 
and appears to have enjoyed its maximum importance in the Graeco-Roman 
period of Egyptian history. H. Brugsch explored the necropolis in 1854. 

Near (109 M.) Tukh the mountains enclosing the Nile higher 
up become visible in the distance, those on the E. (Arabian) side 
appearing lower than those on theW. (Libyan) side. About 5min. 
later the outlines of the pyramids begin to loom in the distance 
on the right, and near Kalyub they become distinctly visible. 

120V2 M. Kalyftb is the junction of a branch-line to Zakdzik 
(p. 191) and of another to the (572 M.) Barrage du Nil. 

The Bkanch Railwa? to the Baebage is traversed by four trains daily 
from Cairo (15 M., in 45-55 min. ; fare 12 or 6 pias., return, 18 or 9 pias.). 
Other trains to Kalyub have no through-connection to the terminus-station 
Barrage, 5 l /2 M. 'from Kalyub. Opposite the station is a tavern kept by a 
Greek, where luncheon may be obtained if required (p. 34). Donkeys may 
be hired at the station. — A narrow-gauge line, worked by hand-power, 
unites Barrage with the West Nile Railway (p. 24). 

The object of the "Barrage du Nil (Arab. el-'Andtir el-Kheriyd), the 
largest weir in the world, is to keep the water of the Nile at the same 
level in all seasons, so as to obviate the necessity for the old irrigation 
machinery, with its great expenditure of labour; and to remove the diffi- 
culties of navigation below this point, during the three months when the 
Nile is at its lowest. The work was began under Mohammed 'Ali, about 1835. 
Linant-Bey proposed to alter the course of the river and to build a weir 
at a point farther to the N., where the configuration of the ground ap- 
peared more favourable ; but his plan was found too costly and was re- 
jected in favour of one proposed by a French engineer named Mougel-Bey. 
The cost of establishing foundations in the shifting soil of the Delta, 
however, far exceeded the estimates; and, after all, the erection was 
found to be too insecure for its intended purpose. For nearly twenty years 
(1847-1865) the Barrage lay useless, as a costly failure; but in 1885-90 Sir 
Colin Scott- Moncrieff successfully completed it at a cost of 500,000?., so that 
now a uniform depth of water of about 3 ft. can be maintained. 

Nearest the station is the Weir on the E. (Damietta) Branch of the Nile 
(a few copper coins as pontage are expected on passing through the gates at 
the ends of the bridge). This lock and weir is over 500yds. in length, and 
has 68 vertical iron sluices. From the farther end a pretty avenue of lebbek 
trees leads across the isthmus (about '/2 M. wide) between the arms, in 
the middle of which is the Menifiyeh Canal, constructed both for irrigation 
and for communication with the district of Menttfiyeh. The Weir on the W. 
(Rosetta) Branch of the Nile is about 450 yds. across and has 58 vertical 
iron sluices. The navigation of the river is carried on by means of spa- 
cious basins and locks, fitted with swing-bridges, at either end of the two 
weirs and also on the Menuf iyeh Canal. The superstructures of the works 
are built in an effective Norman castellated style. A junction-canal above 
the weirs connects the two branches of the Nile, and is used to regulate 
the depth of water in each. When the river is low, the W. branch 
receives all its water through this canal. 



GeograpHArurtalt toii 

"Wagner « Debes, Leipzig. 

CAIRO. 4. Route. 27 

The fortifications seen from the bridge were erected in 1854-63 by Sa'id 
Pasha, but are now of no importance. A number of storehouses and 
workshops stand on the isthmus between the branches of the Nile, and 
a workman's village has sprung up at either end of the Barrage. 

The Libyan chain becomes more distinctly visible, and we 
also observe the Mokattam range with the citadel, and the mosque 
of Mohammed r Ali with its slender minarets. The scenery now 
becomes more pleasing. Gardens and villas come in sight. To the 
left lie the site of the ruins of Heliopolis (the obelisk of which is 
not seen from the railway), Matariyeh with its sycamores, Kubbeh, 
the usual residence of the Khedive, and the large barracks of 'Ab- 
basiyeh, while on the right we perceive the beautiful avenue lead- 
ing to Shubra (p. 92). The environs of the city become more and 
more prominent. About 3 /4hr. afteT leaving Benha the train enters 
the principal station of (130 M.) Cairo. 

4. Cairo. 

Plan of Cairo. The European names of the streets used formerly 
to be written up in French only, so far as they were written up at all; 
but since the British occupation the Arabian names have been used, 
transliterated on a careless and unscholarly system (comp. p. ociii). Our plan 
follows this transliteration in general, correcting, however, the more 
obvious defects (e.g. the English 'ee' is represented, as in the text, by '»'). 
Some of the French names have been retained. 

a. Railway Stations. Hotels and Pensions. Restaurants and Cafes. 

Railway Stations (comp. p. xviii), all except one to the N. of the town, 
the two chief stations being beyond the Isma'iliyeh Canal , here crossed 
by the Kantaret el-Limun. — 1. Principal Station (PI. B , 1) , rebuilt in 
1893-94,' for Alexandria (R. 3), Isma'iliya, and Suez (R. 13), and for the 
whole of the Delta. — 2. Zabtiyeh Station (PI. A, B, 1), separated from 
the preceding by the Shubra Avenue and entered from the Zabtiyeh Street, 
for Bedrashen (Sakkdra) , the Fayim , and Upper Egypt, and for Tell el- 
BdrHd (p. 24). — 3. 'Abbdsiyeh Station, on the other side of the Isma'iliyeh 
Canal, for 'Abbdsiyeh, Kubbeh, Matariyeh (Heliopolis), and el-Merg. — 4. Hel- 
wdn Station (PI. B, 5), 'in the S. part of the town, for Belwdn. 

The hotel - commissionnaires with their omnibuses or carriages, and 
Cook's and Gaze's agents await the arrival of the fast trains and take charge 
of luggage. Small baggage may also be entrusted to the Arab porters, 
with numbered metal tickets on their arms, who will conduct the traveller 
to the hotel-omnibus or procure a cab for him (tariff, see p. 30). Heavy lug- 
gage is sent on to the hotel in special vehicles, safely but not too promptly. 

Hotels (see remark at p. 5). As it not unfrequenHy happens that 
all the hotels are full, especially in Feb. and March, it is a wise precau- 
tion to telegraph for rooms from Alexandria or Port Sa'id. — 'Shepheabd's 
Hotel (PI. B, 3) , Shari'a Kamel Pasha, a luxurious new building , with 
a large terrace overlooking a busy street , pens. 80 pias. , patronised by 
English and American travellers. — 'Hotel Continental (PI. B, 3), Shari'a 
Kasr en-Nil, in a quiet situation in the new quarter of Isma'iliya, newly 
added to and pleasantly fitted up, with terrace, gardens, and separate 
suites for families, fashionable, pens. 80 pias. — *New Hotel (PI. B, 3), 
opposite the Ezbekiyeh garden, with terrace, also in a busy neighbourhood, 
pens, from Dec. to March 16a. (80 pias.), at other seasons 60 pias. — 
~H6tel dd*Nil (PI. D, 3), in a narrow street off the Muski (p. 47), re- 
cently rebuilt, with a pleasant garden, terrace, and belvedere, good cuisine, 
pens, from Jan. to March 16 fr. (64 pias.), at other seasons 15 fr. — 'Hotel 
d'Angleterbe (PI. B, 3; same proprietor as Hotel Continental), Shari'a 

28 Route 4. CAIRO. Consulates. 

el-Maghrabi, in the suburb of Isma'iliya, new, pens. 60-80 pias. — "Hotel 
Royal (PI. B, 2), Shari'a Wagh el-Birkeh, beside the Ezbekiyeh Garden, 
pens. 15 fr., good cuisine. — Hotel Metropole, to the S. of the Ezbekiyeh, 
pens. 10 s. (12>/ 2 fr.% — H6tel Bristol (PI. C, 2), Hotel Khedivial (PI. C, 
2, 3), both in the Medan el-Khaznedar, to the N.E. of the Ezbekiyeh Gar- 
den, moderate charges. — -Hotel Villa Victoria (PI. B, 3), Shari'a el- 
Manakh 14, well situated near the Place de l'Opera (p. 46), pens. 15 fr. 
(60 pias.), 400 fr. per month. — Outside the Town: 'Gezireh Palace Hotel, 
in the former viceregal palace of that name (p. 91), a huge and sumptuously 
fitted up house, with 250 rooms, electric light, ballroom and theatre, and 
large gardens, pens, from 13a. per day (special service of four-horse drags 
every Vshr. from the Ezbekiyeh, running toBulak in connection with the 
hotel steamferry-boat, when the Nile bridge is closed). — °Mena House 
Hotel, near the Pyramids of Gizeh (Mena Coach from Cook's Office daily 
at 11.45a.m., see p. 133), an extensive establishment, with various 'depend- 
ances', swimming and other baths, stables, riding-course, etc. (physician 
in residence), peDS. 70-80 pias., for a stay of several months 60-70pias. ac- 
cording to room, special terms for invalids, servants 40 pias. 

Pensions. Pens. Sima, Shari'a el-Maghrabi (PI. B, 3); Mme. Finck, 
Shari'a Kasr en-Nil 17, in the Isma'iliya suburb, pens. 9 fr., well spoken 
ot; Mme. Kbnig, Maison Zogluh, between the Place de l'Opera and the 
Rue Abdin, well spoken of; Pens. Suisse, next the Hotel Royal, pens. 
8 fr., well spoken of; Pens. Baggenmacher, Pens. Tewfik, and others. 

Private Apartments are seldom to be secured for a shorter period 
than six months, so that an arrangement at a pension or at one of the 
less expensive hotels will frequently be found almost as cheap. Informa- 
tion as to rooms may be obtained at the chief shops or from agents whose 
addresses may be best learned at the consulates. A sunny aspect should 
be chosen, and a detailed written contract invariably drawn up. A 
bargain as to food may be made with some neighbouring restaurant ; 
for only those conversant with the language should attempt to keep house 
for themselves with native servants. 

Restaurants. "Santi, in the garden of the Ezbekiyeh, dej. 3, D, 
3>/sfr. , full board for a month 130-180 fr. ; 'New Bar, Place de l'Opera; 
"Splendid Bar, Cafe" Kovats, near Shepheard's Hotel. 

Beer (Munich and Austrian beer). New Bar, Splendid Bar, see above ; 
August Gorff, Shari'a Wagh el-Birkeh (also rooms ; pens. 8-10 fr.) ; Bavaria 
(Schiiller), on the E. side of the Medan Kantaret ed-Dikkeh (PI. B, 2); 
Bohr, Shari'a el-Balm, near the N. entrance to the Ezbekiyeh Garden. 

Cafes in the European style abound in the neighbourhood of the 
Ezbekiyeh , and in the W. part of the garden near the music-pavilion, 
and in the grottoes. Beer and other beverages are obtained at these estab- 
lishments. None of them are suitable for ladies, and many of them have 
gaming-tables in separate rooms. — Cafes Chantants (for gentlemen only) : 
Grand Cafi Egyptien, opposite Shepheard's Hotel, with female orchestra; 
Grand Eldorado, Shari'a Wagh el-Birkeh, with stage and Egyptian singers 
and dancers. — The Arabian Cafes (p. xxiii), of which there are upwards 
of a thousand at Cairo , are small and dirty, and hardly worth visiting. 
Coffee in the Arabian style is easily obtained elsewhere. — Bodega in 
the Hotel Royal. — Confectioner, Gyss, Place de l'Opera, etc. 

b. Consuls. Police. Banks. Post & Telegraph Offices. Tourist Agents. 
Consulates (comp. p. xx). British, Lord Cromer, consul-general, in 
the new quarter on the Nile (PI. A, 5); Mr. Raphael Borg, consul, Shari'a 
el-Maghrabi, corner of the Shari'a el-Madabereh. — United States, Shari'a 
el-Maghrabi 4, Mr. F. C. Penfield, consul-general; Mr. L Mitchell, vice- 
consul. — Austrian, Shari'a Masr el-'Atika 66, Baron von Heidler-Egeregg, 
consul-general ; Rilter von Gorachuchi, consul, near Shepheard's Hotel (PI. 
B, 3). — Belgian, M. Maaskens, consul-general, Shari'a el-Kentseh el-Ge- 
dideh 6 (Isma'iliya); M. Georges A. Eid, Medan Kantaret ed-Dikkeh. — 
Danish , Shari'a Bab el-Hadid 4, Br. Schiltz, vice-consul (consul-general 
at Alexandria). — Dutch, Hr. Van der Does de Villebois, consul-general, 

Post Office. CAIRO. i. Route. 29 

Shari'a Masr el-'Atika 56; Hr. Bretsclmeider, consul, Rue de l'Eglise Ca- 
tholique du Muaki. — French, M. Cogordan, consul-general, Shari'a el- 
Madabegh 6 ; M. Girard, consul, Shari'a Masr el-'Atika 39. — German, Baron 
von Hey king, consul-general, Gezireh Palace Hotel; Hr. von Wichert, consul, 
Shari'a el-Manakh. — Greek, Shari'a el-Maghrabi 30, M. Skotidii, consul. — 
Italian, Sig. Pansa, consul-general, Shari'a el-Manakh 13; Count Francesco 
Mazza, consul, Shari'a Kasr en-Nil 24. — Portuguese, consulate vacant, 
represented by the Italian consul (consul-general in Alexandria). — Russian, 
Shari'a 'Imad ed-Din 16, M. Koyander, consul-general ; M. Ivanoff, consul. 
— Spanish, Shari'a Kasr en-Nil 34, Sen. Otal, consul-general; Hr. W. Pe- 
lizatus, vice-consul. ' 

Police (Zabtiyeh, PI. C, 3), an admirably organized force, consists of 
about 300 officials , including a number of Europeans (chiefly Italians), 
who are very obliging to strangers , and preside so effectively over the 
public safety that the traveller may explore the remotest and dirtiest pur- 
lieus of the city without fear. Complaints against the police should be 
lodged with the complainant's consul. 

Bankers (comp. p. xiv). Cridit Lyonnais (PI. C, 3), Shari'a el-Bawaki, 
the first side-street to the E. of the Ezbekiyeh, with a branch at the Rond. 
Point du Muski (PI. D, 3) ; tel of Egypt, Shari'a Kasr en-Nil 28 ; Banque 
Impiriale Ottomane (PI. B, 3), Shari'a el-Maghrabi 27"; Anglo-Egyptian Bank, 
Shari'a Kasr en-Nil 29 ; Cridit Fonder Egyptien , Shari'a 'Imad ed-Din 8 ; 
Thos. Cook & Son, H. Gaze <fc Sons (see below). — Monet Changers (comp. 
p. xvi). The traveller is cautioned against dealing with any of the 
numerous money-changers in the streets. The necessary small change can al- 
ways be obtained from the hotel-portier, or in making purchases in the shops. 

Post Office (PI. C, 3; p. 46), next the police-office, at the corner of 
the Shari'a Tahir and the Shari'a el-Baidak, is open from 7.30 a.m. to 
9.30 p.m. The office in the gallery of the inner court, for more important 
business, is open from 9 a.m. till 6.30 p.m. (with a short interruption about 
12.30 p.m.), and again from 9.15 to 9.30 p.m. to suit the night-express to 
Isma'iliya. Lists of the mails by steamer to Europe, etc., are exhibited 
daily in the vestibule. The arrival of Registered Letters, etc., is intimated 
to the addressee by a notice, which must be produced, bearing the stamp 
of the hotel, when the letters are applied for. There are letter-boxes at 
the hotels, cleared at the hours marked upon them. 

Telegraph Offices. Eastern Telegraph Co. (PI. B, 3; British), corner 
of the Shari'a 'Imad ed-Din and the Shari'a el-Manakh, a few yards from 
the Place de l'Opera. — Egyptian Telegraph (PI. B, 3), Route de Bulak. 

Tourist Agents. Thos. Cook ■& Son (Egypt) Ltd., Shari'a Kamel Pasha 
6, to the N, of Shepheard's Hotel. — Teafikleh (Socie'te Anonyme de 
Navigation, etc.), represented by H. Gaze <& Sons, under the colonnades 
opposite Shepheard's Hotel, — Jean S/er & Co., to the S. of Shepheard's 
Hotel (steamboat excursions to Sakkara twice weekly, 18*.; to the Barrage 
du Nil by carriage and rail daily," by steamboat twice weekly, 20*.). — 
Austrian Lloyd, Shari'a Kasr en-Nil 22. — Navigations Generate Jtaliana, 
in a side-street off the Place de l'Opera, near the New Bar (p. 28). — 
Farther information , especially as to the departure of steamers , in the 
notice-frames at Cook's Office, the Hotel du Nil, etc. 

c. Cabs. Donkeys. Commissionnaires. Dragomans. 

Cabs, generally good victorias, with two horses, are always abundant 
in the quarters near the Ezbekiyeh. Closed cabs (landaus) are usually 
to be obtained only on special order and at higher fares. The wheeled 
traffic in Cairo, especially in the newer quarters, is almost as great as in 
the large European cities. The cabs usually drive rapidly, so that their 
use saves time and strength. The official tariff (p. 30) is practically 
disregarded, and the hirer should make a special bargain in every case, 
especially for drives of any length which may possibly reach points not 
adequately provided for in the tariff. Few of the drivers either under- 
stand any European language or are able to read the names of the streets, 
while many of them know the various points only by names of their own. 

30 Route 4. 



But Arabs with a smattering of European languages are usually to be 
found either among the employes of the hotel or standing about near the 
entrance, and one of these may be employed as interpreter (though offers 
of farther service should be firmly declined). The intervention of a 
middleman is quite in accordance with Oriental ideas of bargaining, and 
the traveller will usually find it easy enough to secure the acceptance of 
a reasonable offer based on the tariff, or even below tariff-prices, espe- 
cially if he calmly show signs of taking his custom elsewhere. If the 
driver be dissatisfied with his fare on the conclusion of the drive, the serv- 
ices of a middleman may again be invoked, and in obstinate cases the 
hotel-portier may be applied to. A boy (Sail) usually hangs on behind 
the cab, and should be permitted to remain, as he can be of considerable 
service to the driver , and sometimes even shows him the way. The 
traveller should keep his eye on the direction taken by the cab, as some- 
times the driver drives straight ahead in complete ignorance of the way, 
and requires to be guided, e.g., by being touched with a stick on the right 
or left arm according to the turnings. 

Cab Tariff for 1-3 pers. (each pers. 
luggage beside the driver, 1 pias.). 

1. Pee Drive (Arab. Tausila), within 
the General Post Office' (PI. C, 3; p. 

l jt hr. free, more than 1 /t hr. 2 pias. — As a general rule, a short 
drive cannot be had for less than about 2'/2 pias., other drives 3-4 pias. 

2. By Time (Arab. Bis-sd'a) : a. On ordinary days, per hr. or less 6 pias., 
at night (10 p.m. to 6 a.m.) 9 pias. ; each additional V4hr. 2 pias. 

b. On Frid. and Sun. : after 4 p.m. and at night, 10 pias. per hr. 

c. Per day, within a radius of 3 M. from the General Post Office, 
60 pias. 

extra 1 pias. and each piece of 

radius', of 1, 2, or 3 M. from 
46), 3, 4, or 5 pias., stoppage of 

Longer Drives. 



Kasr el-' Aim (howling 

Dervishes, p. 47) . . 
Fum el-Khalig (Island of 


Old Cairo 

Tombs of the Khalifs . . 
Matariyeh (Heliopolis) . 
Pyramids of Oizeh . . . 
Museum at Oizeh : . . . 

6 pias. 


8 - 






10 - 






50 - 


10 - 


There and back. 
20 pias. incl. halt of 1 hr. 
- - 1 - 

- 1 - 

1 - 

- 1 - 

3 hrs. 

4 - 

- 4 - 

- 2 - 

Bakshish, 5-10 per cent of the fare. — Complaints, with the number 
of the cab and the time should be lodged at the police-office (p. 29); but 
as a general rule the mere mention of the dreaded police is sufficient to 
reduce the drivers to reason. 

Omnibuses ply from behind the Palais de Justice (p. 46) in various 
directions, but they are dirty and seldom used by foreigners. 

Donkeys (comp. p. xviii), per short ride in the city 1-2, per hr. 3-4 pias., 
half-a-day, 8-12, for a day's excursion 15-25 pias. As at Alexandria, 
donkeys are becoming less and less fashionable in Cairo; but they are 
still indispensable for those who wish to study Oriental life in the narrow 
streets of the Arabian quarters, with their bazaars and mosques. For 
visits to the Tombs of the Khalifs and the Mamelukes, to the view-points 
on the Windmill Hill and the Mokattam Hill, and similar excursions, 
donkeys offer this advantage over cabs, that they can go everywhere, while 
the bridle-paths are much less dusty than the carriage-roads. These 
animals are to be found in great numbers at all the most frequented points ; 
at night in front of the cafes ; and the stranger who wishes to hire a 
donkey is sometimes well-nigh overwhelmed by the charge of light cavalry 
to meet his wishes. The donkey-boys of Cairo (preferable to older drivers) 
often possess a considerable fund of humour, and their good spirits react 
upon their donkeys. The traveller should sternly repress the first symp- 
tom of the usual cruel goading of the animals to quicken their pace. 

Shops. CAIRO. 4, Route. 31 

Galloping is forbidden within the town. The bakshish should be propor- 
tionate to the quality of the donkey and the behaviour of the donkey-boy. 

Commissionnaires (comp. p. xxi). Only travellers who are pressed for 
time require a cicerone. The best guides (5-8 fr. per day) are to be had at 
the hotels. They often try to induce their employers to engage them for 
distant tours , such as that to Mt. Sinai, or the voyage up the Nile, but 
for such expeditions they are totally unfitted. As a rule, purchases should 
never be made in their presence. If, however, the traveller knows a few 
words of Arabic, and is not in a hurry, he will soon find his way through 
every part of the city and the environs with the aid of his donkey-boy alone. 

Dragomans (comp. p. xxi) are necessary for long expeditions. Infor- 
mation as to trustworthy dragomans may be obtained at the traveller's 
consulate or at the hotels. 

d. Physicians. Chemists. Hospitals. Baths. Hairdressers. 

Physicians. English : Dr. W. Davis ; Dr. Grant-Bey ; Dr. Keating ; 
Dr. Milton ; Dr. Murison ; Dr. Sandwith. German : Dr. Hess-Bey; Dr. Wildt ; 
Dr. von Becker; Dr. Comanos- Pasha, a Greek, who has studied in Ger- 
many; Dr. Engel-Bey ; Dr. Ambron. — Oculists: Dr. Simons; Dr. K. Scott 
(English) ; Dr. von Herff. — Aurist : Dr. von Hebentanz. — Dentists : Mr. 
Waller, English ; Mr. Eisner, Mr. Warnekross, both Americans. — The ad- 
dresses may be obtained at the hotels and at Diemer's. 

Chemists (high charges). German-English Dispensary, opposite the Credit 
Lyonnais (p. 29) ; English Dispensary, Pharmacie Anglo- Americaine (Mandofia), 
both in the Place de l'Opera; Myrialaki, in the Halim Buildings, near 
Shepheard's Hotel. Tourist Dispensary in Shepheard's Hotel. 

Hospitals. German and English Victoria Hospital, Shari'a Der el-Benat 
(PI. A, 3), well fitted up , and managed by German Deaconesses, under 
the superintendence of Dr. Wildt. — The European Hospital (physician, 
Dr. Desirello-Bey) , in the 'Abbasiyeh , is admirably fitted up, and under 
the supervision of the consuls. The patients are attended by sisters of 
mercy. The charges are 6-12 fr. per day, poor patients at lower rates. — 

— The Austrian Hospital, in the 'Abbasiyeh, is managed by Dr. von Becker, 

— The large Kasr el-'Ain (PI. 28; G, 6), a hospital with a school of medi- 
cine, lies on the Nile, on the route to Old Cairo (p. 83). 

Baths (comp. p. xxvii). European Baths at the hotels, and in the new 
bath-house (also hydropathic, etc.) in the Halim Buildings, near Shepheard's 
Hotel (PI. B, 3). The best of the numerous Arabian Baths are those near 
the Bab esh-Shariyeh (PI. D, 2) and at Bulak. 

Hairdressers in the European style abound in the frequented quarters 
of the town. Their charges are usually exorbitant. — Arabian Barbers 
(not for Europeans), see p. 42. 

e. Shops. 

Booksellers and Stationers. Diemer (Librairie Internationale), at Shep- 
heard's Hotel (publisher of the Visitors' List; large stock of Arabic books). 
The Tourist (Livadas), opposite Shepheard's; Librairie Centrale (Barbier), 
next the Hotel Khedivial ; G. G. Zacharia. — British & Foreign Bible Society, 
Shari'a Mohammed-' AH. — Stationery, visiting cards, etc. : Hohl & Co., 
in the Muski ; Boehme & Anderer, in the Ezbekiyeh, etc. — Arabian Book- 
sellers, see p. 49. 

Photographs. Heymann, Shari'a Bab el-Hadid (PI. B, 2) ; Helios, Leke- 
gian, Shari'a Kamel Pasha, near Shepheard's Hotel; Diemer (see above), 
etc. — E. Brugsch-Bey, the keeper of the Gizeh Museum (p. 94), has caused 
a number of the objects in the museum to be photographed. This collec- 
tion, which costs 25 fr. (small size 15 fr.), may be purchased at the mu- 
seum and at Diemer's (see above). 

European Wares. All the ordinary wants of the traveller may now 
be supplied at Cairo. Clothing, shoes, etc., chiefly for the use of travellers, 
are sold by Pascal & Co., in the Ezbekiyeh, Mayer, Stein, in the Muski, 
and the Cordonnerie Francaise, in the Ezbekiyeh. Ladies' requirements 
are sold by Cicile and others iu the Ezbekiyeh. Good watchmakers and 

32 Route d. CAIRO. Theatres. 

goldsmiths are Buys - Badollet and Centonze, both opposite Shepheard's; 
iatta, Muski. Rifles and ammunition, etc., may be obtained at BajocehVs, 
in the Ezbekiyeh. These shops are not mentioned to the exclusion of 
many others equally good, but merely to give the traveller an idea of where 
to look for shops to suit him. As a rule the shops in the £. of the Ezbe- 
kiyeh and the Muski are cheaper than those farther to the W., in the 
Shari'a Kamel Pasha ; but the goods in the latter (fixed prices) are usually 
more modern and tasteful. 

Wine, Preserved Meats , etc. , are sold by Walker & Co., in the Ez- 
bekiyeh; Niceolo Zigada, ilonferrato , and Dracatos, all near Shepheard's 
Hotel; E. J. Fleurent, Shari'a el-Bawaki (Credit Lyunnais), etc. 

Tobacco (comp. p. xxxi). Syrian tobacco (Korani and Gebeli) is sold 
at a shop in the Gami'a el-Benat (p. 61), near the Muski , but had better 
be purchased in small quantities only. Turkish tobacco (Stambuli) and 
cigarettes are sold by Nestor Gianaclis, in the Muski, by Voltera Freres, and 
by Cortessi, in the Ezbekiyeh, and by Melachrino, Shari'a el-Maghrabi 33. 
— Cigars at Flick's (Havana House), near the New Hotel. 

Arabian Bazaars, see pp. 43, 47. The most important for purchases 
is the Khan el- Khali I (p. 4a). But strangers are to be dissuaded from 
making purchases in these bazaars. Many so-called Oriental articles are 
manufactured in Europe and are to be obtained at home equally genuine 
and much cheaper. The prices demanded by the dealers for 'antiques' 
(frequently hawked in the hotels) are absurd, though unfortunately many 
travellers are foolish enough to pay them, in spite of the notorious fact 
that most of the articles are forgeries. A special permit is required by 
law for the export of antiquities. Comp. p. xvii. 

Arabian Woodwork is sold by "G. Parvis, an Italian, on the left side of 
a court near the entrance to the Muski. Strangers should not fail to visit 
his interesting workshop, which they may do without making any purchase. 

Goods Agents. Those who make purchases in Egypt to any consider- 
able extent are recommended to 3end them home through the medium of 
a goods-agent (e.g. Furino, Hatoun, Ces. Luzzatto), in order to avoid custom- 
house examinations , porterage , and various other items of expense anp 
annoyance. The post-office forwards parcels not exceeding 5 kilogrammes 
(11 lbs.) in weight for 3 fr. (12 pia3.), with export duty of 1 per cent. 

f. Theatres. Clubs. Churches. Schools. 

Theatres. Viceregal Opera-Houte (PI. C, 3; p. 46); in the latter half 
of the winter season a French opera company usually performs at this 
theatre , the arrangement and prices of which resemble those of Italian 
theatres. Box-office open 8-12 and 2-5; boxes dear (evening dress com- 
pulsory ; closed boxes for Moslem ladies). — Summer Theatre (Italian), in 
the Ezbekiyeh Garden. 

Clubs. The Geographical Society (PI. C, 3) , founded by Dr. Schwein- 
furth, the celebrated African traveller, possesses an extensive library and 
a reading-room, which are open to visitors at certain hours. — The Club 
Khidivial (PI. C, 5), in the Isma'iliya quarter, and the Turf Club, in the 
Shari'a el-Maghrabi, are fitted up in the English style. Strangers are not 
admitted without difficulty. 

Churches. English Church (All Saints'; PI. B, 3), Route de Bulak, in 
the Isma'iliya quarter. — American Service in the American Mission (PI. 
C, 3), near Shepheard's Hotel. — German Protestant Church (PI. B, 33), in 
the Isma'iliya quarter; German service, French on thd last Sun. in the 
month. — Roman Catholic Church (PI. D, 3), in a street off the Muski. 
Convento Grande di Terra Santa, with 18 chaplains of different nationali- 
ties. Jesuit Church, in the Rosetti Garden. Franciscan Church, near the 
Boul. Clot Bey. Church of the Mission of Central Africa. — Orthodox 
Greek Church (PI. D, 2, 3) , in the Hamzawi (p. 48). — Coptic Catholic 
Church (PI. D, 3), at the back of the Roman Catholic Church ; Coptic Jacobite 
Church (PI. C, 2), in a side-street between the Boulevard Clot Bey and 
the Ezbekiyeh. These two sects have, in all, 32 churches at Cairo. — 
The Jews here are of two sects, the Talmudists and the Karaites, the 

Sights. CAIRO. 4. Route. 33 

former being by far the more numerous. They possess 13 synagogues, most 
of which are situated in the Jewish quarter (Derb el-Yahudi ; PI. D, 3). 

Schools. The German School is largely patronised by all national- 
ities and sects. — The School of the American Mission (PI. C, 3) has its 
sphere of operations chiefly among the Copts. — The Anglican Mission 
School is presided over by Miss Whateley. — Besides these, there are an 
Ecole Oratuite, an Ecole des Soeurs du Sacri Coeur, a Pensionnat des Soeurs 
du lion Pasteur, a College de la Ste. Famille (school of the Jesuits), and 
an Ecole des Freres. — Permission to visit the Egyptian schools may be 
obtained at the Ministry of Education in the Derb el-Gamamiz (p. 59). 

— Arabic Teacher, 'All Effendi Bahgat (chief interpreter) , at the Min- 
istry of Education, Palais Derb el-Gamamiz (p. 59). 

g. Sights and Disposition of Time. 

By carefully preparing a plan beforehand, starting early every morn- 
ing, and making a free use of cabs, the energetic traveller may succeed 
in visiting all the chief objects of interest at Cairo in seven or eight days, 
but it need hardly be said that a satisfactory insight into Oriental life can 
not be obtained without a stay of several weeks. The following itinerary 
will be found satisfactory on the whole, though those who use donkeys 
instead of cabs will perhaps consider several of the days somewhat too 
fat iguing — Special permission is necessary for a visit to the Arabian 
mosques and other monuments, the restoration of which has been taken in 
hand within the last ten years by a ComiU de Conservation des Monuments 
de I'Art Ardbe, and for the Arabian Museum of Art. Tickets (2 pias. each) 
are obtained at the Wakf (Office for the management of secularized mosque- 
property; PI. D, 6; closed on Frid.) and at Diemer's bookshop (p. 31). A 
fee of Vs-1 pias. is also expected by the attendants at the entrances to the 
mosques, for supplying slippers. 

1st Dai. Forenoon: Tour of inspection in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the Ezbekiyeh (p. 45) and in the Ezbekiyeh Garden; then on foot 
or donkey-back to the Muski and the Bazaars (pp. 47-50). — Afternoon 
(by cab or on donkey-back): to the Tombs of the Khattfs (p. 76) and the 
"Citadel, with the mosque of Mohammed 'Ali (*View ot Cairo; pp. 53-55), 
returning via the Place Sultan Hasan and the Boulevard Me'he'met-Ali (p. 51). 

2nd Day. Forenoon (cab or donkey): Mosques of Sultdn Hasan (p. 52) 
and Ibn TuHn (p. 56); Bdb ez-Zuweleh (p. 61); mosque' of' El-Muaiyad 
(p. 62); street and mosque of El-Ghuri (p. 63). — Afternoon: by railway 
(or drive on the 'Abbasiyeh road via Kubbeh) to Matariyeh and "Beliopolis 
(pp. 127, 128). 

3kd Day. Forenoon (on donkey-back): Murisldn Kaldun (p. 69); tomb- 
mosque of the sultan Mohammed en-Ndsir ibn Kaldun (p. 70); "Barkukiyeh 
(p. 70); Gdmi'a el-Hdkim with the "Arabian Museum (pp. 72,73); Bdb en-Nasr 
(p. 72). — Afternoon (on Frid. only, starting at 1p.m.; by carriage): Kasr 
el-'Ain (Howling Dervishes, p. 47); then across the Nile Bridge (p. '91'); 
closed from 1 to 2.30 p.m.) to Geztreh (p. 91). 

4th Day. Forenoon : "Museum of Gizeh (p. 94 ; closed on Mon. ; several 
visits advisable; note that the Nile Bridge is closed from 1 to 2.30 p.m.). 

— Afternoon (on donkey-back) : Ascent of the "Mokattam (view of Cairo by 
sunset). Those who take the less common excursion' to the Spring af Moses 
and the smaller Petrified Forest (p. 131), returning by the Mokattam, must 
start early, in winter. 

5th Day. Forenoon: Mosques of "El-Azhar (p. 63) and Hasanein 
(p. 67). The mosque of El-Azhar should not be visited on a Friday, as 
there is no teaching on that day, and the traveller would thus miss one 
of the chief attractions. Spare time may be spent in the Bazsars (p. 43). 

— Afternoon (by carriage): Island of R6da (p. 82) and Old Cairo (p. 83), 
with the Coptic church of Abu Sergeh (p. 83) and the mosque of Amru 
(p. 87); also, if time permit, the Imdm Shdfe'i, H6sh el-Pdsha (p. 80), 
and the Tombs of the Mamelukes, after which we ' return by the Place 
Me'he'met-Ali (p. 53). 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. 3 

34 Route 4. CAIRO. Statistics. 

6th Day (by carriage): 'Pyramids of Gizeh (p. 133; which may be seen 
in the course of a forenoon, if necessary) ; a visit to Shubra, which may 
be added in the afternoon by those provided with a permit, is scarcely 
worth while. 

7th Dai (by railway and on donkey-back; luncheon should be provid- 
ed) : Memphis and "Sakkdra (pp. 160, 164). Expeditious travellers may find 
time on the return-journey to cross the Nile by a felukeh or dahabiyeh, 
ride to Helwdn (p. 188), and thence take the train back to Cairo. 

8th Day: Barrage du Ml (p. 26), either by railway (from the Prin- 
cipal Station; luncheon should betaken), or (preferable) by Cook's steamer, 
which plies once a fortnight (enquire at the hotel; luncheon included in 
the fare). 

The following places deserve repeated visits: — the Museum at Gizeh; 
the Citadel, or the Windmill Hill, for the sake of the view; the Tombs of 
the Khalifs; the Ezbekiyeh Garden; the Bazaars (and street- traffic), on a 

Cairo, Kahira, or Masr el-Kahira ('Masr the victorious', Masr 
being the ancient Semitic name for Egypt) , or simply Masr or 
Misr, is situated in 30° 6' N. latitude, and 31° 26' E. longitude, 
on the right bank of the Nile, about 9 M. to the S. of the so- 
called 'cow's belly', the point where the stream divides into the 
Kosetta and Damietta arms, and has not inaptly been styled 'the 
diamond stud on the handle of the fan of the Delta'. On the E.side 
of the city, which covers an area of about 11 square miles, rise 
the barren, reddish cliffs of the Mokattam Hills (p. 129), about 
650 ft. in height, which form the commencement of the eastern 
desert. The city has extended so much towards the west of late 
years that it now reaches the bank of the river and has entirely ab- 
sorbed Bulak (p. 89), which was formerly its harbour. 

Cairo is the largest city in Africa, as well as in the Arabian 
regions, and is the second city in the Turkish empire. It is the 
residence of the Khedive, and of the ministers and principal au- 
thorities. Owing to the secluded habits of the Mohammedan famil- 
ies, and in consequence of the fact that a large section of the lower 
classes of the community have no fixed abode, it is a very difficult 
matter to ascertain the number of the inhabitants with even approx- 
imate precision. Judging from the average annual number of births 
in Egypt and at Cairo, the population of the city may be estimated 
at 400,000 souls, although at the census of 1882 it was returned 
as 374,838 only. The number of resident Europeans is about 21,650, 
including 7000 Italians, 4200 Greeks, 4000 French, 1200 English, 
1600 Austrians, and 1200 Germans. The mass of the population 
consists of Egypto- Arabian townspeople (p. xlviii), Fellah settlers 
(p. xxxix), Copts (p. xlii), Turks (p. lii), and Jews (p. liii), the 
last of whom number 7000 souls. Besides the natives and the 
European residents, the traveller will frequently encounter negroes 
of various races, Northern Africans, Beduins, Syrians, Persians, 
Indians, and other Oriental settlers. — The British garrison num- 
bers about 3500 men. 

History of Cairo. When Egypt was conquered by Cambyses(B:C. 
525) the Babylonians are said to have founded New Babylon (p. 83) 

History. CAIRO. 4. Route. 35 

on the site now occupied by Old Cairo, and during the Roman period 
that city became the headquarters of one of the three legions sta- 
tioned in Egypt. Remains of the Roman castrum are still preserved 
here. In A.D. 640 New Babylon was captured by 'Amr ibn el- Ad, 
the general of Khalif 'Omar ; and when he started on his victorious 
progress towards Alexandria, he commanded the tent (fostat) he 
had occupied during the siege to be taken down. As it was dis- 
covered, however, that a pigeon had built her nest upon it, 'Amr 
ordered the tent to be left standing until the young birds should 
take wing. After the capture of Alexandria, 'Ami requested the 
Khalif to allow him to take up his residence there, but 'Omar re- 
fused to accord permission, as Alexandria appeared to him to be 
rife with elements of discord, and, moreover, too far distant from 
the centre of the conquered country to be suitable for its capital. 
'Amr accordingly returned to his tent, around which his adherents 
encamped. A new city thus gradually sprang up, and the name of 
Fostat continued to be applied to it in memory of its origin. 'Amr 
afterwards erected a mosque (p. 87), and he is also said to have 
begun the construction of the canal (Khallg), which, leaving the 
Nile opposite the island of Roda, intersects the town, and is sup- 
posed to have been intended to connect the Nile with the Red Sea. 
The city was considerably extended in the reign of the splendour- 
loving Ahmed ibn Tuliln, the founder of the dynasty of the Tulun- 
ides, who erected the new quarter of el-Kata'i', to the S.W. of 
the present citadel. Among the buildings ascribed to him is the 
mosque (p. 56) which still bears his name. The town of Fostat was 
favoured by his successors also, and particularly by his son Khuma- 
ruyeh, who erected a palace here. The modern city of Cairo was 
founded by Qdhar, the general of the Fatimite Khalif Mui'zz, to the 
N. of el-Kata'i', as a residence for the Khalif, and as barracks for the 
soldiers commanded by him, after the conquest of Egypt in 969 A.D. 
At the hour when the foundation of the walls was laid, the planet 
Mars, which the Arabs call Kahir. or 'the victorious', crossed the 
meridian of the new city ; and. Mui'zz accordingly named the place 
Masr el-Kahira, or Kahira. Masr, the name of Egypt or of its cap- 
ital, was also applied to Fostat, which, to distinguish it from Masr 
el-Kahira, was now called Masr el-'Atlka (the present Old Cairo). 
The new town extended rapidly. Bricks were easily made of the 
Nile mud, the Mokattam hills afforded excellent stone, while the 
gigantic ruins of the ancient Memphis on the opposite bank of the 
river were also used as a quarry, as the foundations of the houses 
still show. In 973 Mui'zz took up his permanent residence in the 
new city of Cairo. In 1166 the citadel which still commands the 
city was erected by Salaheddin Y&suf ibn Eiytib (Saladin) on the 
slope of the Mokattam hills ; and the same sultan caused the whole 
town, together with the citadel itself, to be enclosed by a wall, 
29,000 ells in length. Under his luxurious and extravagant suc- 


36 Route 4. CAIRO. History, 

cessors Cairo was greatly extended and magnificently embellished. 
According to the Arabian historians, the most enterprising of these 
sultans was Mohammed en-Nasir (d. 1341), who constructed numer- 
ous handsome edifices both within and without the citadel, as well 
as canals and roads, thus converting the ruins and sand-hills in 
the environs into beautiful suburbs, with palaces and pleasure- 
grounds. At that period, however, Cairo was fearfully devastated 
by the plague, as it had been on two former occasions (in 1067 and 
1295), and was also several times subsequently; and, according to 
Makrizi, no fewer than 900,000 (?) persons died in Old and New 
Cairo between November, 1348, and January, 1349. The town suf- 
fered severely in other ways also, and indeed its whole history, so 
far as recorded, like that of the sultans and the Mamelukes them- 
selves, seems to have presented an almost continuous succesion of 
revolutions, rapine, and bloodshed. As most of the Mameluke sul- 
tans who resided in the citadel died a violent death, so the reign of 
almost every new potentate began with bitter and sanguinary con- 
tests among the emirs for the office of vizier, while but few reigns 
were undisturbed by insurrections in the capital. During the third 
regime of Mohammed en-Nasir, who had been twice deposed, and 
as often recovered his throne, a persecution of the Christians took 
place at Cairo. The Christians, of whom great numbers resided in 
Cairo and throughout the whole of Egypt, were accused by the people 
of incendiarism. Their churches were accordingly closed or demol- 
ished, while they themselves were so ill-treated and oppressed, es- 
pecially in the reign of Sultan Saleh (1351-54), that many of them 
are said to have embraced Islamism. In 1366 and 1367, in the reign 
of Sult&n Sha'bdn, sanguinary conflicts took place in the streets of 
Cairo between hostile parties of Mamelukes, and in 1377 Sha'ban 
himself was tortured and strangled in the citadel. Even greater dis- 
orders attended the dethronement of Sultan Barktik (1389), when 
the wildest anarchy prevailed at Cairo, the convicts escaped from 
their prisons, and in concert with the populace plundered the houses 
of the emirs and the public magazines. The following year a rebel- 
lion again broke out among the Mamelukes, who stormed the citadel, 
in consequence of which Barkuk regained possession of the throne, 
and celebrated his triumphal entry into Cairo. Scarcely, however, 
had he closed his eyes and been succeeded by Farag, when the Ma- 
melukes again revolted, and renewed conflicts took place for posses- 
sion of the citadel, during which the city was partly plundered. 
Similar scenes were repeated on almost every change of government. 
The turbulence of the Mamelukes, who were always treated with 
too much consideration by the sultans, now became more and more 
unbearable; they robbed the people in the markets, assaulted citiz- 
ens in the public streets, and grossly insulted respectable women. 
Hitherto the outrages committed by these troops had been chiefly 
connected with some political object, but from the middle of the 

History. CAIRO. 4. Route. 37 

15th century downwards they were generally perpetrated with a view 
to plunder. Thus in 1458, when fires repeatedly broke out at Cairo 
and Bulak, it was generally believed that the Mamelukes had caused 
them in order to obtain opportunities for robbery. In the course of 
the following year they forcibly entered and robbed the mosque of 
'Ami at Old Cairo. In the sultanate of Khoshkadem (1461-67) the 
Mamelukes plundered the bazaars of Old Cairo, and in the reign of 
Mohammed (1496-98), son of Kait-Bey, they roved through the 
streets at night, maltreated the police, and. plundered various quar- 
ters of the city. In 1496, when rival emirs were almost daily fight- 
ing in the streets of Cairo, the Mamelukes of course utilised the 
opportunity for plunder. 

On 26th Jan., 1517, the Osman Sultan Selim I., after having 
gained a victory in the neighbourhood of Heliopolis (p. 128), en- 
tered the city. Tuman Bey, the last Mameluke sultan, again gained 
possession of the ill-guarded town on 28th Jan., but was obliged 
to evacuate it on the following day, and was taken prisoner and exe- 
cuted (p. 62). Before Selim returned to Constantinople, he caused 
the finest martle columns which adorned the palace in the citadel 
to be removed to his own capital. Thenceforward Cairo became a 
mere provincial capital, and its history is almost an entire blank 
down to the period of the French expedition. On 22nd July, 1798, 
after the Battle of the Pyramids, Cairo was occupied by Bonaparte, 
who established his headquarters here for several months, and who 
quelled with sanguinary severity an insurrection which broke out 
among the populace on 23rd-25th September. At the beginning of 
the year 1799 Bonaparte started from Cairo on his Syrian expedition, 
and on his return to France, Kleber was left as commander-in-chief 
of the French troops at Cairo, where he was assassinated on 14th 
June, 1800. In 1801 the French garrison under Belliard, being hard 
pressed by the grand-vizier, was compelled to capitulate. On 3rd 
August, 1806, Mohammed 'Ali, as the recognised pasha of Egypt, 
took possession of the citadel, which for the last time witnessed a 
bloody scene on 1st March, 1811, when the Mameluke Beys were 
massacred by Mohammed's order. Since then nothing has inter- 
rupted the peaceful development of the city. 

The **Street Scenes presented by the city of the Khalifs afford 
an inexhaustible fund of amusement and delight, admirably 
illustrating the whole world of Oriental fiction , and producing an 
indelible impression on the uninitiated denizen of the West. 
'What makes Cairo so romantic and novel is the contrasts of bar- 
barous and civilised scenes and incidents it presents, which forcibly 
strike and interest even the most utterly blase European, and 
which recur in every department and phase of life in this Arabian 
capital of the desert, and indeed throughout all Egypt. Cairo may 
be compared to a mosaic of the most fantastic and bizarre descrip- 

38 Route 4. CAIRO. Street Scenes. 

tion, in ■which all nations, customs, and epochs are represented, 
— a living museum of all imaginable and unimaginable phases 
of existence , of refinement and degeneracy , of civilisation and 
barbarism, of knowledge and ignorance, of paganism, Christianity, 
and Mohammedanism. In the Boulevards of Paris and on London 
Bridge I saw but the shadow, and at Alexandria the prelude only, 
of the Babel of Cairo, to which the Roman or the Venetian carnival 
is tame and commonplace. These marvellous scenes cannot fail to 
strike every one, and particularly the uninitiated new-comer, most 
forcibly' (B. Ooltz). 

This Oriental life seems to feel the atmosphere of the newer 
quarters uncongenial, and it must therefore be sought for in the old 
Arabian quarters, which are still mostly inaccessible for carriages, 
in spite of the many new streets that have been constructed in Cairo 
of late years. Most of the streets in the old part of the town are 
still unpaved, and they are too often excessively dirty. The lanes 
separating the rows of houses in the Arabian quarter are so narrow 
that there is hardly room for two riders to pass, and the projecting 
balconies of the harems with their gratings often nearly meet. The 
busy traffic in these streets presents an 'interminable, ravelled, 
and twisted string of men, women, and animals, of walkers, riders, 
and carriages of every description. Add to this the cracking of the 
drivers' whips, the jingling of money at the table of the changeTS 
established at every corner of the street, the rattling of the brazen 
vessels of the water-carriers, the moaning of the camels, braying 
of donkeys, and barking of dogs, and you have a perfect pande- 
monium'. Europeans, and even ladies, may ride with perfect safety 
through the midst of all this confusion, and they will often have 
opportunities of observing most picturesque and amusing scenes. 
The denseness of the crowd sometimes seems to preclude the pos- 
sibility of farther progress, but the hammar, or donkey-boy, is 
pretty sure to elbow a passage without much difficulty. Lovers of 
the picturesque will find such rides very enjoyable. It is not, 
however, until the traveller has learned to distinguish the various 
individuals who throng the streets, and knows their different pur- 
suits, that he can thoroughly appreciate his walks or rides. We 
may therefore give a brief description of some of the leading char- 
acteristics of the different members of the community. 

From a very early period it has been customary for the Arabs 
to distinguish their different sects, families, and dynasties by the 
colour of their Turbans. Green is the prophet's colour. Green tur- 
bans, therefore, are the badge of the 'Sherifs', or descendants of the 
prophet, and they are also frequently worn by the Mecca pilgrims. 
But the green turban is not much respected in Cairo , where it too 
often serves as an excuse for laziness ; many of the prophet's de- 
scendants now wear white instead. The 'Ulama, or clergy and 
scholars, usually wear a very wide and broad, evenly folded, tur- 

Street Scenes. 


4. Route. 39 

ban of light colour. The orthodox length of a believer's turban is 
seven times that of his head, being equivalent to the whole 
length of his body, in order that the turban may afterwards be 
used as the wearer's winding sheet, and that this circumstance 
may familiarise him with the thought of death. The dress and 
turbans of the Copts, Jews, and other non-Muslim citizens, are 
generally of a dark colour, those of the Copts being blue, and 
those of the Jews yellow, in accordance with a decree issued in 
the 14th century (p. cxxv). Blue is also the colour indicative of 

The Women of the poorer and rustic classes wear nothing but 
a blue gown and a veil. Their ornaments consist of silver or copper 
bracelets, earrings, and ankle-rings, while their chins, arms , and 
chests are often tatooed with blue marks. In Upper Egypt nose- 
rings are also frequently seen. The women of the upper classes 
are never so handsomely dressed in the streets as at home. When 
equipped for riding or walking , they wear a light-coloured silk 
cloak, with very wide sleeves (tdb or sableh), over their home attire. 
They also don the burko', or veil, which consists of a long strip of 
muslin, covering the whole of the face except the eyes, and reach- 
ing nearly to the feet. Lastly they put on the habara, a kind of 
mantle, which in the case of married women consists of two breadths 
of glossy black silk. Thus disguised, they 
look unnaturally broad and unwieldy , and 
not unlike bats. Young girls usually wear a 
white mantle. The wealthier ladies , who 
drive in their carriages attended by eunuchs, 
usually veil their faces up to their eyes 
with thin gauze in accordance with the 
fashion of Constantinople. The figures of 
Egyptian women, in early life, are gener- 
ally upright and graceful. They colour their 
eyelashes and eyelids dark, and their finger 
and toe-nails with henna, which gives them 
a brownish-yellow tint. Among other cus- 
toms we may also mention the peculiar 
mode in which a woman carries her child, 
either astride her shoulder, or Testing on 
her hip. "With regard to circumcision, wed- 
dings, and funerals, the ceremonies at- 
tending which are similar in all the Egyptian towns, see p. xcvii. 

Amid this busy throng of men and animals resound the various 
cries of street-vendors and other persons who transact their business 
in the open air, and the warning shouts of outrunners (sais), coach- 
men, donkey-attendants, and camel-drivers. The words most com- 
monly heard are — Wiglak\ i shemdlak\ i yem1nak\ i guarda\ l ti'a, H'd*. 
As a rule, however, the Cairenes pay no attention to these warn- 

40 JRoute 4. 


Street Scenes. 

ings unless addressed to them individually. Thus, 'riglak yd kha- 
wdytV ('your foot, sir', i.e. 'take care of your foot' ; khawdgeh is 
the usual title given to Europeans hy the Arahs , and is said to 
have originally meant 'merchant' only) ; 
'shemdlakydshekh\'yoxir\e ft side, chief); 
'yeminak yd bint' ('your right side, girl') ; 
'dahrik yd sitt' ('your back, lady'); 'yd 
'ar&seh' (bride); 'yd sherif (descendant of the 
pTophet) ; 'yd efendi' (Turkish official). — 
Beggars are very numerous at Cairo, most 
of them being blind. They endeavour to 
excite compassion by invoking the aid of 
Allah : 'yd Mohannin : yd Rabb' ('0 awak- 
ener of pity, Master') ; 'tdlib min alldh 
hakk lukmet 'esh' ('I seek from my Lord the 
price of a morsel of bread') ; 'ana dif Allah 
wa'n-neli' ('I am the guest of God and of the 
Prophet'). The usual answer of the passer- 
by is, 'Allah yihannin 'alek' ('God will have 
mercy on you'), or 'Allah ya'ttk' ('God give 
thee'; comp. p. xxii). 
One of the most popular characters to be met with in the streets 
of Cairo is the Sakka, or "Water-Carrier, with his goatskin of 
water, carried either by himself or by a donkey, who still plies his 
trade, although the water-works (p. 72) supply every house in 
the city, as well as the public sebils (p. cxci), with water, and 
though on many of the houses there are brass tubes through 
which passers-by may take a draught from the main pipes. His 
usual cry is — 'yd auwad Alldh' ('may God recompense me'). Many 

of the sakkas sell water to 
the people in the streets. These 
are known as 'sakka sharbeh', 
and they carry their supply of 
water either in a skin or in a 
large earthenware vessel on 
their backs. They offer a draught 
to passers-by in a brazen saucer 
or in a kulleh (porous bottle), 
for which they receive a small 
copper coin, and sometimes no 
payment at all. On the occasion 
of festivals, and particularly on 
the molids (birthdays) of saints, 
persons who desire to do a 
pious work frequently hire one 
of the sakkas to dispense water 
gratuitously. The sakka then 

Street Scenes. 


i. Route. 41 

shouts in a singing tone, 'sebll Allah yd'atshdn yd mdyeK 1 , thus in- 
viting all thirsty persons to drink gratuitously ; while he occasion- 
ally turns to his employer, who generally stands near him, with 
the words, 'God forgive thy sins, dispenser of the drink-offering', 
or 'God have mercy on thy parents', to which the persons who 
have partaken of the water reply, 'amlri (amen), or 'God have 
mercy on them and on us'. After numerous blessings of a similar 
kind have been interchanged, the sakka hands the last cup of water 
to his employer, with the words, 'The remainder for the liberal 
man, and Paradise for the confessor of the Unity I God bless thee, 
thou dispenser of the drink-offering 1' 

The Hemali, who belong to one of the orders of dervishes 
(p. xcv), are also engaged in selling water, which they fla- 
vour with orange-blossom (zahr), while others add a little brandy 
('erk-sds) or grape-juice (zebib). There are also numerous itin- 
erant vendors of different kinds of sweetmeats, which to Europeans 
look very uninviting. Thus , sahlab is a thin jelly made of wheat- 
starch and sugar, the sellers of which shout, 
'haldweh, yd sukkar bimismdr yd haldwehl' 
(confection, sugar, for a nail, con- 
fection !). These vendors, who resemble the 
rag and bone collectors of European towns, 
often barter their wares for nails or pieces 
of old iron, as their call indicates. Lastly, 
there are itinerant cooks , with portable 
kitchens, who sell small meat puddings, fish, 
and other comestibles, and whose customers 
eat their dinners sitting cross-legged by 
the side of the street. This custom is not- 
iced by the old German geographer Se- 
bastian Miinster (d. 1552) , who says that 
'the city of Cairo is said to be five times 
as laTge as Paris. There are few people, who, 
as with us, buy food to prepare at home ; but 
when they are hungry they buy from the 
cooks, of whom the city contains nearly 
thirty thousand'. 

The way in which fruit and vegetables are cried is particularly 
curious. The commonest expressions are perhaps the following : 
' Allah yehawwinheh yd lem&n' ('God will make them light , le- 
mons'; i.e., he will make light, or empty the baskets containing 
the lemons) ; "asal yd burtukdn, 'asal' ('honey, oranges, honey'; 
i.e., sweet as honey); l meded yd Embdbeh meded! tirmis Embabeh 
yaghlib el-lozT '■yd mahld bunei el-bahr 1 ('help ! Embabeh, help! 
the lupins of Embabeh are better than almonds ; Oh, how sweet i3 
the little son of the river !'). The best lupins are grown at Emba- 
beh, and they are called 'children of the river' from the fact that 

42 Route d. 


Street Scenes. 

they require to be soaked in Nile water for a considerable time be- 
fore they are boiled. Other cries are l ya musellVl-ghaibdn yd UbV 

('0 comforter of those in 
distress, kernels', i.e., of the 
melon) ; or, more common- 
ly, 'el-mohammas' ('roast- 
ed kernels') ; 'yd fustuk 
gedid' (new pistachios) ; 'el- 
ward kdn shok min'arak en- 
nebi fettah' ('the rose was a 
thorn; it blossomed from 
the sweat of the prophet'). 
This legend resembles that 
of the thorns at Subiaco 
among the Sabine Hills, 
which were converted into 
rose bushes by the blood of 
St. Francis. 'Rawdyeh el- 
genneh yd temer henna' ('o- 
dours of Paradise, flowers 
of henna'). With regard to the 
henna plant, see p. lxxiv. 
Most of the Arabian barbers have their shops open to the street. 
Their principal occupation consists in shaving the heads of their 

customers in Oriental fash- 
ion, an art in which they are 
very expert. When the opera- 
tion is over, they hold a look- 
ing-glass before the cus- 
tomer , saying — 'na'lmari 
(may it be pleasant to you), 
to which the usual reply is 
— 'Allah yin'im 'allk' 1 (God 
make it pleasant to thee). 
Towards evening the so- 
lemn and sonorous cry of the 
mueddin, summoning the 
faithful to pray er(see p.xci), 
reverberates from the tops 
of the minarets. When the 
shops are shut the porters 
and watchmen place their 
beds (serir) of palm-twigs 
in the streets outside the 
entrances, and prepare to 
spend the night there; some- 
times they have only mats 

Schools. Cairo. ute. 43 

or rugs to sleep on. But much of the busy street-traffic goes on till 
nearly midnight, and during the month of Ramadan it even con- 
tinues throughout the whole night, while the barking of hungry 
dogs and the braying of donkeys frequently form an additional in- 
terruption to repose. 

The traveller will frequently have occasion to observe the Schools 
(kuttab), of which there are about 300 in Cairo, with 8-9000 scholars, 
and one of which is attached to almost every public fountain. He 
will find it very amusing to watch the efforts of the flkth, or school- 
master, in teaching his pupils with the aid of admonitions and 
blows, while the boys themselves recite verses of the Koran with 
a swaying motion of their bodies, bending over their metal writing- 
tablets, and yet finding time for the same tricks as European school- 
boys. It is not advisable to watch the fikih too closely, as he is 
easily disconcerted and is then apt to be uncivil. 

These schools are maintained by the private enterprise of the school- 
masters themselves, who exact 1-2 piastres per week from each pupil. 
The schools all have a purely religious character, and are exclusive- 
ly creations of El-Islam. The mere reading and recitation of verses from 
the Koran being in itself considered a meritorious act, the great object of 
these schools is to teach the pupils to recite the Koran by heart. Each boy 
is provided with a copy of the sacred book, if he can afford to buy one, 
an ink and pen case (dawdpeh), and a tablet of metal or of wood painted 
white. After learning the alphabet, the pronunciation and the values of 
numbers , he is then taught the ninety-nine 'beautiful names of Allah 1 
contained in the Koran, a knowledge of which is necessary to enable him 
to repeat the ninety-nine prayers of the Mohammedan rosary (sebha). 
The boy is then made to write out the Fdtha, or first chapter (sureh) 
of the Koran, which he reads often enough to impress it perfectly on 
his memory, swaying his body to and fro the while , whereby , as he 
imagines, his memory is rendered more pliant. After learning the first 
chapter, he next proceeds to learn the last, the last but one, and the 
others in the same inverted order, until he reaches the second, the rea- 
son being that the chapters gradually diminish in length from the 
second to the last. Although the language is often difficult and obscure, 
no explanations are given, so that the boy who knows the whole book 
by heart usually understands but little of it. As soon as the boy has 
learned the whole of the Koran in this way, the completion of his studies 
is commemorated by the celebration of the Khatmeh, a family festival, to 
which the schoolmaster is invited. 

The Bazaars + of Cairo, though inferior to those of Damascus 
and Constantinople , present to the European traveller many novel 
features and many interesting traits of Oriental character. As is 
the universal custom in the East, shops of the same kind, with 
their workshops , are congregated together in the same quarter, 
named sometimes after a mosque, but more usually after the wares 
there sold, e.g. SUk en-Nahhdstn, bazaar of the coppersmiths, Suk 
el-Kurdaglyeh, bazaar of the ironmongers. 

Most of the bazaars consist of narrow, and often dirty, lanes, 

+ Baz&r is properly speaking a Persian word, the Arabic equivalent 
for which is sUk. The magazines of the wholesale merchants, with their 
large courts, are called walckdleh, which the Franks have corrupted to 
Occaleh, Occal, or Okella (pp. 71, 72). 

44 Route 4. CAIRO. Bazaars. 

generally covered over with an awning to shade them from the sun, 
and flanked with shops about 6 ft. wide. These shops (dukkan) are 
open towards the street, and in front of each is a Mastaba or seat 
on which the customer takes his place and on which the shopkeeper 
offers Ms prayers at the appointed hours. The inscriptions above 
and in the shop do not consist of the dealer's name, but of various 
pious ejaculations, such as 'Oh Allah, locker of the gate of gain, 
oh, all-nourisher', 'the help of Allah and a speedy victory', etc. These 
lanes usually enclose a massive storehouse of considerable size 
(khan), consisting of two stories. Some of the older of these build- 
ings, particularly those in the Gamaliyeh (pp. 51, 71) and the Khan 
el-Khalil (p. 49), are architecturally interesting, and possess 
handsome mushrebiyehs. Several of these khans form a quarter of 
the city (Kara). These were formerly closed by massive, iron- 
mounted gates, still in some cases preserved ; and they were care- 
fully guarded at night by watchmen appointed for the purpose. No 
one was permitted to pass through the gates without undergoing an 
examination by the custodian, but this custom has been given up 
at Cairo. In former times, during the prevalence of the Mameluke 
conflicts, which were always attended with the pillaging and as- 
sassination of many peaceful citizens, the gates of the khans 
frequently remained closed for several days together, for the pur- 
pose of affording protection against the outrages of these lawless 

The principal market-days are Monday and Thursday, when 
the traffic in the narrow streets is so great that it becomes difficult 
or impossible to traverse them. Pedlers are seen forcing theirway 
through the crowd, shouting at the top of their voices, sometimes 
carrying a small table with them, and frequently selling their wares 
by auction. So, too, we observe coffee-sellers, water-bearers, nar- 
gileh-hawkers, and others, elbowing their way, lauding their com- 
modities, and escaping accidents almost by a miracle. One of the 
noisiest frequenters of the bazaars is the dalldl, or auctioneer, who 
carries on Ms head or shoulders the goods he is instructed to sell, 
and runs up and down the lanes shouting 'hartig, hardg', and adding 
the amount of the last bid he has received. However great the con- 
fusion may be, his practised ear instantly detects each new bid is- 
suing from one of the dukkans, and he immediately announces the 
new offer — 'bi'ishrtn kirsh\ 'bi'ishrin u nus', and so on. The seller 
of the goods always accompanies the dallal to give his consent to 
the conclusion of the transaction. 

It is hardly possible to give the traveller any idea of the prices 
of the various commodities, as they depend on the demand, which 
is greater in winter than in summer, and also on the character of 
the seller and the demeanour of the purchaser. Caution in making 
a purchase is far more requisite in the East than in Europe, as Orient- 
als regard skill in cheating simply as a desirable accomplishment. 

Ezbekiyeh. CAIRO. 4. Route. 45 

In walking thiough bazaars and other streets the traveller will 
be interested in observing how industriously and skillfully the 
Abtizans work, with tools of the most primitive description. The 
turners (Kharrat), for example, are equally adroit with hand and 
foot. The following are the Arabic names for some of the commoner 
handicraftsmen: Khaiydt, tailor; Sabbagh, dyer; Reffa, stocking- 
maker ;'Akkdd, silk-ribbon maker; Gizzdr, butcher ; Farrdn, baker; 
Samkari, plumber ; Hadddd, smith ; Sd'dti, watch-maker. The fol- 
lowing are trades not mentioned in our description of the bazaars 
(pp. 47-50): Tdgir, draper; Dakhdkhni, tobacconist; Fdkihdni, 
fruiterer; Zeiydt, oil and butter dealer; Khudari, green-grocer; 
Shamma', tallow-chandler. 

European travellers who purpose making large purchases in the ba- 
zaars, must arm themselves beforehand with the most inexhaustible pa- 
tience. Time has no value for an Oriental, and that fact must he taken 
into the calculation. Everything must be haggled for, sometimes in the 
most obstinate fashion. When the customer knows the proper price and 
offers it, the dealer will remark '■Kallf (it is little), but will close the bar- 
gain. Sometimes the shopkeeper sends for coffee from a neighbouring coffee- 
house in the course of the bargaining. If no satisfactory agreement can 
be reached, the customer should calmly proceed on his way. Every step 
he takes will lower the demands of the obdurate dealer. It is advisable 
to offer at first rather a lower sum than the purchaser is willing to pay, 
in order that the offer may be raised 'min thdnak 1 (for your sake). A 
common phrase in the ceremonious East is 'kudu bal&sK (take it for noth- 
ing), which, however, is as little seriously meant as the well-known 'leli 
betak* (my house is thine). The opinion of the shopkeepers seems rather 
to be 'iijoi kisi' (thy purse is mine). Foreigners, however, must be pre- 
pared to pay more than natives. Dragomans and commissionnaires always 
have a private understanding with the dealer, so that to make purchases 
in their company is to add 10-20 per cent to the price. 

1. The Ezbekiyeh and the New Isma'iliya Quarter. 

The central point of the foreign quarter, between the old Arab- 
ian Cairo and the new town, built in the French style within the 
last 25 years, is the — 

*Ezbekiyeh Garden (PI. C, 3), or simply the Ezbekiyeh, which 
is named after the heroic Emir Ezbek , the general of Sultan 
Kait Bey (1468-96 ; p. 58), who brought the general and son-in- 
law of Bajesidl. as a captive to Cairo. A mosque was erected here 
in honour of his victory ; and, though the building no longer exists, 
its name still attaches to the site. The fine gardens were laid out 
in 1870 by M.Barillet (p. lxxv), formerly chief gardener to the city 
of Paris. They are octagonal in shape, and cover an area of 20'/2 
acres; the walks are altogether H/j M. in length. The gardens 
contain a variety of rare and beautiful trees and shrubs, and the 
open spaces are planted with the Lippia nodiflora, to supply the 
place of grass, which does not thrive in this dry climate. The 
greatest show of blossoms is in May and June. An artificial hill 
with a belvedere commands the best view, and below it is a pretty 
grotto. Among the other attractions of the place are several cafes, 

46 Route 4. CAIRO. hma'tliya. 

a summer-theatre (p. 32), a restaurant, in the E. part of the garden, 
switch-back railways, small boats for hire on the ponds, etc. An 
Egyptian band, which generally performs European music, plays 
here daily from 5 to about 8 p.m., when a charge of !/ 2 pias. ( n <> 
change given) is made for admission. The European residents in 
Cairo of the better class are seldom seen in the garden, but it is 
the fashion for Arabs to send their veiled wives and their children 
to promenade here. The gardens afford a delightful promenade at 
all periods of the day, and they present a very attractive appearance 
by gaslight; but invalids who spend the winter in Cairo for the 
sake of their health should be careful to leave them before sundown, 
after which the air here is very damp. 

The Ezbekiyeh is surrounded by the principal Hotels (p. 27), 
numerous Cafes, attractive shops, and handsome dwelling-houses, 
which are continued into the New Quarter of Isma'iliya. The 
quarter was begun by the Khedive Isma'il Pasha (p. cxxix), who 
desired to rival the modern quarters of Paris, and presented 
sites here gratuitously to any one who would undertake to erect on 
each a house worth at least 30,000 fr. within eighteen months. Most 
of the houses are architecturally uninteresting, but there is a fair 
sprinkling of handsome buildings. 

Adjoining the Ezbekiyeh on the N.W. is the small square of 
Meiddn el-Khaznedar (PI. C, 3 ; Boulevard Clot-Bey, see p. 75). — 
To the S.E. is the International Tribunal (PI. C, 3; Tribunaux 
Mixtes), beyond which is the small 'place' named 'Atabet el-Hadra, 
whence the Muski (p. 47) leads to the E. To the W. of the Inter- 
national Tribunal is the General Post Office (PI. C, 3 ; p. 29), from 
which the cab-tariff is calculated (p. 30) and which thus forms the 
centre of the town for visitors. — On the S. side of the Ezbekiyeh 
is the Opera House, nearly opposite which, to the E., rises the heavy- 
looking New Hotel. In the Place de (Opera (Pl.B, C, 3), between 
these, is an Equestrian Statue of Ibrahim Pasha, which was removed 
from the 'Atabet el-Hadra during Arabi Pasha's revolution in 1882 
and preserved for some years in a magazine. — To the S.W. of the 
New Hotel are the German Protestant Church(P\. B,3 ; p. 32) and the 
English Church (PI. B, 3 ; p. 32). Still farther to the W. is the 
residence of M. Delort, the banker, in the early Arabian style, the 
interior of which, partly fitted up with relics from old Arabian 
houses, is worthy of a visit. 

The new Isma'iliya quarter, with its wide tree-shaded streets, 
extends between the old parts of the town and the Nile. Here are 
situated the extensive Khedivial 'AbdinPalace (PI. C, 4), the minister- 
ial offices , most of the consulates , and many palaces of Egyptian 
grandees, with gardens enclosed by high walls, so that only the roofs 
are visible to passers-by. — On the way to the Great Nile Bridge (p. 91) 
we pass the Square of Bab el-Luk (PI. B, 4). — Beside the bridge is 
the huge barrack of Kasr en-NU (PL A, 4). — In the long street 

Muski. CAIRO. 4. Route. 47 

named Shdri'a Masr el-'Atika (PI. A, 4) lie the Palace ofHusen Pasha, 
brother of the Khedive, and, on the opposite side, the viceregal 
Palace hma'Ulyeh, built in 1876, and a new quarter in course of 
erection on the site of the Palace Kasr ed-Dubara, including the 
British Consulate-General (PI. A, 5). On the E. side of the street is 
the Ministry of Public Works and of War. In the N.W. angle of 
the grounds is the Institut Egyptien; in the S.W. angle, the Societe 
Oeographique ; and on the B. side, the Viceregal Laboratory, with the 
Office of Hygiene. The medicines required for all the hospitals in 
the country are prepared at the laboratory, and the yield of the 12 
saltpetre manufactories of Egypt is tested here. — Farther on, to the 
right, on the Nile, is the Palace Ibrahim Pasha (PI. A, 6), with a 
large garden. Then the straggling Palace Kasr 'Ali (PL A, 6), at 
present occupied by Prince Husen Pasha, and the large Hospital of 
Kasr cl-'Ain (PI. A, 7), with the Mosque of Kasr el-'Ain, in which 
the howling dervishes hold their Zikr (p. xcv). 

It need hardly be added that the traveller in search of Oriental 
scenes will not care to devote much time to this modern and almost 
entirely European quarter, but will hasten to make acquaintance 
with the Arabian parts of the city. 

2. The Muski and the Bazaars. 

A visit to the chief Bazaars (comp. p. 43), to which this section is 
devoted, is so full of novelty and interest, that the traveller will scarcely 
have time to combine with it the inspection of the Mosques passed on the 
way. The description of these is therefore reserved for the following sec- 
tions (Nos. 3 and 4). — Mounted on donkeys (p. 30), both ladies and gentle- 
men may plunge fearlessly into the thickest of the crowd; while gentlemen, 
even on foot and alone, aided by the following description and the plan 
of the town (p. 27), will have little difficulty in finding their way without 
any other assistance. 

The chief thoroughfare of Cairo is the *Muski (PI. C, D, 3), 
which begins at the small square of Atabet el-Hadra (p. 46), and, 
with its E. continuation the Rue Neuve, traverses the entire breadth 
of the old town (nearly 1 M.). This street has now to a great extent 
lost its external Oriental characteristics. The numerous tobacco 
and cigar stores and emporiums of clothing present quite a European 
exterior; but the stalls of the fez-makers, with the peculiarly shaped 
iron they use in their trade, still Temind us that we are in the E. 
(The price of a fez or tarbush varies from 2 fr. to 5 fr. according 
to the material with which it is lined.) But the Oriental features 
of the traffic (p. 37), that surges up and. down the street from morn- 
ing till night, are still unchanged. "We ascend the Muski to a small 
place called the Rond-Point (PI. D, 3), beyond which the street is 
named the Rue Neuve (pp. 49, 67). 

Immediately before this place is reached, we diverge by the 
Shdrfa Hammdm et- Taldt to the right, and follow the first lane to 
the left,' the Shdri'a es-Sultdn ez-Zdhtr (PI. D, 3; running parallel 
with the Rue Neuve), passing a red and yellow mosque on the right, 

48 Route 4. CAIRO. Bazaars. 

and disregarding the attraction of the European glass wares sold 
here. Pursuing a straight direction (i.e., as straight as the crooked 
lanes admit of) , we pass an Arabian gateway on the left, and, on 
the right, the end of a narrow lane, through which we perceive the 
entrance to an uninteresting Greek church. 

Farther on, beyond the covered entrance of a bazaar in ruins, 
we turn once more to the right by the Shdri'a el-Hamzawi es-SegMr 
(PI. E, 3), in which is the bazaar of the same name. The Stik el- 
Hamzawi is the bazaaT of the Christian merchants (Syrians and 
Copts), who vie with their Mohammedan fellow-tradesmen in the 
exorbitance of their demands, and whose chief wares are European 
calico, porcelain, and drugs (which last are sold at all the bazaars). 
Near the end of this winding street, a little before its junction 
with the broader street El-'Akkadin (see below), we observe on the 
right the covered Shdri'a et- Tarbiya (PI. E, 3), with the Stik el-'Atta- 
rin, or spice-market, which is easily distinguished by its aromatic 
odours. The perfumes of Arabia, genuine and adulterated, wax- 
candles, and drugs are the chief commodities here. Attar of Toses 
is sold by weight at high prices. The small bottles into which it 
is usually put contain only one drop. Then follow the weavers and 

The Shari'a et-Tarbiya is continued to the S. by the Shdri'a el- 
Fahhamin, in which is the Suk el-Fahhamin (PI. E, 3, 4), the ba- 
zaar for wares from Tunis and Algiers. We first observe drug-stalls, 
and then magazines of light-coloured woollen and other stuffs, 
Arabian rugs, etc. Silk for caftans also is manufactured here. 

We now turn sharp to the right, then sharp to the left, and 
pursuing the same direction, parallel with the El-'Akkadin street, 
and passing a number of shoemakers' stalls (bawdbishi), we come to 
a broader covered passage, which we follow to the right for a few 
paces, and then take the first lane to the left. This lane, with its 
dilapidated roof, is continued under the name of Shdri'a el-Mena- 
khidin, and is inhabited chiefly by tailors, cloth-merchants, and 
dealers in undressed wool. A short abrupt curve of this lane, to 
the left, then brings us to a thoroughfare, which runs to the left 
under the name of Shari'a el-'Akkadin (p. 49), and to the right 
under the successive names of el-Mandkhiliyeh and Sukkariyeh (PI. 
E, 4). This is the bazaar for sugar, dried fruits (nukl), fish, can- 
dles, and similar wares. On the left is an Arabian gateway, on the 
right, the mosque of El-Muaiyad (p. 62), while facing us, at the 
end of the street, rises the handsome Bab ez-Zuweleh (see p. 61). 
To the left again is the sebil, with a mad beggar. Opposite the 
outside of the gate is a house with a laige grated window, and in 
the corner is a column built into the wall, at which executions by 
strangulation formerly took place. — In a straight direction we next 
enter the covered Shoemakers' Bazaar, formerly a school-house, the 
first story of which overhangs the lower and is borne by large 

Bazaars. CAIRO. 4. Route. 49 

brackets. This bazaar, and the neighbouring SUk es-Surtiziyeh, or 
saddlers' bazaar, are of little interest. 

We now retrace our steps to the N., by the street, the first part 
of which is called the Sukkariyeh (see p. 48). Beyond the SebU 
Mohammed 'Ali (p. 63) this street is named Shari'a el-'Akkadin 
(PI. E, 3), farther on Shawayin, and finally El-OhUriyeh from the 
mosque of El-GhUri (p. 63), the small minaret of which, with its 
domes, rises nearly in the middle of the street. Opposite the 
mosque is a sebil, with a large dome. 

We follow this street in a straight direction nearly as far as the 
post of the lower sentry on the left, a little before reaching whom 
we turn to the right into the Shari'a es-Sanddikiyeh, also called 
Suk es-Sud&n, or bazaar for wares from the Sudan , consisting of 
chests, gum, dum-palm nuts, ill-tanned tiger-skins, etc. Farther 
on, in a straight direction, at the point where the street expands a 
little, before reaching the handsome W. entrance of the El-Azhar 
mosque (p. 63), we observe several houses with picturesque mush- 
rebiyehs (p. cxcv). 

The Shari'a el-Halwagl (PI. E, 3), the next ;lane on the left, 
immediately before the W. entrance of the mosque, is mainly oc- 
cupied by the score or more stalls of the Booksellers. 

Most of the booksellers are also scholars, but they are not so fanatical 
as their brethren of Damascus, who sometimes decline to sell their books 
to Christians. Seated on their mastabas are frequently to be found va- 
rious other members of the learned, or would-be learned, world, who 
spend whole days here in interminable colloquies. As the prices of 
books vary greatly in accordance with the demand and other circumstances, 
and there is no such thing as a fixed publishing price, purchasers should 
always endeavour to ascertain beforehand the true value of any work 
they wish to buy. As in the case of many other wares, the line be- 
tween new and second-hand books is not so strictly drawn in the East as 
in Europe. The booksellers generally keep catalogues, several feet in 
length, to refresh their memories regarding the state of their stock. The 
Koran, which is shown very reluctantly to non-Muslims, is kept separate 
from the other books. The books are not arranged side by side as in 
European shops, but piled up in a very inconvenient fashion. Many of them 
are sold in loose sheets, in which case the purchaser should see that 
the work is complete, as gaps are of frequent occurrence. The bindings 
usually consist of leather or pasteboard. Valuable books are often kept 
in cases of red sheepskin, out of which they are drawn by means of a 
loop. — The workmanship of the bookbinders, who like other Oriental 
artizans work in the open street, is far inferior to European productions. 
Red i3 their favourite colour. 

The lane next leads us across the Rue Neuve (p. 67), the pro- 
longation of the Muski (passing a large school at the corner to the 
right) to the street Mashhad el-Heseini (PI. E, 3) towards the large 
minaret of the Hasanein Mosque (p. 67). Opposite to it, on the 
left, is a gateway through which we enter a covered bazaar now 
bearing the name of Sikket el-Badistdn (PI. E, 3), but better known 
as the Kh&n el-Khalil, which once formed the centre of the com- 
mercial traffic of Cairo. This building, which is said to have been 
founded as early as the end of the 13th cent, on the site of ruined 
tombs of the Khalifs by El-Ashraf Salaheddin Khalil (1290-93), 

BAEDEKEK'i^aBTBt I. " STlTBn" 4 

50 Route 4. CAIRO. Bazaars. 

one of the Bahrite Mameluke sultans, forms a distinct quarter of 
the city, and is intersected by a main street and numerous cross- 
lanes, formed by long rows of stalls of tradesmen and artizans, 
all covered over. This is the headquarters of the silk and carpet 
merchants and the vendors of trinkets. We follow the Sikket el- 
Badistan, passing on the right a large carpet bazaar. Taking the 
third lane on the left, we pass through an interesting Arabian Gate- 
way, opening to the S., with stalactite-vaulting, and embellished 
with inscriptions, serpentine-ornaments, and a few mosaics, and 
then descend flye steps to the Brass Bazaab, in which many trav- 
ellers are tempted to purchase. The gateway may be inspected in 
an interval of the bargaining. We then return to the Sikket el- 
Badistan, in the W. part of which are two other pretty gateways. 
Near the second of these is the entrance to the large Carpet Bazaar 
of Asadolla Irani, the successor to the once well-known Abdallah. 
The early Arabian court in which the bazaar lies is itself an object 
of interest. 

The prices of Carpets, like those of other Oriental goods, are liable 
to great fluctuation. Those of Baghdad and Brussa (in Asia Minor) are 
the most sought after, but imitations, manufactured at Brussels , are 
said to be not uncommon. They are chiefly remarkable for the har- 
monious arrangement of their colours. As soon as a purchaser appears, 
the dealers spread their wares over the whole court for his inspection. 
If the traveller is pressed for time he had better not attempt to make a 
purchase, as several hours must not unfrequently be spent in negotiation 
before a satisfactory bargain is concluded. The usual price of a light 
lceffiyeh (shawl for the head) is about 50 pias., and of one of heavier quality, 
with red and yellow stripes and interwoven with gold thread, 80-lOOpias. 
The fringes are generally loosened and adjusted after the completion of 
the purchase. Many of the so-called Damascene silks, and particularly 
the lighter keffiyehs in pleasing colours, are manufactured at Lyons and 
Crefeld. The table-covers of red, blue, or black cloth, embroidered with 
coloured silk (£E. l'/2-4), are well worthy of notice. The letters with 
which they are adorned rarely have any meaning. 

Leaving Irani's bazaar, we proceed towards the W., and beyond 
an abrupt turning of the street, reach the better-lighted Shari'a el- 
Khordagiyeh (see below). This we cross in a somewhat oblique di- 
rection, and pass through a very insignificant gate into the Sftk es- 
S&igh (pi. Siyagli), or bazaar of the gold and silver smiths, which 
consists of several crooked lanes, barely a yard in width, through 
which the traveller will sometimes find it difficult to thread his 
way. The occupants of these crowded alleys keep their wares in 
glass cases or under glass shades. Their stalls present a very poor 
appearance, but their filagree-work is sometimes very good. Spuri- 
ous gold and silver wares are not unfrequently sold as genuine. The 
silver manufactured at the shops ought to bear a government stamp, 
indicating the number of carats it contains. — In the Jewish 
quarter, to theW. of the Suk es-Saigh, are the booths of the Jewellers 
(Qoharglyeh), where, however, there is nothing to see, as they show 
their wares to intending purchasers only. 

From this labyrinth of lanes we return to the Shari'a el-Khor- 

Bazaars. CAIRO. 4. Route. 51 

dagiyeh (PI. B, 3), which contains the uninteresting Suk en-Nah- 
h&sin, or market of the copper-smiths. Several pipe - makers (shi- 
bukshi) are also established here. On the left side of this street are 
the imposing red and white facades of the mosques of Mur istdn 
Kala&n, Mohammed en-Ndsir, and. Barkuk'iyeh (see pp. 69, 70). 

The route just described has included all the more interesting 
bazaars, and we may conclude our excursion by following the broad 
Shdri'a Beit to the Bet el-Kadi (PI. E, 3), or 'House of the Judge'. 
Part of the building still dates from the time of Saladin (1193). 
In the large court on the right is an open verandah , resting on 
columns with early Arabian capitals (takhta bosh; p. cc). This is 
the entrance to the building in which the kadi holds his court on 
Sat. (at 4p.m. Arab time). This court was formerly the supreme 
tribunal of the country, and the appointment of Kadi was made by 
the government at Constantinople, and was frequently bestowed 
upon favourites, as it was said to be a very lucrative post. Now, 
however, the kadi is always an Egyptian, and his jurisdiction is 
limited to cases in which the law laid down by the Koran is to be 
administered, and particularly to actions between married persons. 

Crossing the court, and passing through the gate in the other 
wing of the building, opposite the Shari'a Beit, we next follow the 
windings of the narrow lane to the left as far as a sentry posted 
between the insignificant mosque of Yusuf Gamdli (PI. E, 3) and 
the Okella Zulfikar Pasha (p. 71). The street called Oamdliyeh 
leads hence to the Bab en-Nasr, see p. 72. 

3. The South-Eastern Quarters. 

The route described in this section leads via the Boulevard Me'hemet- 
Ali and the Place Sultan Hasan to the Citadel, and thence by a wide curve 
to the S. back to the' boulevard. 

Starting from the Place 'Atabet el-Hadra, between the Muski 
and the Ezbekiyeh (see p. 45), the Boulevard Mehimet-Ali (PI. C, 
D, 3-5), 1860 yds. in length, leads to the S.E. straight to the foot 
of the citadel. A little less than halfway down the boulevard we 
cross the El-Khaltg canal ; to the left lies the Place Bab el-Khalig 
(p. 61), to the right the beginning of the Habbaniyeh (p. 61). 
About V4M. farther on, a side-street leads to the Da'&diyeh quarter, 
with the Gdmi'a el-Melekeh Sofiya (PI. D, 5 ; entrance by the S. 
portal), a Turkish-Arabian mosque of 1611 (1019 of the Hegira), 
with a dome supported by antique columns, and ornamented in the 
Byzantine-Arabian style. The mimbar is of marble. A short visit 
may also be paid to the small mosque of El- Burdeni (PI. D, 5), built 
in the year 1038 of the Hegira (A.D. 1630) and restored in 1885, 
lavishly adorned with mosaics, and adjoined by a large and elegant 
minaret. — Farther on, the boulevard passes the uninteresting 
mosque of El-Khun QAstin' ■ P1.D,5), intersects the line of streets 
Tunning N. and S., (mentioned at pp. 56, 61), and ends at the — ■ 


52 Route 4. 


Qami'a Sultan Hasan. 

Place Sultan Hasan (PI. E, 6), in which there are two large 
mosques. That on the left is the Gr&mi'a Rifa'iyeh, named after 
an order of dervishes (p. xciv), and erected entirely at the expense 
of the mother of the ex-Khedive Isma'il (who, with several other 
princesses, is buried here), but still unfinished. Besides the family 
tomb of the Khedive, it contains also the Mausoleum ofShekh Bifd'i, 
which is adorned with rich and tasteful iron- work and wood-carving. 
On the right rises the — 

**Grami'a Sultan Hasan (Pl.E, 6), the 'superb mosque', and the 
finest existing monument of Byzantine-Arabian architecture. It 
was begun in the year 757 of theHegira(A.D. 1356), and completed 
in three years by Melik en-Nasir Abu'l-Ma'ali Hasan ibn Kalaun 
(p. cxxiv). The exterior of this huge building recalls the broad sur- 
faces of the early-Egyptian temples. The massive **Gateway (PI. I), 
60 ft. high, is of considerable importance in the history of art, for it 
has been more or less closely imitated in the entrances to many other 
Egyptian and even Persian-Arabian mosques, notably in that of 
Ispahan. The lofty facade with its shallow niches is pierced with 
six or seven windows placed unsymmetrically one above the other. 
The boldly projecting main cornice, with its 'stalactite' formation, 
is unique. — The S. Minaret is the highest minaret in Cairo, meas- 
uring 280 ft. (that of El-Qhuri 213 ft., Kalaun 193 ft., Muaiyad 
167 ft., El-Azhar 167 ft., Kait Bey and Barkuk 164 ft., Tulun 
132 ft., 'Amru 105 ft.). The corresponding minaret on the N. facade 
was overthrown by an earthquake, but was afterwards rebuilt on a 

1. Chief Entrance (from the Boul. Mehemet-'Ali). 2. Vestibule. 3. Corridor. 
4. Meda. 5. Hanefiyeh. 6. Dikkeh. 7. Kibla. 8. Mimbar. 9. Mausoleum 
of Sultan Hasan. 10. Sultan's Entrance. 11. Minarets. 12. Reception- 
rooms and dwellings for the priests and attendants of the mosque and 
medreseh, and cells for pilgrims. 

Citadel. CAIRO. 4. Route. 53 

smaller scale. The dome was also destroyed, and dates in its present 
form from the Turkish period. The angles of the facade are embel- 
lished with quarter - columns built into the walls, with capitals 
formed of wreaths of pendentives or 'stalactites'. 

The building is in the form of an irregular pentagon, in which the 
cruciform shape of the original Medreseh (p. clxxxix) has been skil- 
fully incorporated. The Liwdn are roofed with lofty pointed vault- 
ing, which is found in scarcely any of the other devotional rooms. 
The visitor should notice the beautiful architecture of the Kibla 
(PI. 7), the marble mosaics, the fine frieze, embellished with a 
Cuflc inscription, in the Sanctuary, and the huge dome (180 ft.) 
of the Mausoleum (in front of the medreseh), supported by drums 
resting, in the Byzantine style, upon girders which are concealed 
by Arabian stalactite pendentives. The stalactite-vaulting of the 
vestibule and the entrance deserves a glance as we quit the mosque. 
— The mosque stands in urgent need of restoration, which is, how- 
ever, delayed on account of its cost (30-40,000?.). But in spite of 
all its dilapidation, the huge proportions of the building, combined 
with the masterly execution of the details, produce an impression 
of great majesty. Various Byzantine motives may be detected among 
the decorative details, and, indeed, according to the legend, the 
architect was a Greek, whose 'mason's mark' is pointed out in the 
representations of Byzantine facades on a miniature pillar on the 
right wall of the gateway. 

On leaving this mosque, we proceed to the E. (right) to the 
circular Placb Rumeleh (PI. E, 6), from which the Mecca pilgrimage 
starts (p. cii), and to the Place Mehemet, Ai,r [Menshlyeh Oe- 
dtdeh, or New Place), formerly called the Karamedan, on the S. 
side of the Rumeleh. The latter, about 650yds. in length, extends 
to the Bab el-Kardfeh (p. 80), the S.E. gate of the city. From the 
middle of the 'Place', opposite the old Helwan station, we enjoy a 
splendid *View of the Mosque of Mohammed 'Ali (p. 54). 

From the E. side of the Rumeleh a broad carriage-road, passing 
two mosques (on the left : the Qdmi'a el-Mahmudtyeh, and beyond 
it the Qdmi'a 'Abderrahmdn, with a decaying minaret), and afford- 
ing a view of the Tombs of the Khalifs to the left, ascends in 
windings to the Citadel. A shorter and steeper route , which may 
be ascended on donkey-back , diverges to the right near the be- 
ginning of the carriage-road, passing through the Bob el-Azab, 
flanked with its huge towers. It was in this narrow and crooked 
lane, enclosed by lofty walls, and formerly the chief approach to 
the citadel, that the massacre of the Mamelukes took-place on 1st 
March, 1811, by order of Mohammed 'Ali (p. cxxviii). Amin Bey, 
the only one who survived, effected his escape by making his horse 
leap into the moat, through a gap in the wall. 

The Citadel (El-Kal'a; PI. E, F, 6), which should be vis- 
ited repeatedly jorjjie sake o j e view, was erected in 1166 by 

54 Route 4. 

CAIRO. Oami'a Mohammed 'Ali. 

Salaheddin (p. cxxii), with stones taken, according to Arabian his- 
torians, from the small pyramids at Gizeh. The site is said to have 
been selected on account of the fact that meat could be kept fresh 
here twice as long as in any other part of Cairo. Although the fortress 

commands the city, its 
site is unfavourable in 
respect that it is itself 
completely commanded 
by the heights of the 
Mokattam, rising above 
it immediately to the 
S. ; thus in 1805 Moham- 
med 'Ali was enabled, 
by means of a battery 
planted on the Gebel 
Giyushi (p. 129), to com- 
pel Khurshid Pasha to 
surrender the Citadel. 

"We enter the inner 
court of the Citadel by 
the Bab el-Gedtd (PI. F, 
6 ; 'New Gate'), and ob- 
serve on a terrace before 
us the — 

*Gami'a Mohammed 
'Ali (PI. E, 6), the 'Ala- 
baster Mosque', the lofty 
and graceful minarets of 
which are so conspicuous 
from a distance as to form 
one of the landmarks of 
Cairo. The building was 
begun by Mohammed 
'Ali, the founder of the 
present Egyptian dynas- 
ty, on the site of a pal- 
ace which was blown up 
in 1824 ; and in 1857 it 
was partly completed in 
its present form by Sa'id 
Pasha (p. cxxix). The architect was the Greek JusufBoshna of Con- 
stantinople, who, aided by Greek foremen, built it on the model of 
the Nuri Osmaniyeh mosque at Constantinople. The columns are 
built, and the walls incrusted, with yellow alabaster obtained from 
the quarries near Beni Suef, a building-material known also to the 
Pharaohs. It is capable of taking on a high polish, but the beauti- 
ful yellow tint soon fades when exposed to the sun ; the stone also 

1. Sultan's Entrance. 2. Kursi. 3. Mimbar. 
4. Kibla. 5. Railed Enclosure for the Sultan. 
6. Tomb of Mohammed r Ali. 7. Entrance. 
8. Great Gallery. '9. Usual Entrance. 10. Sahn 
el-Gami f a. 11. Hanefiyeh. 12. Small Fountain. 
13. Ascent to the clock-tower. 14. Point of view. 

Gami'a Ibn Kalaun. CAIRO. 4. Route. 55 

is brittle and full of holes. The Entrance (PI. 9 ; where we put on 
straw or cloth shoes ; fee 1 pias.), near the centre of the N. side, 
leads directly into the Sahn el-Odmi'a (PL 10), or Anterior Court, 
enclosed by vaulted galleries, in the upper parts of which plain 
limestone has been used instead of alabaster. In the centre is the 
Hanefiyeh (PL 11), designed in the debased Turkish style. On the 
W. side is the approach to a tower, terminating in pavilions in the 
Chinese style, and containing a clock which was presented to Mo- 
hammed 'Ali by Louis Philippe of France. 

The Intebiob is entered through the centre of theE. gallery of 
the fore-court. It consists of a large quadrangle, with Byzantine 
domes resting on 4 huge square pillars. The size of the place and 
the manner in which it is lighted produce a very striking impres- 
sion. The Turkish decoration is unimportant, and the Kursi, Mim- 
bar, and Kibla possess no particular attraction. At the S.E. angle 
is the Tomb of Mohammed 'Alt (d. 1849), enclosed by a handsome 
railing (PI. 6), opposite to which is a space set apart for the Sultan, 
also enclosed by a railing (PI. 5). 

A magnificent **Vibw is obtained from the parapet at the S.W. 
end of the mosque (PL 14), which is reached by walking round out- 
side the building. From this point (opposite the Khedhial Palace) 
we survey the yellowish grey city, with its countless minarets, 
domes, and gardens. At our feet stands the mosque of Sultan Hasan. 
To the N. and W. are the windmill-hills and the green plain trav- 
ersed by the^Nile. To the W., in the distance, are the Pyramids, 
towering above the desert. On the flat roofs of the houses we 
observe innumerable air-pipes, called malkaf, known also by the 
Persian name of badgir, by means of which the cool north-wind is 
introduced into the houses. 

The Gami'a Ibn Kalaun (PI. F, 6), situated to the S.E. of the Mosque 
of Mohammed c Ali, was erected in the year 718 of the Hegira (1317 A. D.) 
hy Sultan Mohammed en-Nasir ibn Kalaun. Long used as a military 
magazine and storehouse, it has recently been cleared out, and is willingly 
shown by the British military authorities. It consists of a very regularly 
built court, with lofty pointed arcades (some in ruins) resting upon antique 
columns. The openings over the arcades are of the elongated Moorish 
form. The comparatively large dome in front of the Kibla was once 
supported by nine magnificent columns of granite, but it has now fallen 
in, the only remains of it being the deeply sculptured pendentives. The 
Kibla is handsomely embellished with miniature arcades, in the interior 
of which are rich arabesques. The coffered ceiling of carved wood is painted 
white and gilded, with a blue ground. The windows are still partly filled 
with tracery in plaster. The minarets, each consisting of a cube with 
a cylinder above it, are covered at the top with slabs of green porcelain, 
and are encircled with a band of 'Sullus' characters in white on a brown 

Immediately to the S.E. of the Mosque of Ibn Kalaun is the so-called 
Well of Joseph (PI. F, 6), a square shaft, sunk in the limestone rock to a 
depth of 280 ft., containing somewhat brackish water, which is brought 
to the surface by means of two sakiyehs, one above the other, worked by 
oxen passing up and down a winding inclined plane within the shaft. 
Since the completion of the new waterworks (p. 72), however, the well has 
lost its former importance. When th'e citadel was constructed here in the 

56 Route 4. CAIRO. Odmi'a Ibn TulUn. 

12th cent., the builders discovered an ancient shaft filled with sand, which 
Saldheddin Yiisuf (p. 35) caused to be re-opened and named after himself 
Yusu'f's, or Joseph's, Well. This circumstance gave rise to the tradition, 
which was chiefly current among the Jews, that this was the well into 
which the Joseph of Scripture was put by his brethren,and the story is 
still faithfully repeated by the dragomans. 

The Gami'a Suleman Pasha (PI. F, 6), also called fiisariyeh, on the 
N.E. side of the citadel, was erected in the year 931 of the Hegira (1526 A,D.) 
by Suleman, the Mameluke, afterwards Sultan Selim. The architecture 
is a mixture of Arabian and Turkish, but the plan is rather Byzantine 
in character. The mosque is small, but carefully executed. It contains 
Cufic inscriptions, marble mosaics, and a mimbar in marble. 

"We return to the Place Sultan Hasan and follow the Boulevard 
MeTiemet-Ali to its intersection with the thoroughfare running N. 
and S. (p. 51; the donkey-drivers know short-cuts hither from the 
citadel). "We turn at this point abruptly to the left and enter the 
Shdri'a el-Hilrriiyeh (PI. D, 5, 6), in which three minarets soon come 
into sight, the two most distant belonging to the Gami'a Shekh&n 
(PL D, 6). At the corner opposite the mosque is the Sebil of the 
Mother of 'Abbas I. (PI. D, 6), in marble, rich and effective in 
general appearance, but lacking finish in its details. The street 
now takes the name of Shdri'a er-Rukbiyeh (PI. D, 6,7). We follow 
it for about 300 yds. , and turn down the Shdri'a TulUn to the right, 
in which, after about 70 yds. more, we observe on the right a lane 
leading to the E. entrance of the — 

*GS,mi f a ibn Tulun (PI. D, 7 ; pronounced Talun). This mosque, 
the oldest in Cairo, was erected by Abu'l- Abbas Ahmed Ibn Tulun, 
the founder of the dynasty of the Tulunides (p. cxxi), in the year 
265 of the Hegira (A.D. 879), on the once fortified hill of Kal'at 
el-Kebsh (see p. 58). 

According to one legend the mosque occupies the spot where Abraham 
sacrificed the ram (kebsh) instead of his son , whence the appellation 
Kal'at el-Kebsh (i.e., 'castle of the ram'). Another legend points to this 
as the spot where Noah's ark ran aground on the 10th Moharrem 
(p. xoiii), although the Muslims generally believe that this event took place 
on Mt. Judi near Mosul in Syria (see p. Ixxxvii). According to a third 
tradition the name is derived from the winding staircase which ascends 
the still existing minaret (see below) in the form of a twisted ram's horn. 

The edifice was designed by a Christian prisoner in imitation of 
the Ka'ba at Mecca, and the whole of the building was constructed 
of entirely new materials. The walls consist of brick, coated with 
stucco. The ornamentation, which is in carved stucco (not moulded) 
and wood, exhibits little of the intricate forms of the developed 
Byzantine- Arabian style , but rather recalls the antique style of 
decoration in the way in which its elements are composed. The 
mosque has been considerably restored since 1891, and the dis- 
figuring additions, built about the middle of the present century for 
a poor-house, have been removed. Corbett-Bey has published an 
interesting monograph on this mosque (Cairo, 1891). 

From the N.E. outer court we enter the front arcades of the 
Liwan (see p. 58), and thence proceed to the inner quadrangle or 

G&mi'a Ibn Tuldn. 


4. Route. 57 

Sahn el-Odmi'a, 99 yds. square. The Meda (PL 2), in the centre 
of the latter, is covered by a massive dome, with eight openings. 
From the cubical substructure the transition to the dome is made 
in three octagonal stages, each smaller than the one below it. The 
court is surrounded by a double arcade, except on the S.B. side, 
where the arcade is quadruple , the pointed arches of which are 

a. Entrance. 1. Kibla. 2. Mimbar. 3. Dikkeh. 4. Kursi. 5. Railing and 
pillars (all of which fell in 1875), separating the Liwan el-Grami'a (sanc- 
tuary) from the court of the mosque. 6. MSda. 7. Latrines. 8. Minaret. 

9. Sakiyeh. 

58 Route 4. CAIRO. G&mi'a Ka'it Bey. 

slightly depressed and exhibit an almost imperceptible tendency to 
the hoTse-shoe form. Pointed arches or niches above the pillars, 
and a continuous frieze carved in stucco lighten and embellish the 
walls. The pillars are polished and have their corners rounded into 
quarter-columns, with delicately carved capitals. The shallow re- 
lief of the pedestal is concealed under numerous coats of stucco. 
The roof of the arcades is made of beams of date-palm, overlaid 
with sycamore wood ; but the octagonal filling of the panelling, ex- 
cept in front of the Dikkeh (PI. 3), has almost disappeared, and is 
replaced by rough boards. Along the top of the walls runs a frieze 
of sycamore-wood, inscribed with texts from the Koran. The grat- 
ings of stucco in the windows are of very rich designs. 

The principal Liwdn, or Sanctuary, originally contained five 
series of arcades, but the row nearest the court fell in 1875. A few 
marble fragments of this arcade, with Cufic inscriptions relating to 
the building, are preserved in the N.W. arcade. In the Kibla (PI. 1) 
we observe two marble columns with capitals of more pronounced 
Byzantine form. The upper part of the niche is adorned with gilded 
mosaic, and the lower part with inlaid marble. The poor wooden 
cupola is probably a later addition. The Mimbar (PI. 2), erected 
by Melik el-Mansur in 1298 A.D. (696 of the Hegira), was at one 
time a masterpiece of carving in ebony and ivory ; but 20 or 30 years 
ago the best portions were stolen and sold in Europe, so that now 
it is but a skeleton, the only parts remaining at all complete being 
the band on the wall and the door-frames. 

The Minaret (PI. 8), in the N.W. outer court, has an external 
winding staircase, the design of which is said to have been sug- 
gested to Tulun by a strip of paper wound round his finger. The 
arches in the lower stories display the fully developed horse-shoe 
arch. The ascent is easy, and the top commands an admirable *View. 
To the S. are the pyramids of Dahshur, and to the W. the huge 
pyramids of Gizeh ; the valley of the Nile as far as the Delta lies 
before us, to the E. rise the picturesque slopes of the Mokattam ; 
and in the foreground all round lies Cairo, with its houses, mosques, 
palaces, and gardens. From the minaret access is gained to the as- 
phalted roofs of the arcades, protected by elegant balustrades ; a 
walk round these is recommended. 

Outside the entrance to the mosque we turn to the right, and 
after about 140 paces, to the right again. Passing the S.W. side of 
the mosque, and turning a little to the left, we traverse several 
lanes and alleys, built on what was formerly the hill of Kal'at el- 
Kebsh (p. 56), and reach the small, but once handsome — 

Gami'a Kftit Bey (PI. C, 7), which long lay in a neglected con- 
dition, and was only lately saved from complete ruin. This mosque 
was erected in the Byzantine- Arabian style during the reign of Kait 
Bey (1468-96 ; p. cxxvi), whose tomb (p. 78) it resembles in plan. 

The door, with its now fragmentary bronze covering, is about 

G&mi'a es-Seiyideh Zenab. CAIRO. 4. Route. 59 

45 ft. in height. The mosque is about 26 yds. in length and 22 yds. 
in width. The attics have almost entirely fallen in, but a graceful 
minaret still exists. Opposite the Kibla is a gallery, serving as a 
dikkeh, which is accessible from the staircase to the minaret. The 
principal arches, which approach the horse-shoe shape, though 
distinctly pointed, are tastefully decorated. The mimbar is richly 
embellished with wood-carving. The mosaics on the pavement and. 
the walls are also worthy of notice. The roof is open in the middle. 

From the W. angle of the Gami'a Ibn Tulun, we descend, turn- 
ing twice to the right, to the Shdri'a el-Khedlri (PI. C, D, 7), follow 
this street to the right (E.), take the side-street on the left 150 paces 
farther on, which brings us after 150 paces more to the beautiful 
mosque of Ezbek el- Ytiseft, built in 1496 (900 of the Hegira) in 
the same style as the Gami'a Kait Bey, and recently restored. — 
The W. continuation of the Shari'a el-Khederi expands into the 
Shdri'a el-Marrdsin (PI. C, 7), which leads almost straight to the 
small square and mosque of Medan es-Seiyideh Ze"nab, situated on 
the El-Khalig canal. 

The G&mi'a es-Seiyideh Zenab (PI. B, C, 6, 7) was begun at 
the close of last century, completed in 1803 (in the year of the He- 
gira 1216), and enlarged and restored in 1884. The interior, richly 
embellished with ancient columns, contains the tomb (recently re- 
stored) of Zenab, daughter of Imam 'Ali, and granddaughter of the 
Prophet (her m&lid, see p. ci) ; the bronze railing enclosing the 
cenotaph bears the date 1210 (of the Hegira). In front of this mau- 
soleum are the cenotaphs of three Mohammedan saints, beneath a 
stone canopy. 

A series of tortuous streets, called successively Shdri'a es-Seiyi- 
deh Ztnab and Derb el-Oamdmiz ('sycamore street'), running not 
far from the canal, leads hence towards the N. to the (1^4 M.) 
Boulevard MeTiemet-Ali. After fully half-a-mile we come to a 
small open space by the canal, shaded by some fine acacias. The 
gate on the right leads to the viceregal "library {Kutubkhdneh, PI. 
D, 5), now established in the Palace of Derb el-Gamdmiz, adjoin- 
ing the left side of the Ministry of Education, founded by the Khe- 
dive Isma'il on 24th March, 1870, in the left wing of the office of 
the minister of public worship. The collection was founded in 1870 
by the Khedive Isma'il and consists of a number of books formerly 
preserved in various other institutions, and of others purchased or 
presented by the Khedive, and is dedicated to the use of the public. 
One of the finest presentations to the collection is the valuable 
library of Mustafa Pasha, which occupies a separate room. The 
whole library consists of about 45,000 vols., chiefly ATabic, Persian, 
and Turkish works. The reading-room is open to the public daily 
(except Frid.) from 8 to 6 o'clock ; during the month of Ramadan 
from 10 to 3 only. The chief credit of arranging and increasing this 
fine collection of books belongs to two Germans, Dr. Stern and Dr. 

60 Route 4. CAIRO. Library. 

Spitta-Bey (d. 1883) ; and the present director, Dr. Vollers, is also 
a German. 

The liberality with which the treasures of Muslim literature are thus 
thrown open to the European public is deserving of all praise. The offi- 
cials are instructed to afford visitors all the information in their power 
(no gratuities). 

A special feature of the library, possessed by no other Oriental col- 
lection available to Franks , consists of the Masahif, or copies of the 
Koran, the finest of which are exhibited in cases! They are remarkable 
for their large size, superb execution, and great age, and constitute the 
finest existing specimens of Arabian art. 

The oldest specimen of the Koran is one in the Cufic, or early Arabian, 
character, 12 inches in length, and 8 3 /4 inches in width. It contains one- 
half of the Koran only, and is in a very damaged condition. The titles 
of the surehs are bordered with gold, and the carefully written text il- 
luminated with coloured letters. According to the testimony of a shekh 
who saw the 'noble book' in its perfect condition this Koran was written 
by Oa'/ar es-Sddik, son of Mohammed el-Bakir, son of 'AH Zen el-'Abidin, 
son of Hus6n, son of f Ali, son of Abu Talib and son-in-law of the Prophet. 
Ga'far lived in the years 80-148 of the'Hegira, and this Koran would thus 
be about 1150 years old. There is considerable doubt as to the accuracy 
of this story, but the MS. is certainly of very early date. 

The other fine large copies of the Koran, about twenty in all, are of later 
origin, most of them having been executed by order of the sultans of the 
Bahrite Mamelukes (1260-1380) and of the Circassian Mamelukes (1382-1517), 
while a few of them date from the still later period of the Osman sultans. 
One of the most interesting of these is the copy of 'Abd er-Razz&k, written 
by 'Abd er-Rahmdn ibn Abilfath in the year 599 of the Hegira, and dedicated 
to the mosque' of Husen, ll>/i i>y 8 3 /4 inches. To the superscription of each 
sureh are added both the number of verses and that of the words and 
letters it contains, besides traditional utterances of the Prophet connected 
with the chapter in question, — a most laborious piece of work, re- 
sembling what has been done by Jewish scholars in preparing copies of 
the Old Testament. 

Next in interest is a Koran of Sultdn Mohammed en-lfdsii\ ibn SSfeddin 
KalaHn (1293-1341), 21 by 14 inches, written entirely in gilded characters, 
oy Ahmed Ydsuf, a Turk, in 730 of the Hegira. Several other Korans date 
from the reign of Sultan Sha'b&n (1363-77), grandson of the last named, and 
from the time of Khondabaraka , mother of Sultan ShaT>an. All these 
masahif are written on thick and strong paper, and vie with each other 
in magnificence. The designs exhibit no great variety, but they are 
executed with the most elaborate care and neatness. The text of these 
Korans is provided with red letters written above certain passages to in- 
dicate where the tone of the reader's voice is to be raised, lowered, or 
prolonged. — The collection contains three Korans of the reign of Sultdn 
Barkuk (1382-99), the oldest of which, executed in 769, measures 41 by 32 
inches. It was written with one pen in sixty days by 'Abderrahmdn es- 
Sdigh, the author of a pamphlet, entitled 'Sand'al el-KUdbeh? ('the art of 
writing'), and now preserved in this library. This skilful penman was 
also employed by Farag (1399-1412), the son of Barkuk. From the year 
810 dates a fine copy, 38'/2 by 27 inches , written by MUsa ibn Isma'tl el- 
Kindni, surnamed Qagini, for Sultdn SMkh el-Mahmhdi Mtiaiyad (1412-21). 
— A copy which once belonged' to Kdit-Bey (1468-96), dating from the 
year 909, is the largest Koran in the collection, measuring 44 3 /4 by 35 inches. 
To the period of the Osman sultans belongs the small mushaf of Safiya, 
mother of Sultan Mohammed Khan, which dates from 988. In it a black 
line alternates' with a gilded one, and the first few pages are very beauti- 
fully executed. A copy of Husen-Bey KhemashHrgi, 21V2 by 163/ 4 inches, 
is written in a smaller character. 

The library also boasts of many other valuable Korans, chiefly written 
in the Persian character. One of these, 17'/2 by H inches, presented by 
an Indian hokmdar to the Khedive, has a Persian commentary written in red 

Bdb ez-Zuwileh. CAIRO. 4. Route. 61 

between the lines of the text, and is beautifully illuminated at the beginning 
and at the end. Another copy, presented by a prince of Bukhara, contains 
four commentaries, two in Arabic by BSdawi and Gelalen, and two in Per- 
sian. Another gift of the same donor was the prayer-book 'Dal&il el- 
Khair&P, written on a golden ground, and furnished with a Persian trans- 
lation. There is also a Koran about 9 inches only in length, illuminated 
with gilded flowers, and dating from the year 1109 of the Hegira. It was 
written by Mohammed Ruh Allah, and contains the thirty different parts 
of the Koran on thirty pages. Each line begins with an alif, the first 
letter of the Arabic alphabet — a most laborious performance. — The 
ancient Muslims bestowed the utmost care on these precious copies of 
the Koran, and their descendants still entertain profound veneration for 
the sacred volume sent from heaven. 

The library possesses many other ancient and valuable MSS., but they 
are all entirely eclipsed by these Masahif. They possess, however, great 
interest for the Arabic scholar, and form the first collection of the kind 
in the world. Specially noteworthy is the collection of Perso-Turkish Book 
Illustrations, formed in Constantinople by Mustafa Pasha Fazyl, brother of 
Isma'il Pasha. This branch of art attained its zenith in the 16th century. 
The library also contains interesting poetical, historical, astronomical, 
and geographical MSS. — The erection of a new building for the library 
has been determined, and the government has voted 38,O0M. for the pur- 
pose. The site selected is in the Place Abdin. 

After visiting the library the traveller may inspect the neigh- 
bouring Dervish Monastery of Tekktyeh Habbantyeh (PI. C, D, 5). 
The monastery was erected in the Turkish - Arabian style about 
the middle of the 18th cent, by Mustafa Agha , vizier of Sultan 
Selim. The most interesting object in the establishment is the 
sebil, with its projecting rotunda and elaborate facade, its pro- 
jecting blinds, and the coloured marble and porcelain embellish- 
ment in the interior. The building possesses a large court, raised 
considerably above the street, and containing a few trees. Around 
the court are the cells of the dervishes, and adjoining it is a small 
mosque. With regard to the dervishes, see p. xciv. 

The Derb el-Gamamiz ends at the Boulevard Mehemet-Ali, not 
far from the small square of Bab el-KhaUg (see below). 

4. The East Central Quarters. 

The following route largely coincides with that through the bazaars, 
described at pp. 48, 49, but includes visits to the various interesting Build- 
ings between the Boulevard MeTiemet-Ali (p. 51) and the Eue Neuve (p. 67), 
which are only referred to on these pages. 

The small Place Bab el-Khalig (PI. D, 4), near the point 
where the Boulevard Mehemet-Ali (p. 51) crosses the canal travers- 
ing the town, is bounded on the N. by the Palace of Mansur Pasha. 
Hence a street runs to the N. (left), passing the Odmi'a el-Benat 
('mosque of the girls'), to the Muski; and another to the E. (right) 
to the (^4 M.) Bab ez-Zuweleh (see below), where it intersects the 
long series of streets traversing the entire E. part of the city from 
N. to S. and crossing the Boulevard MeTie'met-Ali near the Place 
Sultan Hasan (p. 52). Adjoining the Bab ez-Zuweleh on the S. is 
the Shoemakers' Bazaar (p. 48). 

The old town-gate Bab ez-Zuwfileh (PI. E, 4) is built of solid 

62 Route 4. CAIRO. Gdmi'a el-Muaiyad. 

blocks of stone and resembles the Bab el-Futuh (p. 72) in plan. 
The S. side consists of two huge toweis ; by that to the right are a 
number of stone and wooden balls, probably dating from the Mame- 
luke period. Tuman Bey, the last of the Circassian sultans of Egypt, 
was hanged outside this gate by Sultan Selim II., on 19th Rabi' el- 
Awwel, 923 of the Hegira (15th April, 1517 ; p. 37). This gate 
is also called Bab el-Mutawelli, from the old tradition that the most 
highly revered saint Kutb + el-Mutawelli has his abode behind the 
western gate, where he sometimes makes his presence known by a 
gleam of light. A beggar who spends the day here endeavours, by 
loudly invoking the saint, to excite the compassion of passers-by. 
From the inner (E.) gate hang bunches of hair, teeth, shreds of 
clothing, and other votive offerings placed here by sick persons 
who hope thereby to be cured of their diseases. 

Passing through the gate, we enter the street called Sukkartyeh 
(p. 48), where on the left we observe the handsome portal of the 
Grami'a el-Muaiyad (PI. D, E, 4) a mosque which is connected 
with the gate of the city! This mosque was erected by Sultan Shekh 
el-Mahmudi Muaiyad (1412-21 ; p. cxxv), of the dynasty of the 
Circassian Mamelukes, who had once been the leader of the 
rebellion against Sultan Farag (p. 76), and who had been defeated 
by the sultan and imprisoned for a time in the Bab ez-Zuweleh. 
The edifice is also known as the Gdmi'a el-Ahmar, or the 'red 
mosque' from the colour of its exterior. This building was regarded 
by Selim I. as the true type of a mosque, the mosque of Hasan 
(p. 52) being too much like a fortress and that of Ghfiri (p. 63) too 
much like a sumptuous saloon. 

The handsome hronze gate at the entrance originally belonged 
to the mosque of Sultan Hasan (p. 52). There are two otheT 
bronze-mounted gates in trie vestibule. The plan of the mosque, 
which originally displayed the usual arrangement of inner court, etc., 
has been altered in the course of a restoration begun about 30 years 
ago and still unfinished. Columns of two different kinds were em- 
ployed. The court is planted with trees and is to be converted into 
a garden. It is separated by a railing from the recently restored 
Liwan, which is richly and tastefully decorated with gilded panels 
and borders of boldly written texts (notably on the upper part of 
the back-wall). The marble mosaics and the mimbar, inlaid with 

t Kutb properly means pole or axis. This greatest of the Mohammedan 
saints is so named, because the other weli's, who are divided into three 
classes (nakib, pi. ntikaba; negib, pi. nugaba; bedil, pi. abd&l), are con- 
sidered, as it were, to revolve round him. According to the generally 
received belief of the Muslims the favourite abode of this saint is on the 
roof of the KaT>a, but the Egyptians regard the Bab ez-Zuweleh as at 
least his next most favoured dwelling-place, and therefore sometimes call 
it the gate of El-Mutawelli, i.e. 'of the reigning kutb'. The tomb of 
Seyyid Ahmed el-Bedawi (p. 24) is another resort of' the kutb, who of 
course can instantaneously transport himself from Mecca ' to Cairo or 
elsewhere at pleasure. 

Qami'a el-Ghuri. CAIRO. 4. Route. 63 

ivory and silver in red wood, deserve notice. On the right is the 
mausoleum of the sultan, and on the left that of his family. The two 
highly elegant minarets, rising upon the towers flanking the Bab 
ez-Zuweleh, were restored in 1892. 

Outside the Bab ez-Zuwgleh, towards the S.E., to the left of 
the sentry, is the Derb el-Ahmar (PI. E, 4, 5), or 'red way', recently 
called Rue de la Citadelle, leading to the Citadel (p. 53). About 
150 yds. from the gate, before the road forks, is the mosque of Ish- 
mds el-Ishdki (PI. E, 4), in the style of the period of Kai't Bey. 
About 120 yds. farther is the mosque of Mehmanddr (PI. E, 4), with 
an interesting facade, newly restored, dating from the year 740 of 
the Hegira (1326 A.D.). — In the immediate vicinity rises the 
large mosque of El-Merddni (PI. E, 5), built in 1340 (740 of the 
Hegira) by Merdani et-Tambiga, with an imposing portal and a 
lofty but no longer complete minaret. The mosque is now ruinous 
and closed (a boy will fetch the keeper). The court contains an- 
tique columns. The dome in front of the kibla has collapsed ; the 
granite columns which supported it may be noticed ; also the mosaic 
ornamentation and the characteristic sculpture. 

Proceeding from the Bab el-Zuweleh to the N. and following the 
Sukkariyeh, Manakhiliyeh, and other streets mentioned in our route 
through the bazaars (PI. E, 4; p. 48), we observe after about 
100 yds. on the right the modern SebU of Mohammed 'Ali, in marble, 
a fountain of pleasing appearance, though imperfect in its details. 
To the left, about 270 yds. farther on, where the street now takes 
the name of El-'Akkddin (p. 48), we observe, slightly projecting 
into the road, the *Gami r a el-Ghtlri (PI. E, 3, 4), and opposite to 
it the *SebU and Medreseh erected by the same founder. The two 
facades, dating from the second half of the 16th cent, present a very 
harmonious effect. The walls of the interior are adorned with in- 
laid figures. A shirt of the Prophet brought by Sultan el-Ghuri 
(p. cxxvi) from Mecca, was formerly shown at this mosque, but it 
is now said to be preserved in the Citadel. 

The Shdri'a el-Qhuriyeh, as the street is called beyond this point 
(comp. p. 49), ends about 200 yds. farther on in the Rue Neuve 
(pp. 49, 67), near the uninteresting Qami'a el-Ashraf (PI. E, 3). 

Before reaching this mosque, we diverge to the right (E.) by 
the Shdri'a es-Sanddikiyeh (PI. E, 3), in which is the Sudan Bazaar 
(p. 49), and passing the corner of the Shdri'a el-Halwagi, in which 
is the Booksellers' Bazaar (p. 49), reach the handsome main entrance 
of the *Gami'a el-Azhar (PI. E, 3, 4), the 'blooming', perhaps so 
named in referenee to Fatima ez-Zahra, the daughter of the Pro- 
phet. It presents few features of architectural interest, and is so 
shut in by houses that very little of the exterior is visible. The 
mosque was founded in the year 362 of the Hegira (973 A J>.) by 
Gohar, the vizier of the sultan Mui'zz, and was converted into a 

64 Route 4. CAIRO. G&mi'a el-Azhar. 

University in 988 A.D. (378 of the Hegira) by Khali f Aziz Billdh 
(p. oxxi), at the suggestion of his vizier Abu'l Farag Ya'kub. The 
successive rulers of Egypt have at all times favoured the institution, 
partly from scientific, partly from political motives. Thus the build- 
ing, -which exhibits the usual ground-plan of an inner court with 
numerous side-chambeTs, has frequently been enlarged in the course 
of time, notably by Kait Bey (p. cxxvi), El-6hilri, Mohammed ibn 
Murad (1598 = 1004 of the Hegira), Shtkh Isma'U Bey (1720 = 
1121 of the Hegira), etc. Extensive restorations were undertaken 
by Sa'id Pasha and the Khedive Tewfik. 

The principal entrance (PI. a), where strangers receive a guide, 
is on the W. side, and is called Bdb el-Muzeiyindn, or 'Gate of the 
Barbers', because the students used to have their heads shaved here. 
To the right of this gateway is the Mesgid Tabarsiyeh (PI. 2), with 
a magnificent kibla of 1309 (708 of the Hegira), and to the left are 
the office of the steward (PI. 3) in a ruined mausoleum, and the 
Zdwiyet el-lbtighdwiyeh (PI. 4), handsomely restored, with mosaics 
on the kibla, honeycombed dome, etc. 

The long archway, ending in a portal added by Kait Bey, leads 
directly into the large Sahn el-Gdmi'a, which, unlike ordinary 
mosque-courts, is completely enclosed by walls. Round the court is 
an arcade (restored), with Persian keel-arches, niches, open work 
balustrades, and pinnacles. Beneath this court is a vaulted reservoir, 
extending also under part of the Eastern Liwdn. This liwan had 
originally five aisles, to which the pious f Abd er-Rahman Kikhya 
added four more in the 18th cent., so that the whole liwan, the 
prinoipal hall of instruction, with its 140 marble columns (100 an- 
tique) covers an area of about 3600 sq. yds. The front and older 
part is low in the ceiling. The part at the back, to which we ascend 
by a few steps, has considerably higher arcades, restored a few years 
ago. The hall is imperfectly lighted. The walls and domes are 
adomed not unpleasingly in stucco, and the kibla (PI. 5), between 
the old and the new parts, should be noted. On the S. side is the 
Tomb of r Abd er-Rahman (PI. 8). The N. side is bounded by the 
very elegant Zawiyet Gohariyeh (PI. 9), recently restored. 

The ceilings of the Northern and of the Southern Liwdn are 
supported by double colonnades. The N. Liwan is adjoined by the 
Court of Ablutions (PI. 11), with the large Meda in the centre, 
built by Kait Bey. 

The great hall for instruction and the other two liwans are di- 
vided by partitions or railings into Riwaks, or separate chambers 
(literally, colonnades). Each of these is set apart for the use of the 
natives of a particular country, or of a particular province of Egypt 
(comp. the Plan and its reference- numbers 12-22, p. 65). Most of the 
students are natives of Egypt, so that the Egyptian riwaks (Upper 
Egypt, Lower Egypt, Eastern Egypt) are the largest, each having 
several hundred students. About ten years ago the total number of 

Gdmi'a el-Azhar. 


4. Route. 65 


Gates: a. Bdb el-Muzeiyinin (gate of the barbers'), on the W.; b. Bdb el- 
Qdhargiyeh ('gate of the jewellers'), on the N. ; c. Bdb esh-Shtirba ('Soup- 
gate), on theE.-, d. Bdb es-Sa'dideh ('gate of the Upper Egyptians'); e Bdb 
eih-Shuwwdm ('gate of the Syrians'); f. Bdb el-Maghdrbeh ('gate of the North 
Africans'), these three on the S. 

1. Entrance Court. 2. Meigid (mosque) Taibariiyeh. 3. Steward's of- 
fice. 4. Zdwiyel (mosque) el-Ibtighdwiyeh. — 'LtwiN el-Gami'a, now the 
principal hall for instruction. 5. Kibla. 6. Mimbar. 7. Dikkeh. 8. Tomb 
of r Abd er-Eahman Kikhya. 9. Zdwiyet 06hargiyeh. 10. Sebil. 11. Court 
of Ablutions, with Meda in the centre, and latrines all round. — 12-22. 
RiwAks (or rooms for study), named according to the old divisions, which, 
however, will be somewhat altered on the completion of the new colonnades. 
12. Riwdk el-Turk (Turks from N. provinces of the empire) ; 13. Riwdk el- 
Maghdrbeh (W. Africans) ; 14. Staircase to the Riwdk eth-Shawwdm (Syrians) ; 
15. Staircase to the Riwdk tl-Baghdddiyeh (natives' of Baghdad) and to the 
Riwdk el-Huntid (natives of India). 16. Riwdk el-Gabart (E. Africans from 
the Somali coast, Zela', Berbera, and Tajurra) ; 17. Staircase to the Riwdk 
el-Mekkiyin (natives of Mecca) ; 18. Riwdk esh-Shardkweh (natives of the pro- 
vince of Sherkiyeh) ; 19. Riwdk et-Fashrityeh (natives of Fashneh) ; 20. Ri- 
wdk et-SUddniyin (natives of the Sudan) ; 21. Riwdk el-Baldbiteh (natives of 
Lower Egypt) ; 22. Riwdk el-Hanafiyeh (Hanafites ; see p. xciii). — 23. Steps 
to the Terrace. 24. Gate of the Okella Kait Bey (ruinous but interest- 
ing facade). 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. 5 

66 Route 4. CAIRO. Odmi'a el-Azhar. 

students was 7600-7700, taught by 230 professors ; but since the 
British occupation the numbers have sensibly diminished, especial- 
ly as no students now come from the former equatorial provinces 
of Egypt. But the university of Cairo is still the largest in the do- 
main of El-Islam. — The nationality of the various groups of stu- 
dents may be learned from the guide. This being one of the foun- 
tain-heads of Mohammedan fanaticism, thetravellershould, ofcourse, 
throughout his visit, be careful not to indulge openly in any gestures 
of amusement or contempt. 

The Students (Mugawirln) usually remain three, and sometimes from 
four to six years in the mosque. They pay no fees, but each riwak is sup- 
ported by an annual subsidy from the endowments of the mosque.' There 
is also a separate riwak, called the Zdwiyet el'Omy&n, for blini students, 
f >r whose maintenance a portion of the funds is set a^art. These blind 
youths, who have a shekh of their own, were frequently guilty of riotous 
c n luct in former years, and used to parade the streets armed with blud- 
geons, whenever they conceived their rights infringed, the disputes being 
generally concerning the quality of their food. To this day they are said 
t i be the most fanatical of their sect, and tii entertain the most bitter 
hatred and contempt for the kafir, or unbelieving Christian — The Pro- 
fessors, or Shekhs, receive no salary, either from the mosque or from 
government, but support themselves by teaching in private houses, by 
copying books , or by filling some religious office to which a salary is 
attached, and they occasionally receive donations from the wealthier 
students. When teaching, the shekh sits cross-legged on a straw-mat and 
reads from a book placed on a desk (rahleh) before him, explaining each 
sentence as he proceeds; or he directs one of the more advanced students 
to read aloud, adding his own explanations from time to time. The students 
sit in a circle around the teacher, listening, or attentively taking notes. As 
soon as a student knows by heart and can explain the whole of the book 
which is being studied by the class , the shekh makes an entry in his 
copy of the work, called the Igdzeh, whereby authority to lecture on the 
book is conferred on the student himself. The president of the univer- 
sity, who is usually the most distinguished of the shekhs, is called Shekh 
el-Azhar, and receives a salary of about 20 purses, i.e. 10,000 piastres. 

Most of the students, particularly those whose native tongue is not 
Arabic, begin their university education by learning the Arabic grammar 
('Urn en-nahu). The next branch of study is religious science ('Urn el- 
keldm), the introduction to which consists of a series of preparatory lec- 
tures on the attributes of God and the prophet ( f ilm et-tauhid , i. e. the 
doctrine of the unity of God). The chief attributes of God are said 
to be the following twelve: existence, source of all being, eternity, in- 
dependence, unity, omnipotence, will (in accordance with which he rules 
the universe , man being powerless to save himself from sin or to be 
pious without the assistance and grace of God), omniscience (or know- 
ledge of everything that happens between the lowest foundations of the 
earth and the loftiest heights of the firmament), lii'e, vision (which enables 
him to see everything everywhere, without the aid of light, and without 
eyes) , hearing (without ears , in the same way as he knows without a 
brain, and overthrows without hands), and speech (in a language that has 
had no beginning, a language without letters or sounds, which is inherent 
in his nature, and does not resemble human speech). 

After having completed his course of religious instruction, the student 
proceeds to study law ('ilm el-fikh). 

'Jurisprudence', says Ibn Khaldun , one of the greatest of Arabian 
thinkers, 'is a knowledge of the precepts of God in relation to the actions 
of men, some of which it is our duty to perform, while others are for- 
bidden , or recommended, or permitted ; and this knowledge is derived 
from the book of God, i.e. the Koran, f,\>m the Sunna (i.e. tradition), 
and from the inferences drawn by the lawgiver (Mohammed) from suf- 

Odmi'a el-Azhar. CAIRO. i. Route. 67 

ficient materials afforded by the Koran'. The study of law is therefore 
based upon the exegesis of the Koran (tafsir) and of tradition (hadith). 
The science of law is divided into two branches : — 

(1) The doctrine of the Chief Religious Commandments of El-Islam, 
viz. (a) Et-Tauhid, or the recognition of God's unity and of Mohammed 
as his prophet; (b) The Saldt and Tahdra, or the duty of repeating the 
canonical prayers in connection with the ablutions ; (c) The Sadaka and 
Zakdt, or giving of alms and payment of a religious tax ; (d) The Siydm, 
or fasting during the month of Ramadan ; (e) The Hagg, or duty of per- 
forming a pilgrimage to Mecca. 

(2) The doctrine of Secular Law, civil and criminal, either as expressly 
laid down by the Koran, or as deducible from it. The legal literature 
again is divided into two classes, one embracing systematic expositions 
of the law of the Koran, and the other consisting of the decisions (fetwa) 
and opinions of ceiebrated jurists in special and difficult cases. 

Besides these leading branches of instruction, logic ('Urn el-mantik), 
rhetoric ('Urn el-ma'dni wal baydn), the art of poetry ('Urn el-'arHd) , the 
proper mode of reciting the Koran ('ilm el-kira'a) , and the correct pro- 
nunciation of the letters (Him et-tejwld) are also taught. 

The above list of the subjects taught at the most important of Moham- 
medan schools will serve to convey an idea of the intellectual condition 
of Orientals at the present day. The most conspicuous defect of their 
culture consists in the entire absence of independent thought , in conse- 
quence of which they are the mere recipients of the knowledge of the 
past. Their minds are thus exclusively occupied with the lowest grade 
of intellectual work, their principal task consisting in the systematic 
arrangement or encyclopaedic compilation of the knowledge handed down 
to them. Some of the shekhs of the Azhar are men of marvellous erudi- 
tion, but they are destitute of creative power, or of the ability to utilise 
their old materials for the construction of any new edifice, and they ad- 
here faithfully to the notion of their forefathers that the greatest 
triumph of mental labour is to learn by heart any work of acknowledged 
literary value. Doubt and criticism, which so often serve to open up fresh 
sources of knowledge , are unknown to them ; with natural history they 
are entirely unacquainted ; and even geometry, algebra, and astronomy, so 
assiduously cultivated by the ancient Arabs , have now fallen into ob- 
livion. So well satisfied are they, moreover, with their own wisdom, 
that they utterly despise the scientific pursuits of the Western world. 

The Shdri'a el-Halwagi (pp. 49, 63) leads past the University to 
the Rue Neuve (p. 49). — At the E. extremity of the Rue Neuve, 
about !/2 M. from this point, is the Windmill Hill (View ; p. 79), 
near which passes the route to the so-called Tombs of the Khalifs. 

5. The Northern Quarters of Cairo. 

The following section deals principally with the interesting edifices in 
the N.E. part of Cairo, to the N. of the Rue Neuve, the continuation of 
the Muski (p. 47). The route here described connects at the Mashhad el- 
Heseini (see below) or the Shari'a Khordagiyeh (p. 69) with that described 
in Section 4, while the first part of it coincides with the description of the 
bazaars at pp. 49-51. — The N.W. portion of Cairo (p. 75) contains little 
of interest. 

The Mashhad el-Heseinl, a side-street of the Rue Neuve (p. 49), 
leads N. from the end of the Shari'a el-Halwagi (see above) to the 
mosque of El-Hasanein, with its handsome minaret. 

The *Gami'a el-Hasanein (PI. E, 3), the mosque of Hasan and 
Husen, the sons of 'Ali, the son-in-law of the prophet (p. xcvii; the 
termination tin indicating the dual), is of no architectural import- 
ance, while it has been almost completely modernized, even to the 

68 Route 4. CAIRO. Q&mi'a el-Hasanein. 

introduction of gas-lighting. The chief attraction, quite inacces- 
sible to all but Muslims, is the mausoleum which is said to contain 
the head of Husen, who was slain at Kerbela by Shemir Ibn el- 
Gaushan by order of Yezid. The head is said to have been brought 
to Cairo in a green silk bag. This tomb-mosque is chiefly frequented 
by men'on Thursdays, and by women on Saturdays, t 

The battle of Kerbela, at which Husen fell, took place on 10th 
Moharrem of the year 61 of the Hegira (10th Oct. 680). Historians record 
that Husen's head was sent to Damascus, while his body was interred in 
the Meshhed Husen on the N.E. frontier of Persia, to which Persian 
pilgrims still resort in great numbers. 

Neither Hasan nor Husen was remarkable for moral worth ~or poli- 
tical greatness. The veneration paid to these young 'saints' 1 seems to 
have sprung solely from the persecutions to which the whole family of 
'Ali was subjected, coupled with the fact that they were the grandsons 
of the prophet. Their misfortunes doubtless at first excited pity, a feel- 

t The visitors to the tombs, burial-mosques, and welis, which are to 
be found near almost every village , generally have a twofold object in 
view, one being to do honour to the memory of the deceased and to 
invoke the blessing of heaven upon them, and the other to obtain through 
their mediation the fulfilment of some special wish. On arriving at the 
tomb, the visitor must turn towards the face of the deceased and 
pronounce the greeting of peace. He then walks round the maks&ra, or 
monument, from left to right, repeating the fatha at the door, or' at each 
of the four sides, in a very low voice. A sureh'of the Koran is sometimes 
also repeated, and even the khatmeh, or recitation of the whole volume, 
is not unfrequently performed. In conclusion the praises of God and 
the prophet are usually recited, coupled with a prayer that the merit 
of the whole performance may be placed to the credit of the weli's 
soul. Before the concluding prayer, the worshipper sometimes introduces 
a prayer for his own temporal and spiritual welfare. When wealthy 
persons visit the tomb of a saint , they distribute bread among the poor, 
and pay one sakka or more to dispense water gratuitously. Some of the 
tombs are chiefly visited on certain days of the week ; and there are 
certain days of the year (especially about the middle of the month of 
Sha'ban) on which festivals are celebrated in honour of the patron saints 
of the different towns and villages. The most important of these are 
that of Seyyid Ahmed el-Bedawi at Tanta in Lower Egypt, and that of 
'Abd er-Rahim at Keneh in Upper Egypt. A week or a fortnight before 
the day of the festival, booths for the sale of coffee and sweatmeats begin 
to spring up around the shrine, and crowds of devotees flock to the tomb 
from all directions, some of them to perform the zikr, and others to 
take part in various fantasiyas. Dancing women , singers , musicians, 
jugglers, snake-charmers, buffoons, as well as swings and merry-go-rounds, 
present their various attractions to young and old. On the feast-day 
itself, when the crowd is greatest, a solemn procession takes place. The 
mahmal , a kind of wooden frame which usually lies on the roof of the 
tomb , is covered with the gold and silver-embroidered winding-sheet of 
the saint and placed on the back of a camel, gorgeously decorated with 
ribbons, carpets, and bells. The procession is headed by outriders galop- 
ping to and fro on camels, by fife-players and drummers, and by the arm- 
bearing population of the village , whose chief delight consists in firing 
off their guns. Immediately before the camel with the mahmal walk a 
number of venerable old men reciting passages from the Koran , and on 
each side of it are flag-bearers. Behind it come a band of music, female 
dancers, men on camels thumping on huge drums, and lastly a promiscuous 
cnwd of holiday makers. The procession often marches about the town 
for an hour or more , and thence out into the desert. Towards evening 
the mahmal is brought back to its usual place, and the festival then 

Mtiristdn KaldHn. 


4. Boute. 69 

ing which led to their being honoured with a kind of deification, partic- 
ularly in Persia, where divine honours had at a still earlier period been 
paid to the sovereigns of the country as being descended from the gods. It 
is still the custom in Persia, during the month of Moharrem, to represent 
the events which led to Husen's death in nine successive theatrical 
performances, somewhat resembling the Passion pays of Europe. 

Opposite the egress of the mosque is the entrance to the Kh&n 
el-KhalU (p. 49), through which we proceed to the W. to the 
Shari'a Khordagiyeh. 

The Shari'a Khordagiyeh (PI. E, 3 ; p. 50) is the N. contin- 
uation of the great line of thoroughfares (pp. 51, 61) intersecting 
the Rue Neuve (p. 49) near its middle. As we enter it from the 
Rue Neuve we notice , on the left , three mosques , adjoining each 
other, with staring red and white striped or checquered facades and 
lofty minarets. The first of these is the — 

Muristan Kalaftn (PI. E, 3), once a vast hospital ('muristan', 

a. Principal Entrance, from the street En-Nahhasin. b. Gate of the Mau- 
soleum, c. Back entrance. 1. Mosque. 2. Court of Ablutions, d. Vesti- 
bule to — 4. Mausoleum of Sultan Kalaun. 5. Court with colonnade, in 
which the physicians interviewed patients. 6. Modern eye-hospital. 7. Former 
court, with cells for the insane. a M: ""™>» 

8. Minaret. 

70 Route 4. CAIRO. Tomb of Moh. en-Ndsir. 

from the Persian word bimaristan), the greater part of which is now 
in a ruinous condition , and used as a workshop by coppersmiths 
and tinkers. The tomb of the founder, however, and the small 
mosque opposite (recently restored) are tolerably preserved. The 
foundation-stone was laid by Sultan el-Mansur Kalaun (p. cxxiii) in 
the year 683 of the Hegira (1285 A.D.), and the whole edifice is said 
to have been completed within thirteen months. The Muristan, the 
largest monument of its period , is of considerable architectural 
interest. Many of its details, especially the windows, recall the Ro- 
manesque style of Europe. The adjoining plan represents the edi- 
fice in its original condition, when there was a separate ward for 
every known disease, besides lecture-rooms for students and an 
orphanage. Now, however, decay and alteration have so changed the 
building that only the wards surrounding the principal court can be 
confidently identified. 

The Portal (PI. a), the most interesting part of the whole edi- 
fice, is constructed of black and white marble, and is of imposing 
height. The doors still show traces of their former covering of bronze. 
The ceiling of the entrance, with its open beams, is also very effect- 
ive ; the other corridors are vaulted in the Gothic style. The second 
door (PI. b) on the right leads to the Vestibule (PI. 3) of the Tomb 
of Kalaun (PI. 4). The tomb itself contains fine granite columns, 
which once supported the dome. The kibla (prayer-recess), with its 
mosaics, its beautiful dwarf-arcades, and its shell-shaped ornament- 
ation, is also worthy of notice. The marble and tortoise-shell or- 
namentation of the lower parts of the walls, once the finest in Cairo, 
is now almost completely ruined by incrustations of saltpetre. In 
the tomb-chamber are still preserved articles of dress which once 
belonged to Kalaun and are popularly supposed to possess miracu- 
lous healing virtues. 

Adjacent to the Muristan, as the second of the three edifices 
mentioned at p. 69 , is the *Tomb of Mohammed en-Nasir ibn 
Kalaun, erected by that sultan (p. cxxiv) in the year 698 of the 
Hegira (1300 A.D.). The late-Romanesque portal, in maTble, with 
its round arch, has Arabian carving on the architrave. It was orig- 
ginally erected at Acre in Syria, after the destruction of which it 
was transferred to Cairo in A.D. 1291 by the Egyptian Mameluke 
Sultan El-Ashraf (p. cxxiii) as a trophy of victory. The only object 
of interest in the interior is the well-defined and beautifully 
moulded Arabian stucco-work, remains of which are preserved. 

The third large building is the *Barkukiyeh , the Medreseh of 
the Sultan Barkuk (1382-99; p. cxxiv, which also contains the 
tomb of the daughter of Barkuk. It possesses a marble portal and 
a bronze-mounted door. The accompanying plan shows the modi- 
fication of the original cruciform ground-plan. Only the chambers 
for prayer and instruction are preserved (recently restored). The 
back of the mosque is in ruins. 



4. Route. 71 

Medreseh of Sdltan Bakkdk (BakkukiyehI : 1. Principal entrance. 2. Cor- 
ridor. 3. Tomb of Barkuk's daughter. 4. Court for Ablutions. 5. Sakiyeh. 

Opposite these three mosques is a modern sebil. Continuing 
to follow the Suk en-Nahhaslii (p. 51), the continuation of the 
Khordagiyeh, which is generally enlivened by busy traffic, we come 
to the Sebil 'Abd er-Rahman Kikhya, at a fork of the street, with 
pretty fayence decorations and a kuttab below it. Hence we com- 
mand a striking retrospect, with the three red and white mosques 
and their minarets to the right, and, to the left, the huge facade of 
a palace said to have once formed part of the palace of the Khalifs. 
— The Sharfa en-Nalihasin leads straight on to the Bab el-Futuh 
(P- 72). 

Passing to the E. of the fountain, we reach the Shdri'a tl-Oa- 
mdltyeh (PI. E, 3,2), which, before the opening of the Suez Canal, 
was the seat of the wholesale trade of Cairo in coffee, mother-of- 
pearl, incense, attar of roses, and other wares from the Red Sea. 
The finest of the okellas (p. 43) here, which present no great at- 
traction, is the Okella Zulfikdr Pasha, opposite the corner where our 
street bends to the N. The entrance, with a kind of star-vaulting, 
and the court, with its colonnades and mushrebiyehs , should be 
noticed. To the left, at the corner, is the Medreseh Oamdltyeh, 
with a late-Romanesque gateway, perhaps a copy of the gateway 
from Acre (p. 70), but the original form of which is now scarcely 
traceable owing to the restoration and bedaubing it has undergone. 

72 Route 4. 


Gtimi'a el-H&kim. 

At the back of this school is a tomb-mosque. Following the lane 
towards the N. for about 500 paces more , we reach the Okella 
Kd'it Bey, a secular building of the 16th century. The studious 
simplicity of the facade, with its sparingly decorated main portal, 
its continuous beams, and oriels, produces a pleasantly harmonious 
effect. One of the former locks of the shops is preserved in the 
Arabian Museum (p. 73). — Turning now to the right we find 
ourselves in front of the — 

Bab en-Nasr (PI. E, 2), or 'Gate of the Help of God', which 
is connected by the ancient city-wall with the similar Bab el-Futuh, 
or 'Gate of Victory', 150 yds. to the W. These two gates form the 
strong N.E. extremity of the old city-fortifications. Together with 
the fortified mosque of Sultan Hakim situated between them (see 
below), they formed a strong position for the troops of Napoleon in 
1799. These gates, the most important of the sixty which once 
existed in the walls of Cairo, were erected by the vizier Berd Gamali 
in the 11th century. Their plan resembles that of ancient Roman 
gateways. Both have an outer and an inner gate, flanked by square 
or Tound towers, and united by means of a vaulted inner court (the 
Roman 'propugnaculum'). The Bab en-Nasr in particular is built 
of well-hewn stone, and has vaulted winding staircases in the in- 
terior, groined vaulting in the gateway, girders with a kind of hatch- 
ed moulding, and cornices with a corbelled frieze. 


Bdb el-Futtih. 

Bdb en-Nasr. 
(From the side next the town.) 

In the Mohammedan ceme'ery outside the Bab en-Nasr is buried Jo- 
hann Ludwig Burckhardt (d. 1817), known to the Arabs as 'Shekh Ibrahim', 
the distinguished Oriental traveller, whose works are still of high author- 
ity. — The two towers with iron basins, which we observe on the left, 
belong to the City Water-Wor/es, constructed in 1865-66 and several times 
enlarged. The water is pumped up from the Nile by steam. 

The street running to the N. from the Bab el-Futuh leads straight 
to the Bab Huseiniyeh (p. 75). Re-entering the city by the Bab 
el-Futuh, however, and proceeding for about 50 paces to the left, 
we reach the entrance of the — 

Gami'a el-Hakim (PI. E, 2) erected in the year 393 of the He- 
gira (A.D. 1003), on the plan of the Gami'a ibn Tulun (p. 56), by 

Arab. Museum. CAIRO. 4. Route. 73 

Khatff El-Hdkim ibn 'Aziz, of the Fatimite dynasty (p. cxxi). This 
mosque is much less carefully and artistically built than its model. 
The whole building occupies an area about 400 ft. long and 350 ft. 
wide. The great court was adjoined on the side next the sanctuary 
by five aisles or arcades, on the W. by two, and on the N. and S. by 
three. Until 1879 a chamber in the sanctuary was still used for 
prayer, but the rest of the building was in ruins. The mosque, 
however, has now been cleared of debris. 

A building on the S. side of the court, originally intended for 
a school of industrial art, now contains the new * Arabian Museum, 
consisting of objects of artistic or antiquarian interest from ruined 
mosques and secular buildings of Cairo , collected here by the zeal 
of Franz Pasha, formerly technical director under the "Wakf minis- 
try (p. 33). The Arab tombstones formerly preserved in the 
Egyptian Museum were added in 1890. Some of the possessions 
of the museum are stored in the two magazines adjoining the main 
building; and even in the main building itself the arrangements 
hardly correspond to the great value of the collection. The museum 
is open daily, except Frid., from 10 to 4; during Ramadan in the 
afternoon only. Two MS. catalogues in French are provided for the 
use of ■sisitors in each room. A printed catalogue is in preparation. 

Boom I. Marble and other Stone Carvings. 19. Marble slab from the 
mosque of Bedriyeh (14th cent.); 23, 24. Water-vessels from the Sebil 
Farag and from the mosque of Tatar el-Hegasiyeh (14th cent.) ; 31. Marble 
slab of Arabic-Persian workmanship , with plant and animal ornament- 
ation; 38. Perforated Byzantine capital (mouth of a cistern); 40. Two 
antique serpentine columns from the kibla of Kusun el-Saki (d. 1329); 45. 
Heraldic eagle in a frieze , from the Bab esh-Shariyeh (now destroyed) ; 
52. Cufic inscription from Koss in Upper Egypt (999 A. D.); 71, 72. Herald- 
ic eagle from the pavement of a bath ; 93. Chandelier with 110 lights 
from the mosque of Sultan Hasan ; numerous tombstones , tshahids, and 
portions of sepulchral monuments. 

Room II. Brass and Bronze Objects. — 57. Koran-case, with elaborate 
brass cover and silver ornamentation (these boxes have always 30 com- 
partments arranged in three rows for the 30 books of the Koran) ; 4, 6. 
Vases with lids, from the mosques of Hasan and Barkfik; 6i, 62. Votive 
gifts of Sultan Mustafa (d. 1623) to the mosque at 'Tanta (p. 24); 109. 
Hanging lamp from the mosque of El-Ghuri ; crescents from domes and 
minarets , door-mountings , candlesticks , plaques, etc. , many from the 
mosque of Ezbek (p. 45). 

Room III. *Enamelled Hanging Lamps from Mosques; most of them 
made of common green glass, with enamelled garlands, serpents, inscrip- 
tions, medallions, etc. These were used as ornaments, not, like the Tho- 
raia, Faniis, and Kandil (p. cxcviii), for lighting-purposes, and are seldom 
older than the f3th century. The place of manufacture is unknown. 
Only about a hundred of these lamps are now extant, and most of them 
are in this museum. About 25 or a fourth of the total are from the 
mosque of Sultan Hasan , 9 are from the Barkukiyeh , 5 from Khawand 
el-Baraka, 4 from Alti-Barmak, 3 from Ezbek el-Yusefi, 2 from 
Bey, 1 (No. 8; perhaps the oldest of all) from Saleh Aiyub, etc. A simi- 
lar lamp of modern Parisian workmanship is also exhibited here. Nos. Ill 
and 112 are a pair of pyramid-shaped Fanus (p. cxcviii), from the mosque 
of Bey in the Fayum. 

Room IV. Inlaid and Mosaic Work in Wood, Ivory, etc. — 49, 50. 
Portions of a cenotaph (12th cent.), from Imam Shafe'i (p. 80); 54 (in the 
corridor), Fragment of the architrave of the oldest door in the collection. 

7 4 Route 4. CAIRO. Arabian Museum. 

The tabernacle-shaped portable wooden Kiblas should also be noticed, on 
which Byzantine leaf-ornamentation occurs, alongside of the fully devel- 
oped Arabian inscription- ornamentation. The best specimens are the 
inner side of the back of No. 59 (from the mosque of Sitteh Rokaia) and 
No. 33 (from the mosque of Sitteh Nefiseh; both granddaughters cf the 
Prophet), probably of the 12th cent, after Christ. 55, 56,57. Three Kursi 
(reading-chairs or Koran-desks), from the mosques of Ghuri and El-Azhar; 
58 Door from the mosque of Ashrafiyeh; "65. Koran-case, inlaid in the 
Persian-Indian taste, with elegant hinges, from' the mosque of Khawand 
el-Baraka; high Kuisi, belonging to this case. 

Room V. Jnldd and Mosaic Work continued. — 36. Kursi adorned 
with mosaic and turned work, from the mosque of Ishmas el-Ishaki (15th 
cent.); 19, 20, 34. Panels from the mosque of Ibrahim el-Bu'shami at 
De>uk; 2. Student's cupboard, from the mosque of el-Azhar; 26. Door- 
frame from the convent-mosque of Sultan Beibars Geshankir (Klianka); 
28. Central piece of the covering ofasebil from Kait Bey ; 42. Star-shaped 
Kuisi, with Koran-case, from the mosque of Ei-Ghuri; the ornamental 
leather-work should be noticed. 

Boom VI. Fayence and Stoneware. -64 (in the glass-case),. Cornelian 
Dish, a beautiful specimen, 17 3 /4 inches in diameter and 4 inches high, 
with 19 cut facets on the edge, from the former magazine of Muristan 
Kalaun. 29-33. Hanging vases, in stoneware; 35 Fayence plaque with a 
representation of the Ka'ha of Mecca (made at Dauaseus in 1726). Nos. 39, 
41, 43, 44, 53 are noteworthy specimens of fayence from mosques, with 
large 'Sullus' characters, and are perhaps of Persian origin. — Fayence 
from Naples and Asia Minor {e.g. the tiles No. 49). 

Room VII. Inlaid and Mosaic Work in Wood, Ivor!/, etc. — Mushre- 
biyehs and panelling from secular buildings. Also, 14. Bailing from a 
dikkeh ; 32,33. Kursi from the mosque of El-Muaiyad ; 11. Chandelier 
with 374 lights, from the mosque of El-Ghuri; 12, 13. Chandeliers, with 
222 and 86 lights respectively, from the mosque of Sultan Hasan. 

Room VIII (meeting-room). In the cabinet, Arabian bookbindings. — 
To the right — 

Cobridor. At the E end, portions of ceilings (chiefly from the 
mosques ofMerdani, Barkiikiyeh, and Ghuri), cornices, brackets. 23. Or- 
namented ceiling, with stucco-reliefs between geometrical figures, a style 
of decoration effective enough at a certain height, but possible only in 
the climate of Egypt. 58 , 71. Shop-fastenings from the Okella of Kait 
Bey (p. 72) ; 9. Kamarflyeh and Mushrebiyehs ; 7. Door from the mosque 
of Tatar el-Hegasiyeh ; *55. Gate of the medreseh of Salah-ed-Din Ayub 
(13th cent); 5. Single-leaved door from the mosque of El-Azhar; *4. Door 
from the Muristan Kalaun, the oldest door in the collection, probably 
taken from the ruins of the palace of the Fatimites and barbarously patched 
up for its later position; 1. Gate from the mosque of El-Hakim, with re- 
liefs resembling those of the mosque of Tulun. Also, large modern gate (18th 
cent.) with incised geometrical designs', from an Okella at Damietta. 

In the Magazines to the right of the entrance are numerous other 
objects of great interest, generally of considerable size, including tomb- 
stones, cenotaphs, mimbars, kuisis, and gates. 

The street coming from the Bab el-Futuh , which farther on is 
named Shdri'a el-Barrant (PI. E, 2) and then' Shari'a en-Nahhasin 
(PI. £, 2, 3), leads to the three red and white mosques mentioned 
at p. 69, and to the Rue Neuve. 

In a crooked side-lane, about 250 yds. to the "W. of the Shari'a 
en-Nahhasin, lies the mosque of Abu Bekr Mazhar (Pi. D, E 21 
built in the year 884 of the Hegira (1480 A.D.) by El-Zeini Abu 
Bekr, chancellor of the Sultan Kait Bey. This mosque is distin- 
guished for its rich and tasteful marble mosaics and for its rje- 
culiarly incrusted marble slabs, on which the design was first 

Tombs of the Khalifs. CAIRO. 5. Route. 75 

lightly chiselled, then filled in with a resinous suhstance, and finally 
smoothed and polished. 

The remaining features of the N. quarters are of little interest. 
The principal thoroughfare is the Shdri'a or Boulevard Clot Bey (PI. 

0, B, 2), which runs to the N. W. from the little square of Meidan el- 
Khaznedar, at the N.E. angle of the Ezbekiyeh (p. 45), to the 
Llmun Bridge and the Railway Staticns (p. 27). The open 'place' 
in front of the hridge is known as the Rond Point deFaggala{¥\. B, 

1, 2). At the end of the Shari'a Bab el-Hadid, which also leads 
hither from the W. side of the Ezbekiyeh, is the handsome Sebil 
of the Mother of Isma'U Pasha (PI. B, 2). — The third street de- 
bouching at the Rond Point is the Faggdla Street, from which, a little 
farther on, to the left, diverges the 'Abbaslyeh Road (PI. B, C, 
1, 2), pleasantly shaded by lebbek-trees. Until about 1870 this 
road was flanked with large heaps of rubbish, but these have now 
given place to villas and gardens, among which huts of all kinds 
still linger. Immediately after crossing the city-canal, the 'Abbas- 
lyeh road skirts the former mosque of Ez-Zdhtr or Ed-Daher (PI. 
D, E, 1), which was called by the French Fort Sulkowsky, and is 
now a guard-house. A few paces beyond this building we reach the 
Bab Huseintyeh (PI. E, 1), marking the N. limit of the city, 900 yds. 
to the N. of the Bab el-Futuh (p. 72). — From the Bab Huseiniyeh 
to 'Abbaslyeh, see p. 93. 

To the N. of the mosque of Ed-Daher, outside the city, is the large 

5. The Immediate Environs of Cairo. 

The most interesting points in the immediate neighbourhood of Cairo 
may all be reached by Carriage (p. 30); but travellers who use Donkeys 
will be more independent among the tombs of the Khalifs and elsewhere. 

1. The Tombs of the Khalifs and the Mamelukes. 

A visit to the Tombs of the Khalifs (and to a certain degree to the 
Tombs of the Mamelukes also) is exceedingly interesting, especially to- 
wards sunset, owing to the very novel and curious picture they present. — 
Tickets of Admission, see p. 33. 

The large and superb mausolea of the 13-16th cent., which, 
under the names Tombs of the Khalifs and Tombs of the Mamelukes, 
stretch along the entire E. side of the city, were erected by the 
Bahrite (1250-1380 A. D. or 647-780 of the Hegira) and Circassian 
Mameluke Sultans (1381-1517 A.D. or 781-923 of the Hegira). 
The name 'Tombs of the Khalifs', applied to the northernmost group, 
is historically a misnomer, for the tombs have no connection with the 
'Abbaside Khalifs then resident in Egypt (p. cxx) and treated as 
mere titled puppets. All the tombs were once richly endowed, each 
being provided with a numerous staff of shekhs and attendants, who 
with their families resided within their precincts. The revenues of 
the mosques having been confiscated at the beginning of the pre- 

76 Route 5. CAIRO. Tombs of the Khalifs. 

sent century, the tombs gradually fell to ruin. At present, however, 
the Committee mentioned at p. 33 has taken them into its keeping. 
The descendants of the mosque attendants and other Arabs have 
established their quarters among the ruins, and the old necropolis has 
thus been converted into a kind of suburb of Cairo, the inhabitants 
of which often pester strangers with their importunities. 

The usual route (very dusty) to the *Tombs of the Khalifs leads 
through the Bab en-Nasr (PI. E, 2; p. 72), past the Mohammedan 
cemetery and the reservoir of the water-works (p. 72). To the right 
is the so-called Windmill Hill (p. 79). Beyond the unimportant 
tomb of Sh&ch Oaldl, we have one of the finest *Views of the city 
of the dead. 

The N.E. group of these mausolea (on the left when approached 
from Bab en-Nasr) consists of the Tomb of Sultan Abu Sa'td Kan- 
suweh el-Ghvirl (p. 63), a cube surmounted by a stilted dome, and 
the tomb-mosques of Sultan el-Ashraf, with a handsome minaret, 
and of Emir Yusuf, son of Bursbey (see p. 78). We leave these to 
the left, and proceed in a straight direction to the — 

^Tomb-Mosque of Sultan Barkuk (p. 70) , with its two superb 
domes and its two minarets, built by Sherkis el-Haranbuly. The 
accompanying plan (p. 77) will convey an idea of the original 
building, of which the greater part is still standing, though its 
effect is marred by the necessary props and braces. The present 
Entrance (PI. 1) at the S.W. corner is in a ruinous condition. The 
Principal Entrance (PI. 18) at the N.W. angle, now closed, has a 
stalactitic vault. The Vestibule (PI. 2) of the S. facade, through 
which we reach the interior, has a fine star-shaped dome, and now 
contains the Hanefiyeh, or fountain for ablution, which was form- 
erly in the Sahn el-Gami'a or large inner Quadrangle. Beneath 
the larger (N.E. ) dome (PI. 12) are the tombs of the male members 
of the family; viz. the Sultan Barkuk (p. 70), his son Farag 
(p. cxxv), and a brother of Farag, who reigned seventy days only. 
On the edge of Barkuk's tomb are pebbles, which, when rubbed on 
sandstone under water, are believed by the Muslims to commun- 
icate sanatory properties to the discoloured water. The S.W. dome 
(PI. 13) covers the tombs of the female members of the family. — 
The Mimbar (PI. 6), one of the most beautiful existing specimens 
of Arabian sculpture , was presented by Kait Bey (p. 58), but it 
is protected from falling stones from the ceiling by a wooden cover- 
ing which prevents it being seen. — The Minarets, with their two 
galleries (besides the balconies below them), have stalactitic cor- 
nices. Each had a third gallery which had to be taken down 
owing to the dilapidation of the towers. — The symmetrical plan 
of the edifice, its massive masonry, and the symmetrical disposition 
of the rows of pilasters with domes, constitute this mosque one 
of the most perfect examples of Arabian architecture in existence ; 

Tombs of the Khalifs. CAIRO. 

5. Route. 77 



1. Present Entrance. 2. Vestibules, a, b, 
c, d. Large Quadrangle (H6sh, or Sahn el- 
Gami'a). c, d, e, f. Sanctuary (or LJwan el- 
Gami'a). 3. Small Court with Fountain. 4. 
Large Basin (Hanefiyeh). 5. Kibla. 6. Mim- 
bar. 7. Kursi. 8. Dikkeh. '9, 10, 11. Col- 
onnades (almost all in ruins). 12. Tomb of 
Sultan Barkiik. 13. Tombs of members of 
the Harem.' i&. Vestibule. 15. Apartments 
once occupied by the shekh and officials of 
the mosque. 16. Rooms for guests and stu- 
dents. 17. Sebil with School. 18. Former 
Principal Entrance. 19. Hall |in which the 
Sultan granted audiences. 

78 Route 5. CAIRO. Tombs of the Khalifs. 

and, notwithstanding its ruinous condition, it still presents a most 
imposing appearance. 

To the W. (right) of this tomb-mosque, within a walled court, 
is the Tomb of Sultan Sulcman ibn Seltm (1526 A.D. ; 931 of the 
Hegira) , containing interesting sculpture in the dome and in- 
scriptions in fayence , now partly destroyed. To the E. of this 
tomb (and to the S. of Barkuk's mosque) is another handsome dome- 
covered tomb, the founder of which is unknown ; and there are other 
interesting dome-structures of various forms, carefully executed, 
but of uncertain origin. Adjoining the mausoleum of Suleman is 
the tomb of the Seb'a Bendt ('seven maidens'). The dome, with its 
pendentives , is of a very elongated form , and differs considerably 
from those of the neighbouring mausolea , being more like those 
of the so-called Mameluke tombs (p. 80). 

Opposite the last-named tomb, to the E. (left), is the Tomb- 
Mosque of Bursbey [Berisbai; p. cxxv), completed in 1431 (834 of 
the Hegira). Various data regarding the building of the mosque and 
the legacies bequeathed for its preservation were engraved on a long 
marble frieze on the okella which adjoins the edifice on the right, 
and a considerable part of it is still to be seen. The Liwan con- 
tains good mosaics. Some of the handsome perforated stucco wind- 
ows are still preserved, but the bronze gratings have been re- 
moved, and the openings built up. The admirably executed gate- 
way with its pendentives, and the wall enclosing the three mon- 
uments of princesses, were erected by Mohammed, an intendant 
of the Hosh, about the year 1142 of the Hegira (1730 A.D.). 

Adjoining the mosque is the Ma'bed er-Rifd'i, a mausoleum 
with a remarkably depressed dome, next to which is the Tomb of 
the Mother of Bursbey , a poorly executed work. The form of the 
arches in the latter is worthy of notice, as the arches with straight 
sides, placed below an acute angle, though not uncommon, seldom 
occur quite alone. The oldest arches of the kind are to be found 
in the Amru and Azhar mosques. 

In the same street, a few paces farther to theS., we observe on 
the right the long Okella Kait Bey, now in ruins, with its carefully 
executed gateway and characteristic ornamentation. The facade is 
built of massive stone, and is tolerably regular, but the mushrebiyehs 
are of inferior workmanship and probably of later date. The gate is 
mounted with large iron nails. The ground-floor is vaulted, while 
the upper floor has an open ceiling. The edifice was completed in 
the year 879 of the Hegira (1473 A.D.). 

A little farther to the S., projecting in an angle, is a public 
fountain, now in ruins and usually dry, also erected by Kait Bey. 
The shallow niches, the upper parts of which are shell-shaped, are 
in the form of fantastic arches. 

Beyond this sebil is an open space, on the right side of which 
is the *Tomb-Mosque of Kait Bey (p. cxxvi), the finest edifice among 

Windmill Hill. 


5. Route. 79 

the Tombs of tlie Khalifs, -which is distinguished from all the others 
by its lofty dome adorned with bands of sculpture, its peculiar and 
effective lighting by means of about fifty coloured windows, and its 
slender minarets with elegant galleries. ",.The Sahn el-Gami'a was 
once closed by a mushrebi- 
yeh lantern, which fell in 
1872. The original ceiling is 
only partly extant, the 
greater part is modern and 
poorly restored. Within the 
mausoleum are shown two 
stones, which are said to 
have been brought from 
Mecca by Kait Bey, and to 
bear impressions of the feet 
of the prophet; a finely carv- 
ed kursi for the Koran ; and 
beautiful ivory carvings in 
the canopy over the tomb. 
(These are not always vis- 
ible, as the mosque-attend- 
ant sometimes keeps them 
covered from anxiety as to 
their preservation.) 

With a visit to this 
mosque the traveller may 
conclude his inspection of 
the great necropolis. Those 
who are not fatigued may 
now walk towards the Cita- 
del (p. 53), examining the Miinb'ar 
differenth6shes, domes, and 
smaller monuments on the 

right and left. To the right of the road to the Citadel is a point 
(marked on our Map, p. 76) commanding an admirable *Retrospect 
of the necropolis. 

The traveller who quits the Tombs about sunset should not omit 
to ascend the so-called **Windmill Hill, one of the finest view- 
points in the immediate neighbourhood of the city, and well worth 
repeated visits, especially as its position close to the end of the 
Rue Neuve (p. 49) renders it very easy of access. A fine effect, 
especially by evening light, is produced by the domes and the pecu- 
liar colouring of the valley and the opposite heights of the Mokat- 
tam. To theW. are the city, the plain of the Nile, 'and the Pyramids. 
The red building to the N.E. is the 'Abbasiyeh (p. 93), to the left 
of which is a mosque (Gami'a el-'Adil). In front'of the latter is the 
N.E. group of the Tombs of the Khalifs (p. 76), a little to the right 

Tomb Mosque or Kait Bet. — 1. Principal 
Entrance. 2. Sebil with Kuttab 3. Minaret. 
4. Sahn el-Gami'a. 5. Liwan with Kibla and 
C. Mausoleum. 7. Tomb of Kait 
Bey. 8. Dikkeh. 

80 Route 5. CAIRO. Tombs of the Mamelukes. 

of 'which are the two minarets of Sultan Barkuk (p. 76). Beyond 
these rises the Gebel el-Ahmar (p. 93), adjoining which are the 
Mokattam hills, with the other Tombs of the Khalifs at their base. 
The Windmilli were erected by the French, but have long stood un- 
used, as the Arabs prefer to grind their corn in the houses in handmills 
(raha). The only windmill in use is one to the S. of the town. 

The Tombs of the Mamelukes, to the S. of the Citadel, are 
most conveniently visited via the Bab el-Karafeh (PI. E, 7 ; p. 53), 
whence they are reached by a good carriage-road. The tombs approach 
close to the city and extend as far as to the slopes of the Mokattam. 
They are in much poorer preservation than the Tombs of the Khalifs, 
partly owing to their having been used as quarries, and partly 
owing to their conversion into modern burial-places. Some are now 
represented only by their minarets. A few of these tombs are of 
architectural and artistic interest; but historical data as to the 
names of their builders is entirely wanting, for the extant inscrip- 
tions upon them are almost exclusively verses of the Koran. They 
are believed to have been built under the last Mameluke sultans. 

One of the most interesting architecturally is the ruin popularly 
misnamed the Tomb of the Mother of Sultan Hasan. This had ori- 
ginally a double dome. Inside the building are walls arranged in the 
form of a fan for the support of the outer dome, which has fallen in. 
— Farther to the S.E., somewhat isolated, we observe the ruined 
dome and lantern mentioned at p. cxci. — Still farther off the im- 
posing dome of the tomb of Imam Shafel, of a bluish-grey colour, 
is conspicuous. Beside it an extensive modern necropolis, chiefly 
of family-tombs, has recently been formed. 

Near it also is the Hosh el-Pasha (vulgo Bashd), or burial- 
mosque of the family of the Khedive, built by Mohammed r Ali. 
To the left of the entrance is a sebil. On each side of the large 
arcade leading to the mosque are apartments for the accommoda- 
tion of the women who come to pray at the tombs. At the end of 
this covered passage, on the left, is a small open space, in which, 
opposite to us, is a small door leading to the entrance of the mosque. 
(Nearer us is another door on the left, leading to the mausoleum of 
a wife of ex-Khedive Isma'il.) As usual in all the mosques, the 
visitor on entering must put on slippers or linen socks over his 
boots. (Bakshish for one person 2 , and to the guide 3 piastres.) 
The monuments are in white marble, and were executed by Greek 
and Armenian sculptors. The inscriptions and ornamentation are 
richly gilded and painted. The Koran is regularly read here. 

Returning to the sebil already mentioned, we may next visit 
the neighbouring so-called H6sh el-Memalik , erected in the 17th 
cent., probably the tomb of the Mameluke chief r Ali Bey and his 
family, but erroneously pointed out as that of the famous Mameluke 
general Murad Bey (Hosh Murad Bey), who is interred in the Suhag 

MoBijue of Moluunme & -All 


5. Route. 81 

mosque atGirgeh in Upper Egypt. The principal monuments stand 
on a hollow pedestal, and the domes rest on marble columns. 

1. Motherof Abbas 

2. 'Abbas Pasha (p. 

3. El-Hami, son of 

4. Ahmed Pasha 

5. Mohammed 'Ali 

6. Ibrahim Pasha. 

8. Tusun Pasha, 
father of Abbas, 
and his family. 

9. Tomb of Tusun 
Imai Bey,' who 
was burned in 
the Sudan. 

10. Tusun 'Ali Se- 

Besides these 
the mosque con- 
tains many other 
tombs of no importance, chiefly those of the harem. 

To- the W. of the Helwan railway, near the station, are the baths of 
'Ain el-Sira, opened in 1894 under the management of the Wakf. 

2. The Island of Roda and Old Cairo. 

Carriages, see p. 30. — Tickets of admission to the mosque of Amru, 
see p. 33. — With a visit to Old Cairo may be combined that to the 
Tombs of the Mamelukes, returning via the Bab el-Karafeh (p. 53) and the 
Place Mehemet-Ali (fine view from below of the mosque of Mohammed 'Ali). 

The Helwdn Railway (p. 188), on which are the stations of St. 
Qeorget and Maddbegh at Old Cairo, is not recommended for a first visit 
to Old Cairo. 

Traversing the New Town of Isma'iliya (p. 46) towards the 
S.W., we reach the Kasr el-' Ain (PI. A, 6), with the Mosque Kasr 
el-' Ain (p. 47), near which the howling dervishes perform their 
zikr (p. xcv). Farther on, we observe on the right and left large 
magazines for straw (tibn), fodder, and reeds. 

The street crosses the Fum el-Khalig, or influx of the city canal 
into an arm of the Nile, which, however, is dry from May until the 
period of the overflow. The festivities connected with the cutting 
of the Nile embankment (p. 83) take place here in August. Towards 
the left are situated the Christian Cemeteries, surrounded by lofty 
walls and presenting no attractions. The first is the English and 
Protestant Cemetery, the second the Roman Catholic, beyond which 
are those of the Greeks, Armenians, and Copts. (The railway-station 
of Fum el-Khalig, mentioned at p. 188, lies to the E.) 

The Head op the Old Aqueduct (Arab. El-'Ajun), which sup- 
plied the citadel with water before the completion of the new water- 

Baedekek's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. g 

82 Route 5. ISLAND OF K,6l)A. Environs 

works (p. 72), rises about 100 yds. beyond the canal. It is con- 
structed of solid masonry in a hexagonal form, and consists of three 
stories, about 150 ft. in diameter. 

The groundfloor contains stables and magazines, and on the first and 
second are barracks. On the terrace, where there are six water-wheels 
(sakiyehs), each worked by two oxen, is a large hexagonal basin from 
which the water flowed into the aqueduct. The aqueduct, constructed of 
massive blocks of stone, and resting on pointed arches, ascends in four 
different levels to the citadel, the total height being 278 ft., and the total 
length 4000 yds. (2'/« M.). When the Nile was at its lowest, the water had 
to be raised to a height of 80 ft. to the first basin. A branch of this 
conduit supplied the Jewish quarter with water in the neighbourhood 
of Imam Shafe'i (p. 80). The aqueduct dates from the time of Saladin 
(12th cent. ; p. 54) but was several times restored. The entrance is in 
the N. wall, at the back of the head of the aqueduct, where a Berber is 
posted as a custodian (fee 2 pias. for each person). Easy ascent by an in- 
clined plane. The ''Views from the openings of the platform are very fine. 

Leaving the head of the aqueduct, we follow the direction of 
the arm of the Nile, which, however, is not always visible, as the 
houses and walls of the Manjal quarter interpose between the 
road and the water, and reach (1 M.) the mansion which form- 
erly belonged to Sullman Pasha el-Fransdwi (Colonel Selves), with 
two fine Arabian portals (visitors not admitted). 

The second narrow and short road to the right beyond the cha- 
teau leads to the ferry crossing to the Island of B6da (Qeziret Roda). 
We descend the slope, enter the ferry-boat (2 pias. for one person, 
there and back ; foT a party more in proportion ; payment made on 
returning), ascend the opposite path, and turn to the right. A 
gardener is usually in waiting at the landing-place to conduct 
travellers through the intricate lanes to the garden. At the S. ex- 
tremity of the island is the Nilometer (Mikyas), situated on land 
belonging to the heirs of Hasan Pasha. The garden, laid out in 
the Arabian style, is miserably neglected. The paths are paved 
with a kind of mosaic of round, pebbles, and the most important 
of them are bordered with low walls, supporting wooden verandahs 
and arbours, over which climb immense vines. The gardens contain 
orange and lemon trees, dates, palms, and bananas, and also the henna 
plant (p. lxxiv), which is not met with in the public gardens of Cairo. 
At the S. end of the garden and island is the Nilometeb (Mikyas), 
constructed in the year 97 of the Hegira (A.D. 716) by order of 
the Omayyad Khalif Suleman (715-17). It consists of a square 
well, 16 ft. in diameter, connected by a channel with the Nile, hav- 
ing in the centre an octagonal column, on which are inscribed the 
ancient Arabian measures. Thedrd', or old Arabian ell, is 54 centi- 
metres, or about 21 l / s inches long, and is divided into 24 kirat. The 
Cuftc inscriptions on the central column and on marble slabs built 
into the walls refer to restorations of the Nilometer in the 9th cent, 
after Christ, under the 'Abbaside khalifs Mamun and Mutawakkil. 
Numerous later restorations have also taken place, the last in 1893. 
The office of measuring the water is entrusted to a Shekh. 

of Cairo. OLD CAIRO. 5. Routt. 83 

The zero point of the Nilometer (according to Mahmud-Bey) ia 28 ft. 
above the average level of the Mediterranean, so that the top of the 
column is nearly 59 ft. above sea-level. The water of the Nile, when at 
its lowest, covers 7 ells of the Nilometer, and when it reaches a height 
of 15 ells and 16 kirat, the shekh of the Nile measurement proclaims the 
Wtfa (p. ciii), i.e. the height of the water necessary for irrigating every 
part of the Nile valley. The announcement of the wefa is the signal for 
cutting the embankment. The rate of taxation was determined in ancient 
times in accordance with the height of the inundation, and even to this 
day there is a certain connection between these two facts. In order, 
therefore, to induce a belief in a favourable inundation, the Shekh used 
to have a private meter, the zero of which is nearly 7 inches lower than 
that of the old Nilometer, while the ells are shorter. 

Adjoining the Nilometer is a large Kiosque in the Turkish style, 
which may be inspected when not occupied by women. The archi- 
tecture is uninteresting, hut the S. verandah affords an uninter- 
rupted view of the Nile, with Gizeh to the right, the pyramids in 
the background, and Old Cairo on the left (fee 4 pias.). 

Near the N. end of the island stands the wonder-working tree 
of the saint Mandura, a huge nebk-tree, the branches of which are 
hung with innumerable rags. According to a popular superstition 
the patient must thus offer to the saint the cloth which enveloped 
the affected limb, then encircle the tree seven times, pluck off two 
leaves, and tie them on the affected part with another cloth. 

Leaving the island and returning to the right bank, we regain 
the Old Cairo road, and after l fo M. more we reach the end of the 
bazaar of this small town (Masr el-'Atika; comp. p. 35). We then 
turn to the left, and in a few minutes reach a street running from 
N. to S. Turning to the N. (left), we observe on the right a distinct 
quarter of the town, built on the ruins of Fostdt (p. 35), within 
the precincts of an ancient Roman Castle, and almost exclusively 
inhabited by Copts. The plan of the fortress is still traceable by 
means of the numerous characteristic remains of the Roman outer 
wall, which encloses the site of the ancient fortress of Babylon 
(p. 34). On the S. side, between two projecting towers, is a gate- 
way with a gabled roof, now almost entirely ruined. The castle is 
said once to have been occupied by one of the three Roman legions 
stationed in Egypt (p. 35), and to have been connected by a bridge 
with Roda and with Gizeh, where another Roman station is said to 
have been situated. Proceeding in a straight direction for about 
100 yds., and then about 45 paces to the right of a low doorway 
situated in a hollow on the W. side and concealed by a small wall, 
we reach the middle of the Coptic quarter, where, enclosed by a 
dense mass of houses , is situated the much frequented Coptic 
church of — 

*Abu Sergeh, or Mari Oirgis (St. George). According to a wide- 
spread belief this church was built before the Mohammedan con- 
quest, and a legendary document preserved by the Coptic priests 
places the date of its erection in the year 329 of the Hegira, i.e. 
940 A.D. A glance at the poor materials of the building, however, 


84 Route 5. 



with its -wooden ceiling and heterogeneous columns, will at once 
show the absurdity of this idea. The crypt, however , is undoubt- 
edly much older than the church and may very well date from 
a pre-Mohammedan epoch. According to tradition, the Virgin and 
Child after their flight to Egypt spent a month in the crypt of this 

This church may be regarded as the original model of the older 
Egyptian-Byzantine churches in which the Coptic Christians now 
worship +. The basilica consists of a nave and aisles, the latter pro- 
vided with galleries. The nave and tribuna have open roofs, that of 
the latter being supported by elliptical beams, and both being pro- 
bably of later date than the church itself . The lofty side-walls of 

a. Entrance from the 

b. Anterior Court, 
e. Entrance to the 


d. Vestibule. 

e. Women's section. 

f. Men's section. 

g. Basin, 
h. Seat for the chief 


k. Wooden screen adorn- 
ed with carving. 

1. Steps to the crypt. 

m. Altar. 

n. Image of Christ. 

o. Beading-desks. 

p. Side-chapels. 

q. Well. 

r. Basin. 

s. Sacristy. 

t. Magazine. 

the nave consist of two rows of columns , one above the other, the 
columns of the lower row being separated by keel-shaped arches, 
while the upper series, supporting the gallery, consists of alternate 
groups of two marble columns and one pillar of masonry, connected by 
an architrave. The columns of marble originally belonged to ancient 
edifices, and, like those in the earlier mosques, have been placed here 
without the least regard to their suitability in point of diameter, form 
of capital, or other architectural features. Two of the three original 

•f Coptic Worship. On entering the church, the members of the con- 
gregation first pay their homage to a number of pictures of saints hanging 

of Cairo. OLD CAIRO. 5. Route. 85 

entrances are now built up, while the third (PI. a), in accordance 
with the custom of the country, has walls projecting into it in 
order to prevent passers-by from seeing into the fore-court. 

The nave is divided by wooden screens into three sections. The 
first forms a narthex (PI. d), or vestibule, the second is set apart 

on the walls (the veneration of saints and of the Virgin being a prominent 
feature of the Coptic system), and then kneel before the altar and kiss 
the hand of the priest. They then take their stand (for there are no seats) 
in the part of the church allotted to them , leaning on crutches which 
they bring for the purpose, as the service often lasts for three hours. 
The service begins with the reading or chanting of prayers and passages 
from the Gospels, partly in the Coptic language, and partly in Arabic, 
in which the priest is assisted by a schoolmaster and a choir of boys. 
During this performance the worshippers, with very few exceptions, 
engage freely in conversation, and the noise is said to be sometimes so 
great that the priest has to come out of the hekel, or sanctuary, and 
enjoin silence. After a time the burning of incense begins. The priest, 
swinging his censer, leaves the hekel and joins the congregation, each 
member of which he blesses , placing his hand on their heads. He con- 
cludes this ceremony in the women's section of the church , and the 
ordinary service now terminates. 

The Celebration of the Eucharist is very frequent in the Coptic churches, 
immediately following the ordinary service. The celebrant priest wears 
a white and gaily embroidered gown reaching to his feet, and bearing 
the Coptic cross on the breast and sleeves. After washing his hands, he 
directs a boy to bring him several small round loaves with the Coptic 
cross impressed on them. He chooses the best of them, places it on a 
plate , and pronounces over it the blessing of the triune God. He then 
carries it into the hekel, places it on the altar, covers it with white 
cloths, and makes the circuit of the altar several times, reciting prayers, 
and accompanied by the choristers carrying lighted candles. He next 
brings the plate with the bread out of the hekel and holds it up before 
the people, whereupon the whole congregation kneels. Returning to the 
hekel, he breaks the bread into small pieces, puts it into a chalice, pours 
wine over it, and eats it with a spoon, distributing a few pieces to the 
assistant clergy and the choristers. Lest any fragment of the consecrated 
elements should be profaned, he finally washes all the utensils and his 
own hands, and drinks the water in which he has washed them. Mean- 
while a number of small round loaves, prepared in an adjoining apartment, 
are distributed among the congregation, each member receiving and eating 
one or more. The laity partake more rarely of the wine, and only after 
having previously confessed. In this case the communicants approach 
the door of the hekel, where the priest administers to them with a spoon 
a piece of the bread dipped in wine. 

A curious ceremony takes place in the Coptic churches on Palm 
Sunday ( ( id e&h-sha'&nin). After the usual service and the communion 
which follows it, several basins of water are placed in the space before 
the hekel. The priest in his white surplice takes his stand in front of 
them, turning his face towards the hekel, while another priest in his 
ordinary dress reads the Gospel in Arabic, after which the former con- 
secrates the water by pronouncing a prayer over it. The moment this 
ceremony is concluded, the surrounding congregation rushes up to the 
basins in order to dip palm-wreaths into them; and the crowd is often 
so unruly that the priest is obliged to restore order with the aid of his 
stick. These wreaths are then worn by the Copts under their tarbushes 
during the whole of the following year as amulets against the evil eye, 
the sting of scorpions, and every other misfortune that can befall body 
or soul. 

On 18th January, the anniversary of the Baptism of Christ ('id el- 
ghitds), men and boys plunge into the large font or bath which is to 

86 Route 5. OLD CAIRO. Environs 

for the women (PI. e) , and the third for the men (PL f). Within 
the 'vestibule (first section of the nave), as in most of the ancient 
Christian churches, is a trough (PI. g) in the pavement for -washing 
the feet and other ablutions. Beyond the three sections of the 
nave, and raised by a few steps, is the choir where the priests offi- 
ciate, and which is adjoined by the central gallery containing the 
sanctuary and by two side-chapels, that on the left surmounted by an 
Arabian dome. The Hekel, or sanctuary, containing the altar (PI. m), 
is enclosed by a wall, doors, and curtains. Inside the apse rise several 
steps of masonry, in amphitheatrical fashion, towards the place 
which in European churches is occupied by the episcopal throne, 
and in the present case by an image of Christ. The wall (PI. k), 
the Jkonostasis of Greek churches , separating the sanctuary from 
the choir, is panelled and richly adorned with carvings in wood and 
ivory. The oldest of these, probably coseval with the church, 
represent the Nativity , the Eucharist , and the patron saint of the 
church , and are surrounded with ornamentation in wood , consist- 
ing of rectilineal patterns, the basis of which is generally the 
Coptic cross (*f«). Another favourite device , which is often seen 
at Jerusalem, and with which the Copts frequently tattoo their arms, 
consists of the same cross, with four smaller crosses in the angles. 
Above a door to the right of the high-altar, engraved in wood, is 
the Coptic inscription, 'Greetings to the Temple of the Father!' 
Below it is a modern Arabic inscription with the date 1195. 
The church also contains some interesting Byzantine carving and 
mosaics in ivory, now blackened and discoloured with age. A num- 
ber of old pictures of saints, some of them on a gold ground and with 
well-preserved colours, possess no artistic value. The Coptic priest 
who exhibits the church expects a fee of lpias.from each visitor. — 
A narrow flight of twelve steps (Pl.l) descends to the Crypt, a small 
vaulted chapel under the choir, consisting of nave and aisles (boy 
to show the way 1 pias.). At the end of the nave is an altar in the 
form of an early Christian tomb-niche, which tradition indicates as 
the spot where the Yirgin and Child reposed ; in the centre of the 
aisles are apses. The right aisle contains the font , into which, 

be found in most Coptic churches, the water having been first blessed by 
the priest. Or, partly by way of amusement, they perform the same 
ceremony in the Nile, into which they first pour some consecrated water. 
On these occasions the river in Coptic districts swarms with boats. On 
the eve of this festival, as well as on Holy Thursday and on the festival 
of the Apostles, the priest washes the feet of the whole of his congregation. 
It is impossible to resist the impression that the Coptic worship has 
degenerated into a series of mere empty outward ceremonies, and indeed 
the more enlightened members of the sect admit this to be the case. 
Another external form to which they attach great weight is the observance 
of fasts, and a Copt who is negligent in this respect will rarely be met 
with. On these occasions all kinds of animal food, not excepting fat, 
eggs, butter, and cheese, are prohibited, and the usual fare consists of 
bread, onions, ful (beans), prepared with walnut or mustard-oil, and dukka 
(a kind of salad). — Comp. Butler's 'Coptic Churches of Egypt' (1884).' ' 

of Cairo. OLD CAIRO. 5. Route. 87 

according to the Coptic ritual , the child to he haptised is dipped 
three times. 

The Coptic quarter of Old Cairo contains several other basilicas, used 
by Coptic, Greek, and Jewish congregations, but interesting only to those 
who are making a special study of this kind of architecture. Among 
them we may mention the Seiyideh Maryam, or Greek Church of the Virgin, 
on an elevated site, and sometimes called El-Mo'allaka, or 'the hanging', 
containing ivory carving and stained-glass windows. The church of Mdri 
Mena contains a handsome candelabrum. That of Aba Sefen has a pulpit 
in coloured marble, inlaid with mother-of-pearl, and a jug and basin 
with old Arabian enamel work. The Synagogue (Esh-Shamy&n, or Keniset 
Eliy&hu) was formerly a church of St. Michael. The Jews say that Elijah 
once appeared here. The church of St. Barbara is embellished with many 
carvings in wood and ivory, and with paintings of more than average merit. 

Starting from the door of the castle, we pursue our way towards 
the N., across rubbish heaps, skirt the town-wall of Old Cairo, and 
after 650 yds. reach the "W. facade of the ancient, externally in- 
significant mosque of Amru , which has three entrances. Visitors 
usually enter by the S. entrance (PI. E), below the minaret. 

The G&mi'a 'Amr ibn el- As, called Mosque of Amru by the 
Europeans, owes its name to the general of the Khalif 'Omar, 
though not a trace now remains of the original mosque built of 
sun-dried bricks , which was only 50 ells long and 30 ells broad. 
Indeed there is scarcely a building in Egypt that has so frequently 
been destroyed by water , fire , and earthquake, and that has been 
so regularly rebuilt and enriched with gifts. Many portions of the 
present edifice seem to date from a reconstruction undertaken 
about 1400 A.D. by the rich Cairene merchant Ibrahim el-Mohalli. 
Another extensive restoration took place in the 18th cent. ; while 
much of the celling is quite modern. Corbett-Bey has published 
an interesting monograph in English on this mosque (Cairo ; 1890). 

The interior (2 pias. to the attendant who escorts the visitor) 
is in exact accordance with the typical form of the rectangular 
mosque with a hypaethral arrangement of columns round an open 
court ; and in spite of its imperfect state (the N. and S. colonnades 
are wanting) , its great size produces an imposing effect. The 
columns, all of marble of various kinds, were once 366 in number. 
Their heterogeneous nature is accounted for by the fact that they 
were brought from Roman and Byzantine buildings in Cairo and. 
were adapted to their new functions by rude Procrustean methods 
of lengthening or shortening. The difference in their sizes, however, 
is partly veiled by the circumstance that many of the pointed arches 
of the arcades closely approximate to the round or horse-shoe shape. 
The boundary walls, which are built of burned briek, exhibit 
pointed arches resembling those mentioned at p. 78, formed of two 
almost straight girders ; the best examples of this variety are in the 
W. portion of the S. wall. Byzantine artistic forms also may be 
observed in the walls and in the wood-carvings built into them. 

The Court (Fasha) has recently been planted with trees. In 
the centre is a fountain, beside a palm-tree. The Eastern Liwan is 

88 1 Route 5. 



the sanctuary. In front of the Mimhar (PI. 4) is a Column of grey 
marble (PI. 5), on -which, by a freak of nature, the names of Allah, 
Mohammed, and Sultan Suleiman in Arabic characters and the out- 
line of the prophet's 'kurbatsh' appear in veins of a lighter colour. 

E. Chief Entrance. (El, E 2 , former entrances.) — M. Minaret. — 1. Hana- 

fiyeh. — 2. Dikkeh. 3. Kibla. 4. Mimbar. 5. Column with Mohammed's 

name. 6. Tomb of Shekh Abdallah. — 7. Pair of columns in the W. 

Liwan. — 8. Side-court with Meda and latrines. 

This column is believed by the Muslims to have been transported 
miraculously from Mecca to Oairot. In the N.E. corner is the 
Tomb of Shekh 'Abdallah, son of Amr (PI. 6). The Western Uwan 

t The legend is told by Moritz Busch as follows : — 'When 'Amr was 
building this mosque, he asked his master, Khalif 'Omar, for a column 
from Mecca. The Khalif thereupon addressed himself to one of the col- 
umns there, and commanded it to migrate to the Nile, but the column 
would not stir. He repeated his command more urgently, but still the 
column remained immovable. A third time he repeated his command, 
angrily striking the column with his 'kurbatsh', but still without effect. 
At length he shouted, 'I command thee in the name of God, column, 
arise, and betake thyself to Cairo!' Thereupon the column went, bearing 
the mark of the whip, which is still visible'. 

of Cairo. OLD CAIRO. 5. Route. 89 

was formerly divided by a row of coupled columns, of which one 
Pair of Columns (PI. 7) alone remains. They are placed very close 
together, and it is said that none but honest men could squeeze 
themselves between them ; but the Khedive abolished this test of 
character by walling up the interstice. 

In 1808 this mosque, which has long been almost disused, witnessed 
a very remarkable scene. At the usu >1 period of the rise of the Nile, 
the water began to fall. Dismayed by this strange phenomenon, the whole 
of the Mohammedan priesthood, the Christian clergy of every sect, and 
the Jewish rabbis, with one accord, assembled in the mosque of r Amr 
to pray for the rise of the water, and so effectual were their prayers that 
the river ere long rose to its wonted fertilising height. 

The traveller will find it not uninteresting to visit one of the 
Kulleh Manufactories on the S. side of the mosque , and to inspect 
its primitive apparatus (bakshish , a few copper coins). The 
porous water-jars (Arabic KulleK) used throughout the whole of 
Egypt are chiefly manufactured at Keneh in Upper Egypt of light 
grey clay of very equal consistency. The remarkably uniform and 
delicate porosity of the vessels is produced by mixing the clay with 
ashes, which, the first time the vessel is used, are partly washed 
away by the water. The rapid evaporation caused by the porosity 
of the kulleh cools the liquid within to a temperature of 12-14° 
lower than that of the surrounding air. 

A visit to the Tombs of the Mamelukes (p. 80) may be con- 
veniently made from this point. Continuing to follow the road 
across the rubbish-hills of Fostat , we observe on our right a Mus- 
lim burial-ground , and at a short distance in front of us the old 
aqueduct (p. 81). A little to the right, on an eminence, rises an 
old ruined mosque (Oami'a AbH Su'ud) , beyond it is the Citadel 
with the mosque of Mohammed r Ali , and farther distant are the 
hills of the Mokattam with the mosque of Giyushi (p. 130). This 
view is very striking towards sunset. The road, which becomes bad 
beyond this point, leads round the ruined mosque and ascends 
heaps of debris. On the top of the hill it divides. The branch to the 
left leads back to the town , from the houses of which the Mosque 
of Sultan Hasan (p. 52) stands out conspicuously. The road, first 
in a straight direction , afterwards inclining to the right , leads to 
the necropolis known as Imam Shafe'i (p. 80). 

3. Bulak and the Island of Bulak. 

Owing to the expansion of Cairo towards the W. , in the direction 
of the Nile , Bulak (or Boulaq) , situated beyond the Isma'iliyeh 
Canal, and formerly an island, has become the river-harbour of the 
city of the Khalifs. Its narrow streets present a very busy scene, 
affording a more characteristic picture of Oriental life than the 
capital , as the inhabitants of distant provinces are proportionally 
more numerous here. Goods are conveyed hither from Upper Egypt, 
from Nubia, from the interior of Africa (so far as the Mahdiya per- 

90 Route 5. BUIAK. Environs 

mits), and from the fertile Delta. The principal quay is nearly op- 
posite the palace of Gezireh ; and it is most frequented between 
October and December, when the rapids of the river are most easily 
navigated. The merchants of Cairo congregate here every morning 
to make purchases, frequently as early as 7 o'clock. When there is 
a scarcity of goods , they sometimes go out to the vessels in boats ; 
but when there is no scarcity , the goods are sold by auction in 
Bulak. Caravans bringing merchandise also arrive here not unfre- 
quently, the most important being from Tunis via Kufra and Siwa, 
while those from "Wadai and Dar-Fur have been almost entirely 
stopped by the altered political situation. 

At Bulak, and at the moorings of Embdbeh (p. 92), farther to the 
N., the traveller will find the dahabiyehs, or boats fitted up for the 
voyage to Upper Egypt. At the N. end of the town is situated the 
Arsenal, founded in 1835, with a manufactory of weapons attached 
to it. Machinery for Egyptian manufactories arriving from Europe 
is put together at Bulak before being sent to its final destination, 
and all repairs of machinery are also executed here. Bulak also 
boasts of a large Iron Foundry, an Ecole des Arts et Metiers, a Paper 
Manufactory, a House of Correction for Women, a Lunatic Asylum, 
and the Government Printing Office, none of which establishments 
will interest ordinary travellers. 

The Arsenal and Stores of Messrs. Cook fy Son are shown to visitors 
armed with a permission from the company's offices at Cairo (p. 29). 

The Viceregal Printing Office (el-rnatba'a) was founded by Mohammed 
'Ali, chiefly for the purpose of printing and disseminating translations of 
European (especially French) works of all kinds. The introduction of 
printing had at first to contend against serious prejudices, as many of the 
Muslims feared that the name of God would be defiled by contact with im- 
pure substances used in the process. To this day, indeed, the Koran is pre- 
ferred in a written form; but, thanks to the perseverance of the govern- 
ment, the prejudice against other printed books has now almost entirely 
disappeared, and there are few of the many modern institutions recently 
introduced into Egypt which have thriven so well as this printing-office. 
The number of private printing-offices is also increasing from year to year. 
Of the works printed in Egypt 1000-4000 copies are usually struck off, 
and the fact that the whole of them are generally sold within a few years 
affords a proof that the taste for literature in the East is again on the 
increase. Some works, such as Bokhari's collection of traditions, have 
an immense sale. Energetic attempts are still being made to render 
European works accessible to Orientals in the form of translations, chiefly 
from the French. Thus, among the legal works, may be mentioned a 
translation of the Code Napoleon, among the geographical the works of 
Malte Brun , and among the historical the Life of Charles XII. by Vol- 
taire. — At the same time the national literature has not been neglected, 
and a number of valuable early Arabian works have recently been brought 
into notice by the agency of the printing-press, such as the historical 
works of Ibn el-Alhiv (cornp. p. ccxv) , those of Makrtzi (p. ccxv), those 
of El-Makkari , the writer of Spanish history (17th cent.), and the 'Book 
of the Songs' by Abulfarag el-Isbahdni (d. 966). 

A peculiarity of many of the books recently printed at Bulak is that 
smaller works illustrative of the main text are printed on the margins of the 
pages. The paper used for the purpose is made in Egyptian manu- 
factories, chiefly from maize-straw, which accounts for its yellowish tint 

of Cairo. ISLAND OF Bl![LAK. 5. Routt. 91 

The great collection of Egyptian antiquities formerly preserved 
at Bulak was removed in 1889 to the old Khedivial palace at Gizeh 
(P- 94)." 

On an island in the Nile, opposite Bulak, rises the former pal- 
ace of Gezireh. The road thither crosses the handsome Great Nile 
Bridge adjoining the Kasr en-NU (PI. A, 5 ; p. 46), the extensive 
barracks of Cairo. The bridge, about 420 yds. in length, was built 
by a French iron company. The buttresses, which were constructed 
with the aid of air-tight 'caissons', are of solid stone, and are 55 yds. 
apart. The bottom of the foundations is about 45 ft. below the level 
of the river when at its lowest. At a very early hour in the morning 
an interesting and picturesque crowd of peasantry may be seen con- 
gregated here for the purpose of paying duty on the wares they are 
bringing to market. It should be borne in mind that the Nile bridge 
is closed at about 9 a.m. and from 1 to 2.30 p.m., the times ap- 
pointed for the passage of vessels through it. 

The S. part of the Island of Bulak ( Qezlret Bulak), to the right 
of the road to Gizeh (p. 94), is adorned with a beautiful avenue 
of lebbek-trees, which is thronged with the equipages of fashion- 
able Cairenes on Frid. afternoons from about 5 p.m. In the level 
central space are a Race Course (to the E.) and the Recreation 
Grounds of numerous clubs (to the W.). 

A Footpath leads directly from the end of the bridge among palm-trees 
by the side of the Nile, affording views of the traffic on the river and 
on the Bulak bank. Refreshments (milk, etc.) may be obtained at the 
Ca/4 Bellevue, etc. 

The former Vicebegal Chateau op Gezireh ('Island Chateau'), 
to jthe N.E. of the avenue, on the Nile, was purchased in 1893, 
along with the adjacent buildings and the park, by a limited hotel- 
company and has been opened as the Gezireh Palace Hotel (see ^.28). 
The chateau was erected, after many interruptions and alterations, 
by Franz Pasha (p. 73), a German architect, in 1863-68, and fitted, 
up with fabulous splendour. The masonry was executed by native 
workmen. The principal rooms of the chateau and of the *Ca$ino 
or Kiosque in the park (reconstructed by Franz) were tastefully 
ornamented with Moorish stucco-work by C. von Diebitsch ; other 
Tooms by Ercolani and Furey. The coloured marble pavements were 
executed by Bonani of Carrara ; and the cast-iron work, notably the 
gallery of the Kiosque in the Alhambra style, is from the Lauch- 
hammer foundry near Dresden. In the reign of Isma'il Pasha the 
chateau was frequently inhabited by high foreign personages, and 
the distinguished guests present at the opening of the Suez Canal 
in 1869 were entertained here. Among the relics of the former 
magnificence are six costly onyx mantelpieces in the chateau, and 
a few artistic bronzes, by Barbedienne of Paris, in the Casino. Many 
other costly articles were removed years ago to other Egyptian pal- 
aces or to Constantinople. — The *Park, which was formerly quite 

92 Route 5. SHUBRA. Environs 

neglected, with empty ponds and dilapidated fountains, etc., has now 
been set in ordei by the hotel-company (baud-concerts daily). A 
fountain byBonani, representing the Infant Nile, deserves mention, 
To the N. of it is the former Harem Building, part of which was 
erected by Mohammed 'Ali. Between the chateau and the kiosque 
is a grotto with water-works and a summer-room. 

The N. part of the island is now occupied by a division of the 
Camel Corps of Suakin and Oeztreh. A visit to the camp and drill- 
ground is interesting. 

The W. Arm of the Nile is dry when the river is low, but is 
used as an escape-conduit when the narrow main-branch is full, 
and would otherwise threaten Bulak with inundation. 

Below Bulak and the island the Nile is spanned by the Railway 
Bridge mentioned at pp. 26, 159, which can also be used by foot- 
passengers and carriages. The station on the left bank is known as 
Embabeh. This was the scene of the 'Battle of the Pyramids', in 
which the French under Bonaparte defeated the Mamelukes (July 
21st, 1798). The occupation of Cairo followed the victory (p. 37). 

4. Shubra and the Abbasiyeh. 

The visit to Shubra, apart from the pleasant drive in the avenue, is 
not specially interesting, while the inspection of the viceregal gardens 
involves previous written application to His Excellency Mohammed Bey, at 
the Kasr r Ali (p. 47). — The 'Abb&siyeh is also of little interest. 

The broad Shubra Avenue, shaded by beautiful sycamore and leb- 
bek- trees, begins beyond the Lemun Bridge and the Railway Stations 
(PL B, A, 1 ; p. 27), and leads straight N. to the (2!/ 2 M.) village 
and palace of Shubra, on the Nile. A few years ago this avenue was 
the Rotten Row, or Avenue de Boulogne, of Cairo, especially on 
Friday and Sunday evenings ; but it is now merely an unusually busy 
country-road, with a picturesque mixture of townsfolk and country 
people. Beyond the railway-station, where the avenue begins, are 
a number of cafes and refreshment-stalls. Near the beginning of 
the drive are several villas, one of which, to the right, a little back 
from the road, is the beautiful Villa Ciccolani. The tower com- 
mands a good survey of the environs (fee 5 pias., in spite of the 
keeper's demand for 5 fr.). On the left is the former viceregal palace 
Kasr en-Nuzha, now occupied by the Ecole Normale and the Lycee 
Tewfik (director, Peltier-Bey). 

At the end of the avenue, and beyond the first houses of Shubra, 
we cross a canal by a drawbridge, turn to the left towards the 
Nile, and follow the embankment to an archway. Passing through 
this, we enter a tree-planted space, and Teach the entrance of the — 

Viceregal Gardens or Shubra, laid out by Mohammed 'Ali and 
his son Halim Pasha, but now utterly neglected — an example of 
quickly fading Oriental magnificence. After presenting our ticket 
of admission, we first proceed to the kiosque (fee 5 pias.), after 

of Cairo. 'ABBASIYEH. 5. Route. 93 

which a gardener shows the grounds, which cover an area of nearly 
nine acres (fee 5 pias.). The kiosque presents no interest except as 
an example of rich and effective garden architecture. The garden was 
somewhat incongruously re-modelled by M. Barillet (p. lxxv) in the 
old French style , which is ill-adapted for the Oriental vegetation, 
but it also contains some beautiful rose and geranium beds. Among 
the tropical plants we remark the beautiful Indian lemon-shrub and 
a huge lebbek-tree (p. lxxv). An artificial hill in the garden com- 
mands a good survey of the grounds. The large building to the N. 
is a house of correction. 

Another point in the immediate vicinity of Cairo that deserves 
mention is the 'Abb&siyeh, which lies on the edge of the desert, 
about IV2 M. to the N.E. of the Bdb Huseintyeh (PI. E, 1 ; p. 75). 
Abbasiyeh is a group of houses and cottages, founded by 'Abbas 
Pasha in 1849, in order to afford suitable accommodation for the 
Beduin shekhs whose friendship he was desirous of cultivating, and 
who objected to enter the city itself. A large palace which formerly 
stood here has been replaced by barracks in the most modern style, 
besides which there are numerous older barracks and a Military 
School with a gymnastic-ground. The British troops are at present 
encamped here. The European Hospital (p. 31) is also situated 
here ; and near the last barrack on the left rise the Meteorological 
and. Astronomical Observatories. — The railway-station of Demirdash 
(p. 127) lies to the W. of 'Abbasiyeh ; a branch-line thence passes 
through the village. 

The main road at 'Abbasiyeh crosses the embankment of the old 
railway to Suez, and, near the station and village of Kubbeh (p. 127), 
also the railway to Merg. About li/ 2 M. from 'Abbasiyeh, not 
quite halfway to Matariyeh, it passes the garden (no admission) of 
the winter-residence of the present Khedive (marked Palais Taufik 
on our Maps). — Thence to Matariyeh, see p. 127. 

The Gebel el-Ahmar, or Red Mountain, rises to the E. of Abbasiyeh. 
At its base, reached by a carriage-road diverging to the right a short 
distance outside the Bdb Huseintyeh (p. 75), is an old Viceregal Chdteau. 
The mountain consists of' a very hard miocene conglomerate of sand, 
pebbles, and fragments of fossil wood, cemented together by means of 
silicic acid, and coloured red or yellowish brown with oxide of iron. 
According to Fraas, the two colossal statues at Thebes are composed of 
rock from the 'Red Mountain'. For many centuries the quarries here 
have yielded excellent and durable mill-stones, and the neighbouring huge 
heaps of debris afford abundant material for the construction of the mac- 
adamised roads of Cairo and Alexandria. The substratum of limestone, 
beneath the conglomerate, which is connected with the Gebel Giyiishi 
(p. 129), is also quarried. The entire mountain is skirted by a railway 
for the service of the quarries. 


6. The Museum of Gizeh. 

The Museum is about 3 M. from the Ezbekiyeh (comp. the Map, p. 126). 
Carriages and Donkeys, see p. 30. — Visitors should bear in mind that the 
Great Nile Bridge is closed for traffic at about 9 am. and from 1 to 
2.30 p.m. 

On the left bank of the Nile, opposite the island of Roda, stands 
the Palace of Gizeh, just below the now decayed -village of Gizeh, 
which is named in the middle ages as a summer-residence of the 
Mameluke sultans. This palace now contains the great viceregal col- 
lection of Egyptian antiquities. — We cross the Nile by the Great 
Iron Bridge near Kasr en-Nil (p. 91), traverse the S. end of the Island 
of Bulak (p. 91 ; to the left the caravan-depot), and then cross a 
smaller bridge over the periodically dry arm of the Nile. Beyond 
this bridge the road to Gizeh, which is shaded by beautiful lebbek 
trees, diverges to the left and skirts the bank of the Nile, which is 
peopled by a motley throng. (The road straight on leads to the 
railway-station of Bulak ed-Dakrur, p. 159.) On the right are a 
number of palaces and property belonging to the Khedive, and the 
Estate of Prince Husln Pasha, with an interesting garden in the 
European style (for admission apply at Stamm's flower-shop, at the 
corner of the Shari'a Kamel and the Route de Bulak, in Cairo). 
Farther on, on the same side, is the entrance to the extensive park 
and palace of Gizeh. 

The Palace of Gizeh., a huge rambling edifice, built in a light 
and unsubstantial Oriental style, with about 500 saloons and apart- 
ments, was erected by the ex-Khedive Isma'il for his harem at a 
cost stated at 120 million francs. Since 1889 the Museum of Egypt- 
ian Antiquities, formerly at Bulak, has been installed here, though 
danger of fire, if nothing else, renders it a very unsuitable deposit- 
ory for so valuable a collection. The building of a museum in Cairo 
itself is projected for the next few years. — A walk in the *Park is 
refreshing after a visit to the Museum. 

The **Museum of Egyptian Antiquities is the most valuable 
collection of the kind. Its value is much enhanced by the fact that 
the place where the various objects were discovered is in nearly 
every case precisely known, a circumstance of the greatest impor- 
tance for the geographical and historical explanation of the mon- 
uments. The collection was founded by the eminent French Egypt- 
ologist Aug. Mariette (d. 1881), and after his death was conducted 
by the no less eminent G. Maspero (1881-1886), and by E. Grebaut. 
The present director is Jacques de Morgan; the conservators are G. Da- 
ressy and E. Brugsch-Bey. — The earliest description of the Museum is 
Mariette's 'Zes Principaux Monuments du Musee de Boulacq' (1864); 
Maspero also published a 'Guide du Visiteur au Musee de Boulacq 1 
(1884). The present detailed Catalogue (1894), by J. de Morgan, 
which is sold at the entrance, is quite indispensable for students. 

Ground Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 95 

In the following description we mention the place of discovery 
only of the more important or more recently acquired objects, refer- 
ring the visitor for farther details to the catalogue. Alterations in 
the arrangement of some of the rooms may be caused by the addition 
from time to time of new objects discovered in the course of the 
excavations actively carried on by the Museum authorities. 

The museum is open in winter daily, except Mon., from 9.30 till 
4.30 ; admission 5 piastres, free on Tues. ; the crowd of Arab visitors 
of the lower classes renders the latter day unsuitable for a visit. 
In summer (15th Mar. to 15th Oct.) the museum is open from 8.30 
to 12. Sticks and umbrellas are given up at the entrance and re- 
turned at the exit (no fee). 

A special room is reserved for Students; apply to the director or to 
one of the conservators. — In the Sale Room (R. lxi) duplicates, etc., of the 
antiquities may be purchased, at prices fixed by the Museum authorities 
and plainly marked on the objects offered. Purchases here made have, of 
course, a guarantee of their genuineness (comp. also p. xvii). 

In the Garden near the entrance is a tall pedestal supporting 
a Sphinx in red granite, with the cartouches of the Pharaoh Ram- 
ses II., added later. On the right of the road to the palace is the 
top of an Obelisk from Karnak (17th Dyn.). On a platform of ma- 
sonry in front of the main entrance rests the marble sarcophagus of 
Aug. Mariette (p. 94). 

The Ground Floor 
contains the more ponderous monuments of the collection. 

a. Monuments of the EarlyEmpire (I-XI. Dynasties, 3892-2380 B.C.). 

Room I. — The Most Ancient Monuments, some dating from he- 
fore the pyramid-builders. 

To the left of the entrance: 1. Granite statue of a kneeling 
priest, perhaps from the 2nd Dyn. — *2. Three wooden panels 
with six reliefs. These panels, taken from the walls of a tomb at 
Sakkara, represent the figure of 'Hesi', the deceased, while the hiero- 
glyphics above give his name and his titles. The work is executed 
by a master-hand and is not unworthy of comparison with the Shekh 
el-Beled (p. 96). The delicacy and decision of the lines is unsur- 
passed, as is also the knowledge displayed in the modelling. Mariette 
refers these reliefs to the 3rd, Maspero to the 5th Dynasty. 

To the right of the entrance: 3. Fragment of the inner lining 
of a tomb, found in a grave at MMum. The six geese represented 
here are drawn and coloured with great accuracy. The material is 
a kind of hardened clay coated with plaster. 

In the middle of the room : 4, 5. Two sacrificial tables in ala- 
baster. Two lions support each of the tables in a slightly tilted 
position, so that the libations ran down into a vase placed between 
the tails of the lions (4th Dyn.). — *6. Double group in limestone, 
found in 1870 in a mastaba near Medum, the colouring still re- 

96 Route 6. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Ground Floor. 

mark ably fresh. It represents Rahotep, 'leader of the infantry' (pro - 
bably of unpretending origin) and his wife Nefert, 'a princess of the 
blood', both in the costume of the period, admirably differentiatep 
in expression (Nefert has all the self-importance of a princess). 
The eyes, made of coloured quartz, impart a very lifelike air to 
the figures (end of the 3Td Dyn.). — 7. Alabaster sacrificial table, dis- 
covered among the foundations of the temple of Ptah at Memphis, 
probably dating from the 1st Dyn. ; 8, 9. Two steles of Situ (4th 
Dyn.), representing the fa$ade of an ancient Egyptian house, with 
a wooden roof. 

S. side of the room : 10. Large stele from Sakkara, resembling 
the preceding; 11, 12. Door-posts, with relief of the wife of Sokar- 
Khabiu (limestone; Sakkara); 16. Stele in the form of a door, from 
the tomb of Sokar Khabiu (limestone; 3rd Dyn., Sakkara). 

E. side : 13. Stele from the tomb of Sheri, priest of King Send 
(2nd Dyn. ; limestone) ; 14. Rectangular sacrificial table, in ala- 
baster, with the name of Snefru-nefer, priest of the Pyramid of Assa- 
nefer (5th Dyn.) ; 15. Similar table, but round (Sakkara). 

Room II. In the centre : 17, *18. Statues of Ra-nefer, a priest, 
in one case wearing a wig (in limestone). The muscles of the arms 
and breast are executed with great realism, and the statues rank 
among the most perfect specimens of Egyptian art (5th Dyn., 
Sakkara). — Between these : 77. Statue of Ti, of the same period, 
found in the serdab of his tomb at Sakkara (p. 180). In front: 
1311. Seated limestone statue, with admirably preserved colouring. 
— To the left : **19. Wooden Statue from Sakkara of Ra'emka (or 
perhaps more correctly, Hotepherkhut), an inspector or foreman of 
workmen, such as might have been employed in building the Great 
Pyramid. It is known as the Shekh el-Beled (village-chief), a name 
given to it by the Arabs on account of its resemblance to a well- 
fed specimen of that modern functionary. 

The figure, which dates from the early part (4th Dyn.) of the old 
empire, affords a proof that the Egyptian sculptors were quite capable of 
executing really artistic work whenever they could shake off the fetters 
of their rigid canon. The feet, which had been broken off, are restored, 
but the rest of the figure is in its original condition. The arms are separ- 
ately worked and attached to the body. The upper part of the body and 
the legs are bare, while from the hips hangs a kind of apron folded in 
front. In the hand is the long rod of office. The round head with its 
short hair, and the portrait-like, good-natured face are remarkably life- 
like. The eyes, which have a somewhat rigid expression, were put in, 
as in the case of other similar statues, after the work was completed. 
They consist of pieces of opaque white quartz with pupils formed of rock- 
crystal, in the centre of which is placed a polished metal knob for the 
double purpose of securing them and giving them light and sparkle; and 
they are framed with thin plates of bronze, the edges of which form the 
eyelids. The figure, like Ho. 108 in Rooin X, was originally covered with 
linen, upon which a thin coating of plaster was laid and then painted. 

Opposite : 1310. Limestone figure of a seated Scribe, from Sak- 
kara; the stylus in the right hand was inserted. *1175. Wooden 
coffin and mummy of King Aahmes I. (18th Dyn. ; comp. p. oviii). 

Ground Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 97 

N. side of the room: 21. Statue of the priest Atep ; 23. Large 
limestone stele, of fine workmanship, mentioning the names of Ra- 
en-kau and his wifeMftat, priestess of Hathor; 24. Limestone stele 
of Hesesi, keeper of the corn-magazine, the treasury, etc. ; to the 
left, Statue of a Scribe (4th or 5th Dyn.), found at Sakkara in 1893. 

S. side: 22. Statue of Eikau, president of finance; *25. Admir- 
able limestone stele of Vrar -en-Ptah (Sakkara); 20. Limestone 
statue of a priest named Ans-kha; 26. Large limestone stele of 
Nub-hotep, priestess of Hathor and Neith ; 27. Similar stele of her 
husband Tes-hon (both found at Sakkara in 1892). 

29, 30. Wall panels from a niche in the tomb (mastaba) of Sabu 
at Sakkara (5th Dyn.). 

One of these represents the deceased sitting at a table covered with 
slaughtered cattle, eggs, flowers, fruit, and other offerings, which are 
being brought in by servants ; on the other side we see Sabu seated in a 
kind of litter, while a numher of men and women are bringing their 
gifts to the tomb. Below are represented the cutting up of slaughtered 
oxen, the deceased navigating the Nile, and his cattle being driven before 
him to be counted. 

31. Large alabaster sacrificial table, of the Early Empire. 

N. side again : 32. Sacrificial vase, in diorite, with the name of 
Ptah-Khuni ; 33. Fragment of a statue of Chephren (4th Dyn. ; dio- 
rite), from the well of the granite temple at Gizeh. 

On the S. side again : *35. Female torso (in wood), found in the 
grave of the Shekh el-Beled, and probably representing his wife ; 
36. Limestone stele of Sesha (6th Dyn.), from Abydos. 

Room III. In the centre, Five coffins and mummies of Kings 
(comp. p. 123): 1177. Coffin and mummy of Amenhotep I. (18th 
Dyn.); the head wears a mask; 1178. Coffin and mummy of Tut- 
mesll. (18thDyn.); 1179. Coffin of Tutmes III. (18th Dyn.), much 
damaged and stripped of its gilding; 1180. Coffin and mummy of 
Setil.; 1181. Coffin and mummy of Seti's son Ramses II. the Great, 
the Sesostris of the Greeks (19th Dyn.). The inscriptions record two 
changes in the resting-place of the mummies, once in the 16th year of 
King Si-Mentu, and once in the 10th of the high-priest Pinozem. — 
*43. Statue of the judge Ateta (lime-stone; 5th Dyn., Sakkara); 44. 
Statue of Khui, in limestone, with two women crouching at his feet. 

N. side: 37. Alabaster statue of a king (name unknown) ; 39. 
Statue of King Vser-en-ra (5th Dyn.; pink granite), both from 
Sakkara ; 42. Statue of Chephren, in green basalt (Gizeh). 

E. side : 46, 45. Headless statues of Chephren, in green basalt 
and diorite, from the temple of the Sphinx at Gizeh ; 38. Alabaster 
statue of.KmsrM«nMor(5thDyn.);41. Alabaster statue of Chephren; 
40. Statue of Menkaura (Mycerinus), builder of the third pyramid 
of Gizeh (4th Dyn.) ; 47. Stele, inscribed on both sides, with the 
name of King Pepi Neferkara (6th Dyn.); 60. Limestone stele, re- 
presenting a sacrificial table, with the royal consort Pap i Ankhnas 
on one side, and A-u on the other (6th Dyn.). 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. 7 

98 Route 6. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Ground Floor. 

S. side : 48. Block of grey granite, on the lower part of which 
is a small naos, with the name of King Sahura (6th Dyn.); on the 
top of the block is the sign 'Kher' (i.e. 'this side down'). 49. Stele 
of limestone, with an inscription of 50 lines, in which the deceased 
Una records his exploits under the three Pharaohs, Teta, Pepi I., 
and Mer-en-ra, including his work on the pyramids constructed by 
the last two kings (both in Sakkara, opened in 1880-81); 50. Frag- 
ment of a hieroglyphic inscription (limestone ; 4th Dyn., Gizeh), 
agreement between an Egyptian grandee and a priestly body relat- 
ive to offerings to be made to the former; 51. Door-posts, in grey 
basalt, with the name of Tau, brother-in-law of King Pepi Bameri 
and uncle of King Neferkara (Abydos). 61. Block of syenite, with 
the cartouche of King Pepi (6th Dyn.), found in 1887 at Bubastis. 

W. side: 52. Diorite statue (headless) of a prince, found in the 
temple of Isis to the E. of the pyramid of the daughter of Cheops, 
near Gizeh ; 53. Painted limestone stele of Queen Tatit, of the Early 
Empire (Sakkara). 

54. Celebrated tombstone of the 25th Dyn., probably a copy of 
an original of the 4th Dynasty. 

The inscription is a record by King Cheops of various works and restor- 
ations carried out by him. It contains a representation of the great sphinx 
of Gizeh, with an intimation 'that the dwelling of the sphinx Harmachis 
lies to the S. of the temple of Isis and to the N. of the temple of Osiris'. 

55. Bla : granite stele of Prince User, found to the N. of Karnak. 
N. side Cabinet A : Smaller articles from the tombs of the Early 

Empire; small bronze and alabaster vases; sacrificial geese, in lime- 
stone ; small tablets with sacrificial objects ; etc. — Cabinet B : Vases 
and sacrificial tablets; 56. Alabaster ltd of a vase, with the name of 
King Pepi Neferkara (6th Dyn.) ; 57. Roll of linen with the same 
name ; 58. Fragment of an alabaster vase, with the name of King 
Bameri; 59. Sacrificial geese, in alabaster. 

Room IV. Steles and statues dating from the Early Empire : 
62. Sitting statue of Hekenu, a member of the royal family (in 
limestone) ; 63. Limestone stele of Nuter-nefer, with portrait of the 
deceased in full face (not, as usual, in profile). 

Room V (large vestibule). In the centre: **64. Statue of 
King Chephren or Khafra, the builder of the second pyramid, found 
'n the well of the granite temple near the Sphinx (p. 154). 

The king is represented in life-size, sitting on a throne, the arms of 
which terminate in lions' heads. At the sides of the seat are papyrus 

and lotus plants intertwined around the symbol of union V , which indi- 

cates the junction of Upper with Lower Egypt, and is perhaps emblematical 
of the transition from this life to the next. On the pedestal, to the 
right and left of the feet of the statue, is inscribed in distinct hiero- 
glyphic characters : 'The prince and victorious Horus, Khafra, the good 
god and lord of the diadem'. In his right hand the monarch holds a 
roll of papyrus. On the top of the hack of the throne is a hawk, protect- 
ing the king's head with its outspread wings. The torso is of a more 

Ground Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 99 

thickset type than ia the cage with the statues of the modern empire, 
having been modelled in accordance with the rales prescribed by the 
hieratic canon at that early period, and the whole figure breathes a spirit 
of strength and repose. The muscles of the breast and legs are repro- 
duced with wonderful accuracy. The statue is made of an extremely 
hard diorite, worked with great skill. 

In the S.E. corner of the room : 66, 66. Large limestone steles 
of Arikheftka and Ankhmdka, two priests of King Sahura and King 
TJserkaf (5th Dyn.); 67. Limestone sarcophagus of Uta, a priest in 
the service of King Mycerinus (6th Dyn.), found at Sakkara in 1892. 

N.E. corner: 68. Limestone stele of Safekh-nefer-sim, a high 
official of the 5th Dyn. ; 69. Funeral offerings for Safekh-nefer-sim. 

N.W. corner: 70. Large limestone relief of Ptah-hotep (5th Dyn.). 

W. side: 71. Limestone stele, with the name of Ta'i, mistress of 
the harem; 72. Stele of Shemkhetnankh, a chief physician (5th Dyn.). 

S.W. side: 73. Stele of Ahines, governor of Turra. All these 
monuments are from Sakkara. 

In the middle of the room : *74. Sarcophagus in red granite of 
Prince Hirbdif, with sculptured representations of the facades of 
houses (4th Dyn., Memphis). 

S. side : 75. Statue in Mack granite of a crouching scribe named 
Ra-nefer; 76. Similar statue of the scribe Sedenmat, partly coloured. 

Room VI contains steles and statues, all dating from the Early 
Empire. Cabinets E and F, in the middle of the room, contain se- 
pulchral statuettes of the Early Empire (5th and 6th Dyn.) ; the 
face of the first figure to the right, in Cabinet F, is remarkably in- 
dividualized in its irregularity. 

Room VII (Room of the Ornaments). On the wooden stands is 
a collection of statuettes from graves at Gizeh and Sakkara (4-6th 
Dyn.). The cabinets contain small and lifelike figures, differing 
entirely from the ordinary stiff attitudes of Egyptian statues. 

N. side, to the right of the entrance: Cabinet A: Statuettes 
dating from the Early Empire. 87. Man with a sack on his shoulder 
and his sandals in his hand (5th Dyn.); 88. Baker and woman 
kneading dough; 89. Kneeling statuette (limestone) of a man under 
the influence of fear. *90. Scribe in a kneeling posture, with his 
hands folded (inlaid eyes; 5th Dyn.); the nervous smile of the ob- 
sequious servant is admirably hit off. 

N. side, to the left of the entrance : Cabinet B : Statuettes from 
Gizeh and Sakkara. *78. Dwarf named Khnumhotep, 'keeper of the 
linen for embalming'; *79. Limestone statuette of Nefer, 'keeper 
of the corn for tribute', one of the finest examples of Egyptian 
sculpture of the 5th Dyn. ; *80. Wooden statuette of a man in a 
cloak, the head unusually expressive (4th Dyn.). 

E. side: 81. Limestone group of Neferhotep and his wife Tenteta. 

S. side: 82. Limestone relief : Apa, governor of the palace, with 
his wife Senbet and his family and servants, on his journey to the 
region of the dead (6th Dyn.). 


100 Route 6. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Ground Floor. 

W. side : 83. Limestone relief : the two upper rows represent 
field workers, the third the making of wine and bread. In the 
lowest row are goldsmiths weighing gold and sculptors at work 
with their polishing stones. — 84. Limestone relief of boatmen 
quarrelling ; 85. Group of three persons, one a woman with re- 
markable ornaments (limestone); 86. Limestone relief of dancers 
and musicians. 

In the middle of the room, N.E. side : Glass Case H: Amulets, 
votive gifts, and gold ornaments, found in 1889 by Prof. Flinders 
Petrie on a mummy at Hawara in the Fayum. Below, in the corners, 
gold thumbs. 

Glass Case JT(E. side) contains the ** Jewels of Queen Aah-hotep, 
mother of Aahmes I. (18th Dyn., about 1600 B.C.), found with the 
mummy of the queen at Drah Abu'l Negga (Thebes) in 1860. From 
right to left : 946. Bracelet of gold adorned with heads of lapis- 
lazuli; 944. Richly ornamented diadem, with a cartouche and 
sphinxes ; *943. Double-hinged bracelet, with delicately engraved 
gold figures on blue enamel representing King Aahmes kneeling 
between Seb and his acolytes ; 962. Necklace (usekh) of gold , the 
links of which are in the form of coils of rope, cruciform flowers, 
antelopes chased by lions, jackals, vultures, and winged urseus- 
serpents, while the clasps represent the heads of hawks ; 946. Pliable 
gold chain, 36 inches long, ending in the heads of geese ; pendent 
from it is a scarabseus with wings, etc., of blue glass-paste striped 
with gold: 955. Golden boat, resting upon a wooden carriage 
with wheels of bronze, and containing figures in beaten gold (the 
three chief figures are of silver) ; 956. Boat and crew, all in silver ; 
950. Axe with a handle of cedar-wood encased in gold inscribed 
with hieroglyphics ; the solid gold blade is also covered with ena- 
melled ornamentation; *951. Dagger and sheath, both of gold, a 
model of grace ; the top of the richly jewelled hilt is formed of four 
female heads in gold, and the junction of blade and hilt is covered 
with a head of Apis ; *953. Golden breast-plate inlaid with precious 
stones, and adorned with rich mosaics ; 954. Necklace of golden 
rosettes adorned with gems and almonds of gold; 949. Mirror 
(comp. No. 915); 947. Anklets; 964. Armlet, adorned with tur- 
quoises; in front is a vulture with wings of gold inlaid with 
gems; 948. Fan of wood mounted in gold, with the holes left by 
the ostrich feathers with which it was originally furnished. 

Glass Case F (S.E. side). Silver vases and bowls, from the ruins 
of Mendes (Tell-Tmai), probably some of the temple-utensils, rr- 
sembling in shape those represented in the wall-paintings of the 
18-20th Dyn. ; 923. Silver ornaments from the corners of a naos. 
Adjoining, Silver spoon with a figure of victory inlaid in gold 
(Graeco-Roman period). 

Glass Case in front of the S. wall : Utensils, figures, and other 
small objects of art. 900-900b. Rare sepulchral statuettes in bronze ; 

Ground Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 101 

909. Head in blue porcelain (26th Dyn.) ; 908. Pretty head of a girl. 
The ■wooden figures Nos. 904, 879, and 878 should also be noticed 
(in the left hand of 878 is the eye-amulet). — 888, 889. Perfume- 
spoons. *891. Statuette bearing the name of Ptahmos, chief prophet 
of Ammon, in white enamel inlaid with blue, yellow, and violet 
(20th Dyn.). This is perhaps the most beautiful sepulchral statuette 
that has been found. — Below, 896, 896b. Perfume-case ; the handle 
consists of a nude female figure, holding a duck, the body of which 
is hollowed out to receive the perfume. *898. Wooden drinking- 
horn ; *902. Green enamel head of a bald man (Imhotep ?), of the 
Sai'te period, known as 'the god with the beautiful face'. 

Glass Case L (W. side): Golden ornaments of various epochs. 
972, 972 b. Valuable earrings ; 974. Broad band of thin gold, of the 
Greek (Ptolemaic) period , scale-covered aegis , with fine gorgon's 
face; 973. Breast-ornament of very delicate workmanship. Also 
bracelets, rings, and earrings of Syrian workmanship , 991. Persian; 
similar articles of Greek, Roman, and Byzantine origin. 

Glass Case on the N. side: **Golden Ornaments of the princesses 
Hathor-Sat and Sent-Senbets (12th Dyn.), showing the high pitch 
of artistic skill attained by Egyptian goldsmiths about 2000 B.C. 

These were found by M. de Morgan in March, 1894, in the N. brick 
pyramid at Dahshur (p. 187). The principal pieces are : Gold Breast-Ornament 
inlaid in a mosaic style with cornelian, lapis lazuli, and turquoises; in 
the middle is the name of Usertesen II., supported on either side by a 
hawk perched upon the hieroglyphic symbol for 'gold', and wearing the 
Egyptian double crown. — Gold Breast-Ornament inlaid with gems; at 
the top is a vulture with outspread wings, representing Nekhbet, the 
patron-goddess of the king; below is the name of Usertesen III., to the 
right and left of which are two hawk-headed sphinxes, as symbols of the 
king, each trampling upon two foes. — Breast- Ornament of the same kind; 
at the top is the vulture, below is the name of Amenemha III., on either 
side of which the king appears, grasping a kneeling Asiatic by the hair 
and smiting him with a club. — Golden /Shell, inlaid with coloured gems, on 
which are lotus-flowers. — Bracelet- Ornament in gold and coloured gems, 
showing the name of Amenemha III. — Scarabaei in gold, lapis lazuli, 
amethyst, and enamel. — Vase and lid, in obsidian ornamented with gold. 

— Gold Bracelets. — Couchant Lions, in gold. — Two Silver Mirrors, with 
gold ornaments. — Golden Shells, from chains. — Chains of Beads; etc. 

Room VIII contains mainly reliefs. — In the S.E. corner: 
91. Shepherds pasturing their flocks; below, shepherds and fisher- 
men preparing for a meal. — In the S.W. corner: 92. The deceased 
Ankheftka, seated before a sacrificial table, receiving the gifts of 
his servants ; beneath, animals for sacrifice are being slaughtered. 

— In the N.W. corner: 93. Fruit-seller teasing an ape, which has 
seized him by the leg. — In the N.E. corner: 94. Boatmen, en- 
gaged in the transportation of fruit and other provisions, fall into 
a quarrel and attack each other with the oars. — In the middle of 
the room : 95. Wooden statuette of Tep-em-ankh, secretary of the 
palace, of excellent workmanship but much damaged ; traces of 
painting perceptible (5th Dyn.). 

Room IX. In the middle: 96. Large and very perfectly executed 

102 Route 6, MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Ground Floor. 

sarcophagus in rose-coloured granite, of great antiquity, which once 
contained the remains of a priest of Apis named Khufu-ankh (4th 
Dyn. ; from Gizeh). 

The sides recall the domestic rather than the sepulchral style of archi- 
tecture, but in Egypt these styles were similar in many respects. The 
ends of the beams, resembling triglyphs (above the windows in the middle), 
should be noticed. 

97. Sarcophagus in pink granite, with rounded corners, bearing 
the name of Prince Khamshem; 98. Large limestone stele of Tep-em- 
Anlch (comp. No. 95), beside whom, on the right side, appears his 
son Tes-hon; 101. "Wood-panelling with finely carved hieroglyphics. 
— South side. Case A: 102. Small boat, from Akhmiui (Panopolis) ; 
beside it, five other boats, of the 11th Dyn., found at Sakkara ; 103. 
Model of a granary ; 104. Model of a small house with a court in 
front (both found at Akhmim). 105. Small sacrificial chest, probably 
for the use of the priests ; within it a small sacrificial table, and a 
number of vases, small knives, etc. (6th Dyn.). 

Cabinets C and D, in front of the windows, contain statuettes 
of the Early Empire (5th and 6th Dyn.). 

Room X. 106. Mummy of King Mentu-em-saf (6th Dyn.); 107. 
Remains of the mummy of King Unas (5th Dyn.), from his pyramid 
(p. 165) ; 108. Arm of a wooden statue, from the Early Empire, of 
remarkably fine execution (covered with linen as a ground for a 
coating of painted plaster; comp. No. 19); 109. Reconstructed tomb- 
chamber of Deshera (6th Dyn.). All these are from Sakkara. 

Room XI contains steles from the 6th Dyn., from Abydos and 
Akhmim. — Cabinet A : Wooden statuettes and inscribed tablets. 

Rooms XII & XIII contain steles from Abydos, Akhmim, Riza- 
gat, and Meshaik, nearly all of crude execution, illustrating as it 
were the transition from the Early to the Middle Empire. 

Room XIV. Monuments of the period of the 11th Dyn., also of 
crude workmanship, and marking the transition-period like the 
steles in Room XIII. 

b. Monuments of the Middle Monarchy and of the Hyksos Period 
(Xll-XVIIIth Dyn. ; 2380-1600 B.C.). 
Room XV. E. side: 110. Stele of Khu-u, son of Antef (11th 
Dyn.), interesting to epigraphists on account of the still visible 
squares, marked upon it to ensure accuracy in the placing of the 
hieroglyphics and designs ; 111. Stele of Prince Antef-a, governor of 
Thebes, found like No. 112 at Drah Abu'l Negga (Thebes); 112. 
Stele of King Antef (11th Dyn.), mentioned in the Abbot papyrus, 
which refers to the punishment of thieves who had violated graves 
at Thebes in the reign of Ramses IX. ; 113. Relief representing 
King Mentuhotep slaying prisoners (11th Dyn.) ; 114. Tomb-chamber 
of Hirhotep; 115. Mummy of a singer (priestess) of Hathor, named 
Ament (11th Dyn.); 116, 117. Inner and outer coffin of No. 115. 

Ground Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 103 

Room XVI (Hyksos Room). S. side : 118. Limestone stele of 
King Menkhauri, worshipping the god Min of Koptos, an important 
monument of the period of the 14th Dyn. ; 119. Fine sacrificial 
table of grey granite, -with the cartouche of Amenemha II. (12th 
Dyn.); 120. Large limestone stele, with the name of Prince Men- 
tuhotep and the cartouches of Vsertesen I. (12th Dyn.). 

W. side: 121. Carefully worked stele (limestone) with the name 
of Antefj partly in engraved, partly in raised characters (12th Dyn.); 

122. Statue (granite) of Nefert, queen of Usertesen I. (12th Dyn.); 

123. Sacrificial table consisting of a large block of sandstone with 
the name of King Ameni-Anief-Amenemhat (13th Dyn., Karnak). 

E. side: 124. Head of a king, in grey granite (Zakazik); 125. 
Colossal bust of a king of the Middle Monarchy, with the cartouche 
of King Merenptah of the 19th Dyn. afterwards added on the breast 
(grey granite); 126. Cast of the head of a king's statue from Bu- 
bastis, now in the British Museum (resembling No. 124) ; 127. Double 
stele of Ea-shotep-ab, a high official under Usertesen III. and Amen- 
emha III. (12th Dyn., Abydos); 128. Statue of King Sebek-em-saf, 
in pink granite (13th Dyn. ; Abydos); 129. Statue of the Hyksos 
King Baian, found at Zakazik (upper part wanting); 130. Alabaster 
sacrificial table with the name of Princess Ptdh-neferu, found in the 
Pyramid of Hawara; 131. Sacrificial tablet of King Vsertesen, from 
Karnak (granite) ; 132. Sacrificial tablet of the Hyksos King Apepi, 
in black granite. 

133. Double statue of grey granite, found at Tanis and dating 
from the Hyksos period. 

Two foreign-looking figures are standing before the sacrificial tables, 
which are lavishly adorned with aquatic plants (Baskhuiu), fishes, and 
birds. The features of the figures resemble those of the sphinxes ; their 
matted beards, their plaited hair, and the bracelets on their arms dis- 
tinguish them strongly from the figures on other Egyptian monuments. 
The name of Psusennes, engraved both on the front and on the back of 
the monument, was added at a later date. 

**134. Hyksos Sphinx in black granite, from Tanis, the restored 
parts recognisable by their darker hue. 

The head shows the coarse and foreign-looking features of the race 
which oppressed Egypt for so long a period. An inscription on (he right 
shoulder, almost effaced, mentions Apepi (Apophis), one of the last Hyksos 
kings. Merenptah, the Pharaoh of the Exodus, and Ramses II. sub- 
sequently caused their names to be inscribed on the base, and Psusennes (?), 
of the 21st Dyn., engraved his on the breast of the statue. 

135. Head of a sphinx, resembling the preceding, with the 
name of Merenptah, added at a later date ; 136. Sacrificial table in 
black granite, with the name of King Usertesen III.; 137. Torso of a 
Hyksos statue in grey granite, found in the Fayum; 139. Hyksos 
Sphinx, in limestone, found at El-Kab, resembling No. 134. — 140. 
Large limestone sarcophagus from Thebes, of which a drawing was 
made by Lepsius in 1842, but which was afterwards again lost under 
heaps of rubbish and not rediscovered till 1882. It belongs to the 
11th Dyn. and was made for a person named Tagi. The interior is 

104 Route 6. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Ground Floor. 

adorned with numerous inscriptions and scenes relating to the 
worship of the dead, most of them in good preservation. — 141. 
Limestone door of a tomb, from Assuan (12th Dyn.). 

Room XVII. Glass Case A contains steles from the 12th Dyn., 
with admirably preserved colouring. — In the middle of the room 
are wooden coffins of the 11th and 12th Dyn.; 142. Coffin of Khe- 
perka with careful representations of the facades of wooden buildings, 
the ornamentation of which should be noticed. — 143. Alabaster sacri- 
ficial table with the name of King Usertesen I. 

Room XVIII. Portions of wooden coffins, dating from the Middle 

Room XIX. Wooden coffins of the 11th and 12th Dyn. ; sacrificial 
tablets, and numerous limestone steles from Abydos. 

Rooms XX and XXI. Sacrificial tablets and steles from Abydos. 

c. Monuments of the New Empire (XVIII-XXXth Dyn. ; 1600 B.C. 
to the Conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great). 

Room XXII. 145. Fragment of a limestone relief, with the name 
of Ramses II. ; 146, 147. Two arms from a colossal pink granite statue 
of Ramses II., found at Luxor; 148. Large scarabseus of pink granite, 
on a massive block of granite. 

Room XXIII. On the walls, steles and reliefs : 150. Limestone 
relief of King Khu-en-aten (18th Dyn.) worshipping the sun; 153. 
Seated statues of Ramses II. and the god Ra-hor-khuti (pink granite), 
found in the temple of Ptah at Memphis in 1892. 

Room XXIV. *155. Sacred boat, of pink granite, found in 1892 
in the temple of Ptah at Memphis, a most rare and beautiful spe- 
cimen ; 157. Fragment of an inscription on pink granite, relating 
to the revenues of the temple at Bubastis (22nd Dyn.). 

Room XXV (Ethiopian Room). 160. Stele of Piankhi, in pink 
granite, covered with inscriptions (23rd Dyn. , (rebel Barkal). 

In the 8th cent. B.C. the power of the Ethiopian monarchs extended 
to Thebes, while several native princes still maintained themselves in N. 
Egypt. One of these named Tefnekht organised a rising against the usurper 
Piankhi, hut was finally conquered and forced to yield to the Ethiopian, 
who, after pacifying the country, returned to his capital Napata. 

161. Stele of Hor-sa-atef, in grey granite, from the end of the 
Persian period (Gebel Barkal). 

The king gives an account of the wars carried on hy him against the 
tribes dwelling between Abyssinia, Darfur, and the Red Sea, particularly 
of the expedition to the Gebel Barkal in the 6th year of his reign. 

162. Stele of King Amen- meri- nut, recounting a campaign 
undertaken by him at the instigation of a dream (26th Dyn.). 

E. side: 163. So-called Coronation Stele, of King Aspalut (Persian 
period). — 164. Portrait-head in dark granite of Tuharko (the Tirha- 

Qround Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 105 

kah of the Bible), the Ethiopian conqueror (26th Dyn.) ; negro cast 
of features, nose mutilated. The same negro cast is clearly seen in 
the relief of this king on the under-mentioned Asarhaddon stele. 

W. side : 165. Tablet known as the Stele of Excommunication , 
166. Dark granite head, from a colossal statue of Ramses II. (Luxor). 

In the middle of the room : 167. Pink granite statue of King 
Merenptah (19th Dyn.); 168. Limestone stele of the time of Ram- 
ses IV., mentioning the 67th year of the reign of Eamses II. 

E. side: 169, 170, 171. Reliefs from the 18th Dyn. (Gizehj ; 
172, 172b. Reliefs from the tomb of Hor-min, representing a funeral ; 
173. Relief of a funeral and funeral dance. — *174. Alabaster Statue 
of Queen Ameniritis, on a base of grey granite. The cartouches 
(effaced) are those of her father Kashta and her brother Shabako 
(25th Dyn., Karnak). 

S. side: Coloured cast of the Asarhaddon Stele, found at Sengirli, 
and now in the Berlin Museum. 

On the front of the stele appears the Assyrian king Asarhaddon (Esar- 
haddon; 681-668 B.C.), in royal garb and wearing the Assyrian crown, 
holding a mace and a fan(?). Before him stand the defeated Pharaoh, 
Taharko (bearded and with the royal serpent on his brow), and a Syrian 
prince (with beard, crown, and long robe), with cords fastened to their 
lips and held by the victorious Asarhaddon in his left hand. On the side 
of the stele is an Assyrian court-official with folded hands. The inscrip- 
tion begins by invoking the gods and reciting the titles of Asarhaddon, 
and gives a minute account of the conquest of Egypt and Ethiopia after 
the defeat of Taharko at Memphis. 

Room XXVI. — S.W. Gallery: 175. Bust in grey granite, from 
Pithom; 176. Head from a statue of Ramses II., with the Atef-diadem, 
177. Head from a statue of Ramses IV. (both of syenite and found 
at Bubastis). 

W. Gallery: 178. Cynocephalus (dog-headed baboon) in pink 
granite, a fragment from the pedestal of the obelisk of Luxor ; 179. 
Double statuette in limestone, Ta'i and his sister Na'i, sitting; at the 
back the same figures are represented in the act of receiving sacri- 
ficial gifts from Tinro, priestess of Ammon (19th Dyn., Sakkara) ; 
180. Drums of columns with the name of Ramses III.; 181. Pillar 
from a tomb at Sakkara, showing two Tat-amulets with the Atef- 
diadem (19th Dyn.); 182. Red sandstone pillar with representations 
on all four sides, Ramses II. offering libations to Ammon and the 
goddess Muth ; 183. Black granite group of Ammon and Muth seated 
side by side, with dedicatory inscription of King Seti I. (19th Dyn.) ; 
184. Large limestone stele, containing a prayer of Ramses IV. to 
the deities of Abydos. 

N. Gallery, N.W. and N.E. corners of the room: *185, *186. 
Large sandstone statues of Ptah, found in 1892 in the temple of 
Ramses II. in Memphis (7ft. and lO^/^tt. high respectively); 187. 
Head from a grey granite statue of a king; 188. Head of a grey 
granite statue of Amenhotep II. ; 189. Limestone naos of Nekht, who 
bore the unusual title of 'first royal son of Ammon'. 190. Bust 

106 Route 6. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Ground Floor. 

from a sandstone statue ; the inscription begins with the title 'rev- 
erend chief (name wanting; 13th Dyn.). 191. Limestone head of 
a king; the eyes were inlaid (Karnak). 192. Bust of Tutmes III. 
(pink granite ; 18th Dyn.) ; 193. Limestone stele, with the name 
of Amen-mes (18th Dyn.). — 194, 195. Two limestone figures, in 
a crouching posture, of Kha'i, keeper of the treasures in the mor- 
tuary chapel of Ramses II. No. 194 holds a small shrine with an 
image of Osiris, and No. 195 another with an image of Ra. — 196. 
Sitting colossus of a king, in grey granite, with the cartouches 
of Ramses II., but probably dating from an earlier period; *197. 
Fine head in black granite with mild and regular features, held 
by Mariette to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus (Merenptah), but 
according to Maspero the Pharaoh Horemheb; *198. Limestone 
head of Ta'ia, found at Karnak along with No. 191 (see above); 
199. Group in limestone of a man and wife seated side by side, the 
former 'leader of the archers', the latter 'priestess of Ammon' (19th 
Dyn.). 200. Naos of dark granite ; in the centre is the chief priest 
Ptahmes, with the name of Tutmes III. on his breast and shoul- 
ders. 201. Bust from a limestone statue of a king, a fine work of the 
18th Dynasty. 

E. Gallery : 202. Pink granite statue of Tutmes III. (feet want- 
ing; 18th Dyn.); 203. Limestone stele, Hori worshipping Anubis, 
and Seti I. making offerings to Osiris and Isis (19th Dyn.); 204. 
Relief with the name of Tutmes I., in beautiful hieroglyphs; 205. 
Limestone statue of a crouching scribe, named Amenhotep, from 
El-Hibeh (Kheb ; 18th Dyn.) ; *206. Limestone statue of Amen- 
hotep II. (18th Dyn.), with inlaid eyes; 207. Limestone stele of 
the sun-worshipper King Khu-en-aten (Amenophis IV. ; comp. Nos. 
89, 92, 98, 105, etc.), with his wile and daughter, adoring the sun- 
disk (18th Dyn.); 208, 209. Door-posts from the temple of Abydos, 
with the name of Ramses II. (pink granite); 210. Grey granite sta- 
tue of the lion-headed goddess Sekhet, bearing the name of Amen- 
hotep III. ; 212. Fragment of a limestone statue of the architect of 
Amenhotep III. 

**213. Celebrated stele of the time of Tutmes III., in black 
granite (19th Dyn., Karnak). 

The upper part of the inscription waa erased by Khu-en-aten, who 
overthrew the worship of Ammon in Thebes, or by some other early 
monarch, but was afterwards restored, perhaps by Ramses II. The traces 
of this double change are distinctly visible on the upper half of the stele. 
Below is an inscription in 25 lines celebrating the victories of Tutmes III. 
in a highly poetic manner. This monument was often copied by sub- 
sequent dynasties to celebrate the exploits of Seti I. and Ramses III. 

214. Black granite statue of Tutmes III. (18th Dyn.); 215. Fine 
pink granite stele of Pu-em-ra, second prophet of Ammon (18th 

S.E. Gallery : 217. Black granite serpent, guardian of the temple 
of Hor-khent-khiti at Athribis (Benha), with the name of Amen- 
hotep III. (18th Dyn.). 

Ground Floor. MUSEUM OF GIIZEH. 6. Route. 107 

CeDtral court: Two 'colossal heads in pink granite, from the 
temple of Mitrahineh (18th or 19th Dyn.) ; large sandstone stele of 
Khu-en-aten (p. 106), 'usurped' by Horemheb (18th Dyn.), i.e. 
provided with his cartouche ; fragment of an obeliskwith the name 
of Ramses IV., probably from Heliopolis. 

Room XXVII (Gallery) contains steles and inscriptions of the 
18-20th Dynasties. — *218. The celebrated Tablet of Sakhdra 
(limestone). This tablet was found in 1861 in the tomb of Tunari 
at Sakkara. On one side is inscribed a hymn to Osiris and on the 
other a list of 58 kings, in two rows, beginning with Merbapen 
(1st Dyn.) and ending with Ramses II. The list is unfortunately 
very imperfect. — 219. Stele of Un-nefer, first prophet of Osiris. 

Room XXVIII. (Open court) : 223. Pink granite colossus in the 
form of Osiris, with the name of Usertesen I. (12th Dyn.); 224-227. 
Colossal statues, on which the cartouche of Ramses II. was placed 
at a later date (No. 224 from Abukir; the rest from Tanis). 

Room XXIX (Gallery) : 228, 229. Four small fragments of lime- 
stone pillars from the tomb of a dignitary named Hor-em-heb with 
his titles; on his head the Uranus-serpent (19th Dyn.). *230. Sand- 
stone relief of Amenhotep III. before the god Ptah, an admirable 
piece of work. 

Room XXX. — 231. Painted statuette of the mother of Tut- 
mes II., in a sitting posture ; 232. Limestone cinerary urn, with name 
Tamat, i.e. 'the cat' (a cat is represented before the altar in place 
of the deceased), found at Memphis in 1892. 233. Small stele, with 
the scribe Pa-shot before Prince Ujmes; on the upper part of the 
stele is the goose sacred to Ammon and the cat sacred to Muth. 
234, 235. Limestone steles from the temple of Prince Ujmes at 
Thebes; 236. Small relief of the queen of Arabia (Punt); the race- 
type (hips very prominent) and the folds of the skin somewhat ex- 
aggerated ; 237. Relief of the ass of the preceding ; 238. Stele with 
the names of King Aahmes and Queen Aah-hotep (18th Dyn.). 
239. Limestone stele; above, King Aahmes and Queen Aahmes- 
nefer-ta-ari, and King Amenhotep I. and Queen Aahmes-nefer-ari ; 
beneath, Hui and Smentaui worshipping Aahmes and Amenhotep 
(18th Dyn.). 240. Limestone stele, with two priests praying in 
front of a rounded obelisk surmounted by a hawk. 

Room. XXXI (Saite Period). In the middle of the room : 241. 
Granite sarcophagus, with the name of Psammetikh II. : 242. Sand- 
stone altar, with the name of King Apries. 

E. side : 245. Granite naos or shrine, with the name of the 
Ethiopian king Shabako (26th Dyn.). 

W. side : 251. Grey granite statue (headless) of the ship-captain 
Samtaui Tafnekht, in a sitting posture, with crossed legs ; on the 
arm is the cartouche of Psammetikh I. 

Room XXXII. 252. Naos hewn from a single block of grey 

1US Route G. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Ground Floor. 

granite, crowded with inscriptions and representations; the top is 
wanting (found near Bubastis). 253. Naos of black granite, with 
the cartouches of Nectanebus I. *254. Two bas-reliefs of the Saite 
period, found in ancient Memphis ; one represents the scribe Psam- 
tik-nefer-sa-mer superintending the transportation of gold ornaments 
intended for his tomb ; the other shows him receiving votive offer- 
ings. 257. Frieze, with the names of Queen Shep-en-apt and her 
mother Ameniritis; 259. Fragment of a small obelisk of pink gra- 
nite, with the name of Nectanebus I. (from Heliopolis). 

Room XXXIII. Steles from Sakkara, Abydos, and Akhmim. 

Boom XXXIV. Steles, chiefly from Abydos. 

d. Monuments of the Ptolemaic, Roman, and Coptic Periods 
(4th cent. B.C. to the 4th cent, after Christ.). 

Room XXXV. 271. Fragment of an obelisk of grey granite, 
erected at Napata to Ammon, bearing the cartouche of King Atal- 
narsa ; 272. Group in grey granite of the god Ammon and an Ethiop- 
ian queen (Meroe) , of the latest period of Egyptian influence in 

W. side: 273. Beautiful stele, in granite resembling porphyry; 
274. Three steles from Hassaia, finely executed and with well- 
preserved colouring; 275. Frieze of the Ptolemaic period, with the 

N. side : 276. Limestone relief, much damaged so that only a 
few letters of the Greek inscription are now legible. 

E. side: 277. Stele from Akhmim ; stele from Hassaia, painted 
and gilded ; sacrificial tablets ; four small votive pyramids. 

Room XXXVI. E. side : 278. Large granite stele from Pithom ; 
279. Finely worked limestone stele from Akhmim. 

S. side: 280, 281. Small sandstone steles from Assuan; 282. 
Fragment of a gilded limestone pillar from Pithom. 

W. side: 283. Large granite stele, found in 1870 among the 
foundations of the mosque of Shekhun at Cairo ; it is dated in the 
7th year of the reign of Alexander II. (son of Alexander the Great) 
and contains an expression of gratitude to Ptolemy, son of Lagos, 
for the recapture and restoration of the temple-treasure which had 
been carried off from Buto by the Persians. 284. Stele found by 
E. Brugsch-Bey at Mendes in 1870, by means of which the exact 
position of the ancient city could be determined. 

Room XXXVII. Steles with demotic inscriptions. In the middle 
of the room : 285, 286. Two small coffins for the mummies of ani- 
mals. By the N. wall : Fragments of statues of the Ptolemaic and 
Roman periods. 

Room XXXVIII. Steles of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. 
On the W. side : Statue of the god Bes. 

Ground Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 1 09 

Room XXXIX. Steles of the Graco-Roman period, including 
287 and 288 (the latter with Greek verses). The eagle on the W. 
side was found in the Greek Serapeum at Memphis (comp. No. 295 
in R. XL). 

Room XL. *289. Beautiful limestone stele , showing a woman 
in a mourning attitude, handing a cithara to her daughter; a Greek 
work of the 3rd cent. B.C., Attic in character though found at Alex- 

*290. The famous Decree of Canopus, found at Tanis (and usually 
called the Tablet of Tanis, to distinguish it from another copy in 
the Louvre). 

This tablet confirmed the correctness of the method of deciphering 
discovered by the celebrated Chanrpollion and employed by Egypto- 
logists since the finding of the Bosetta Stone (p. 225). On the limestone 
pillar are inscribed three different versions of the same decree ; above 
it appears in hieroglyphics , or the Ancient Egyptian written language, 
below in Greek, and on the margins in the popular dialect written in 
the Demotic character. The decree was pronounced by an assembly of 
the priests in the temple of Canopus on 7th March (17th Tybi), B.C. 238, 
in the reign of Ptolemy III. Euergetes I. ; it praises the king for having 
brought back the images of the gods from Asia, gained many victories, pre- 
served peace in the land, and saved it from imminent famine by his fore- 
thought in importing corn ; and it concludes with a resolution that the 
assembly shall call itself 'the priesthood of the Euergetes of the gods', found 
a new sacerdotal caste to be named after Euergetes, institute new festivals 
in honour of the king and queen, and introduce an improvement in the 
popular calendar. It is also resolved to pay permanent honour in all the 
temples throughout the country to the Princess Berenice, who died young 
and unmarried, and to celebrate certain festivals yearly to her memory. 
In all temples of the first and second rank costly and beautiful statues 
were to be erected to the 'princess of virgins', to which various services 
were to be rendered and offerings presented. Her praises were to be 
sung by specially trained choirs, and chiefly by virgins, and the bread 
provided for the priestesses was to be stamped 'bread of Berenice'. 
The inscriptions lastly declare that the decree is to be inscribed on slabs 
of bronze or of stone in the holy (hieroglyphic), the Egyptian (demotic), 
and the Greek languages , and to be exhibited conspicuously in every 
temple of the first and second rank. 

290b. Another copy of the same decree found at Kom el-Hizn 
(Lower Egypt) in 1881. The representations above the inscriptions 
show the royal family in adoration before the gods of Egypt. Over 
the central E. window: no number, *Colossal female head (Demeter 
or Kora?) of Greek marble, an admirable Greek work of the 4th or 
3rd cent. B.C. (only the face and throat preserved). 

**291. Marble head of a Oaul, an original Greek work of great 
beauty, dating from the beginning of the Ptolemaic period. 

This head may be compared with those of the Dying Gaul in the Ca- 
pitoline Museum and the Group of Gauls in the Museo Boncompagni-Ludo- 
visi at Rome, though it is evidently by a different hand. The treatment 
of the marble is freer and bolder ; the back of the head and neck are 
but partly worked. Only the head , throat , and part of the drapery 
are preserved. They appear to have belonged to a statue of a man re- 
presented in the most energetic movement, probably fighting. The head 
is thrown back towards the right shoulder and the eyes look upwards in 
keen excitement. The stiff hair pushed off the brow, the moustache, and 
the beard on the chin proclaim the Gaul ; in other points the face is more 

1 1 Route 6. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Ground Floor. 

idealized than in the closely related Roman heads. The marble appears 
to be Greek. 

292. Block of close-grained sandstone, with a frieze containing 
the cartouches of Psammetikh I. and Shabako. Below is a long 
Greek inscription with the names of the emperors Valens, Val- 
entinian, and Gratian. This stands on No. 293, a quadrangular 
base of red granite, with a Greek inscription dedicated to Antinous 
by a governor of Thebes. — 294. Black basalt statue of the Egyptian 
scribe Hot, carved under Greek influence, though furnished with a 
hieroglyphic inscription. 

*295. Siren playing the lyre, a figure of great rarity, found in the 
Greek Serapeum at Sakkara. 

This was found with a series of seated portrait-statues, figures of 
gods, etc. (comp. E. XXXIX and p. 166), all executed in a purely Greek 
style, which, however , differs essentially from that of the Head of the 
Gaul or of the tombstone No. 289. The breast and neck of the siren are 
adorned with jewels, and she wears earrings of a shape frequently found 
in tombs (comp. R. VII, Cabinet L). From the chain on the (bosom are 
suspended amulets. The strap round the waist held the lyre, with which 
the arms (formed of separate pieces and now wanting) were occupied. 
The attitude of the body and the head thrown back indicate the passion 
of the funeral singer. The feet and half of the nose are restored. 

296, 296 b. Monuments from Memphis, referring to the worship 
of Mithras ; 297. Granite basin, found on the island of Elephantine ; 
298. Large porphyry statue in the late-Roman style (Alexandria; 
head wanting) ; 299. Marble stele with a Greek inscription record- 
ing the names of citizens of Memphis who had erected a monument 
to a high functionary in the temple of Ptah ; 300. Grseco-Roman 
marble statue ; 301 . Granite altar from Ptolemais, of a specifically 
Grseco-Egyptian shape; 302. Porphyry bust of a Roman emperor, 
perhaps Maximian Hercules (304-310 A.D.); beside it is a Roman 
portrait-bust, completely polished, from about the reign of Trajan; 
303. Marble statue of a Roman lady ; 304. Granite stele, with the name 
of the Emperor Trajan (from Ptolemais). — *306. Colossal marble 
face of Serapis (only the face and portion of the throat preserved), 
the new national god introduced by the Ptolemies (comp. Intro- 
duction, p.clxxxi), erroneously named 'Nile God'. The hair falling 
over the brow and cheeks and the earnest and severe expression give 
this god of all good and of earthly blessings (whence the modus on 
the head; comp. the terracottas in R. XLIII, Case C) also the char- 
acteristics of the ruler of the underworld. The execution of the 
head is dry and refers it to the Roman period (Italian marble), but 
an earlier model has been used, perhaps the figure in the Serapeum 
at Alexandria (Introd., p.clxxxiv). — 310. Relief from Luxor of Isis 
and of Serapis killing a gazelle (perhaps a form of the god Antaeus), 
a late-Roman work. 

Rooms XLI and XLII. Monuments of the Coptic Christian 
period, the most important being Nos. 311-314. 

We return to Room XL (p. 109), whence a staircase ascends to 
the upper floor. — On the staircase, marked XLIII on the plan : — 



No rth 


m». --. - 


^fck^JLtf vmA 



^ h Hk- 

„ i-fi-rTTtl 1 

L • LXXV .Q !■ % J 





Staircase. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 1 1 1 

Alexandeian Teebacottas and Ge^co-Roman Glass. 

This collection, which consists mainly of terracotta figures found 
in Alexandria and connected with the cults of that city, is the largest 
of the kind in existence, next to that in the museum at Alexandria. 
It contains a number of rare types, the most important of which are 
mentioned below ; the method in which the collection is numbered 
and arranged renders it difficult to indicate individual specimens. 

Cabinet A contains almost exclusively representations of Harpo- 
crates, the divine son of Osiris and Isis and therefore furnished with 
the princely lock of hair ; also frequently with his right forefinger 
on his lips. He appears in innumerable forms: sitting or standing, 
with the urn, on horseback, on the goose, or on the Urseus-serpent, 
as a warrior, etc. ; once (No. 315) with a hieroglyphic inscription. 

Cabinet B. Top row, to the left : Nubian slave with basket of 
fruit. Central compartment: Isis ending in a serpent's body; Aphro- 
dite beside the bath ; sphinx. — Second row : Figures of Priapus. 
Central compartment : Serapis seated with Cerberus by her side, 
Isis, CanephoTse, etc. — Third row, to the left : in front, Selection 
of heads of caricature figures (Grylli), which appear to represent 
comic personages, dwarfs, and also characters from the Alexandrian 
stage. Central section : Isis suckling the bull ; Demeter with the 
torch; Zeus borne by the eagle. — Fourth row, central section, and 
below: Large number of dancing temple-attendants (hierodules). — 
Bottom tow, to the left : representations of the god Bes. The right 
compartment of the case contains figures of animals. 

Cabinet C. In the two top rows: Vessels of various shapes. Third 
row : Lamps in the shape of altars, houses, etc. Fourth row : 318. 
Lamp ('bilychnos'), with medallion in relief representing a Nile 
scene in a grotesque manner; grylli in a boat, with water-fowl 
and lotus-plants. 

Cabinet D. Vases, bowls, goblets, bottles, and ewers of coloured 
glass, some reticulated with glass-threads ; a few moulded. No. 330 
has an engraved design. 

Cabinet E. Top row: Zeus, Athene, Isis. — Fourth and fifth 
rows : All kinds of genre figures : Girl reading a book ; priests carry- 
ing the sacred boat or an altar; peasant on a mule ; sitting slave, etc. 

The Uppbe Floor 
contains the smaller antiquities and most of the mummies of kings 
and priests of Ammon found in 1881 and 1891. 

a. Graeco-Roman Objects. 
Room XLIV. Cabinets A and B : Mummies from Panopolis (Akh- 
mim). — Cabinet C: Mummies from theFayum, adorned with gild- 
ing. 334. Mummies of children ; a portrait painted on linen here 
takes the place of the gold mask [2nd cent, after Christ). 335. 

112 Route 6. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Upper Floor. 

Mummy of a child, 'with a portiait painted in wax-colours on a thin 
■wooden tahlet. — Cabinet D: 336. Statuette of Venus (the lower 
part restored) ; terracottas ; handles of amphorse ; seals. — Cabinet E: 
Glass vessels; bronze vases, fragments of bronze caskets, etc. — 
Cabinet F: Mummies with portraits, from the Fayum, among -which 
No. 337 may be specially mentioned, and the still finer female 
portrait beside it to the left, a veritable masterpiece. — Cabinet 6 : 
338, 339. Lamps. 340-343. Candelabra, in shape, decoration, and 
workmanship resembling those found at Pompeii and Herculaneum ; 
the common model seems to have originated at Alexandria. — 
Cabinet H and I: Mummy-masks, some coloured, some gilded, from 
Meiir and the Fayum. — Cabinet J: 345. Two triangular stucco bas- 
reliefs of sirens, painted and gilded, resembling the one found in 
the Serapeum (these reliefs belong to the coffin No. 394 in R. XLV) ; 
346, 347. Wooden tablets coated with wax, inscribed with seven 
lines in the Homeric style ; 348. Two bronze military diplomas of 
the reign of the Emperor Domitian, found at Koptos. Above, wooden 
tablets from coffins, bearing the names of the deceased; 351. Frag- 
ment of a limestone statuette of Alexander the Great (?) as Hercules, 
of inferior workmanship though Greek; the upward glance is a 
characteristic motive in Hellenistic art (comp. the Gaul's head, 
No. 291, R. XL). — Cabinet K: Mummies from the Fayum and 
Upper Egypt. 

Cabinet L: Mummies and mummy-'cartonnages' from the Fayum; 
354. Mummy, with garlands ; 355. Similar mummy, with the name 
Artemidora several times repeated on the linen bandages ; 356. 
Leaden coffin, from Alexandria; 357. Mummy with portrait painted 
in the encaustic style upon wood ; 358. Mummy with gold mask 
and garlands; *359. Richly gilded mask in remarkable preservation, 
with genii of the dead executed in enamel (from Me'ir) ; 360. Mummy, 
with portrait upon wood in tempera and therefore liable to injury 
from water ; the wrappings are of pink cartonnage, with gilding. — 
Adjacent (Nos. 1315-1320) are a number of glass-cases with recently 
discovered face-masks, from the coverings of mummies, all in good 

Cabinet M: Greek, Byzantine, and provincial (nomos) medals. 
— Cabinet N: Medals of the Roman period. 

On the top of Cabinets A, B, C, F, K, and L are a number of 
terracotta vessels, including a series remarkable for the white colour 
of their exterior, some showing traces of bright colours. One speci- 
men (on Cabinet B) exhibits two carefully painted leather boots. 
These vessels are cinerary urns, the last-mentioned perhaps that of 
a schoolboy. 

Room XLV. — Cabinet A : below, 362. Handle of a terracotta bra- 
zier ; beside it are otherspecimens. 363. Two inscriptions upon granite, 
dedicated to the temple at Koptos by Roman soldiers, dating from 
the beginning of the reign of Augustus. Second section : Terracotta 

Upper Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 113 

flasks of the Roman period (No. 364 is from Epirus); 366. Bronze 
hilt of a Roman sword; 367. Two-edged axe; 368. Early-Greek or 
Cyprian statuette in alabaster, from Sals; 369. Terracotta relief of 
a recumbent goddess, perhaps a modern forgery, like Nos. 371-374, 
377-379. — Third section : Vases, statuettes, lamps, terraootta re- 
liefs j 375. Enamelled Vase, with yellow decoration on a pale green 
ground, of the Grsco-Roman period. 

Cabinet B: Vases and portions of statuettes. 381. Tasteful small 
stele of limestone, in the shape of a naos, a votive gift from an 
interpreter of dreams; 382. Mosaic fragment. Above it, Small 
marble head of Serapis, related in type to the colossal head in R. xl, 
but of very inferior Roman workmanship (in the right division of 
this case is a somewhat more carefully executed bust of Serapis in 
alabaster). To the right of the Serapis head is a fine torso of Venus, 
of the Ptolemaic period (Greek marble), preserved to below the 
waist. Various utensils and figures in blue enamelled earthenware. 
*383. Small alabaster figure (much injured) of Venus untying 
her sandal, of a type perhaps of Alexandrian origin. — Between 
Cabinets B and C : 384. Serpent from the temple of ^Esculapius at 
Ptolemais (head restored). — Cabinet C: Greek vases, chiefly from 
the 6-4th cent. B.C., some manufactured in the potteries of Nau- 
kratis, and some imported from the Greek motherland. The vases 
with red figures are the latest, those with brownish-red figures on 
a greyish-yellow ground are the earliest. — Cabinet D: Alexandrian 
terracottas. In the two top rows are specimens of the favourite gro- 
tesque caricature figures; in the two beneath, figures of Venus. — 
Cabinet E : "Works in ivory, chiefly fragments of caskets, on some 
of which traces of painting may be seen. — Cabinet F: Alexandrian 
terracotta statuettes, resembling the Tanagra figures, and obviously 
in some cases modelled with Tanagra forms. No. 385, one of the 
best, represents a faun lying on a wineskin on the ground, from 
the mouth of which he permits a stream of wine to escape. 

Cabinet G : Vases and statuettes. 386. Blue enamelled terracotta 
vase ; 387. White marble statuette of Isis in a standing position 
(right arm wanting); 388. Fragment of a fine Greek vase; 389. 
Bronze incense-burner ; 390. Statuette in black granite of Isis, of 
the Ptolemaic period (feet wanting ; the eyes were inlaid); 392. 
Round limestone incense altar (ashes still preserved), with tasteful 
base ; 393. Earthen pot with bronze coins of the reigns of Diocletian 
and Constantino. 

Cabinet H: Bronze statuettes of the Grasco-Roman period; 394. 
Wooden coffin, with a lid in the form of a roof, in good workman- 
ship of the Greek period ; the two triangular end-pieces are adorned 
with stucco-reliefs of sirens, painted and gilded (comp. No. 345, 
R. XLIV); 395. Wooden coffin of the Roman period, with garlands 
all round, and at the foot, a figure of Anubis, with a tree behind ; 
396. Small mummy, with portrait of a girl on wood; 397. Two 

Baedeker's Egypt I. 3rd Ed. 8 

114 Routed. MUSEUM OE GIZEH. Upper Floor. 

mummies of the latest Egyptian period (3rd or 4th cent, after Christ], 
remarkable for the Christian and Egyptian emblems in relief; 398. 
Mummy of a girl, with portrait ; 399. Four crudely executed granite 
statues, with Greek and demotic inscriptions, from the time of 
Trajan; 400. Coffin-lid, with painted Osiris-figure; 401. Linen 
mummy-covering, with female portrait. — Room XLVb (closed) 
contains monuments not suited for public exhibition, and ostraca 
with inscriptions. — We return to Room XLI V and enter Room XLVI 
(Gallery), to the left. 

b. Coptic Objects. 

Room XLVI (Gallery) : Textile fabrics and embroidery. 

Room XLVII. Cabinet A : Religious inscriptions on parchment, 
wood, potsherds, etc. — On the W. wall are three Coptic papyri. 

Cabinet B : Bronze church-utensils ; 402. Cruciform candle- 
stick ; 403, 404, 405. Incense-burners. — Cabinet C: 406,407. 
Church-lamps; 408, 409. Bronze pots, vases, and flasks; 410. 
Chandelier. — Cabinet D: 411, 412. Church-keys; 413. Bronze 
cymbal with bell; 414. Painting upon wood, with an Arabic-Coptic 
inscription of the 10th century. 

Cabinet E: Wooden combs ; 415, 416. Terracotta vases of St. 
Menas; 417. Small limestone relief with Christian symbols. Terra- 
cotta and bronze lamps, including two in the form of doves (Nos. 
418, 419). t v ..„ 

Between the windows: 420-423. Wood-carvings.— In the middle 
of the room is a chain ornamented with crosses. 

Room XL VIII. Coptic pots and vases. 424. Large and richly 
decorated vase ; 425, 426. Supposed to be stoves. — On the walls 
are wood-carvings and sepulchral steles. 427. Coptic inscription 
found at Der el-Bahri in a grave used as a chapel ; the text consists 
of a tirade against heretics and the usual prayer for the emperor 
and his family. 428-430. Coptic mummies; the shape of the head 
of No. 430 is peculiar. 

c. Objects of foreign origin found in Egypt. 

Room XLIX. 431. Wooden coffin with Himyari tic (old- Arabic) 

Cabinet A: Vases with Phoenician inscriptions; No. 432 has also 
a demotic inscription. 

Olass-Cases B and C: 433, 434. Small clay tablets with cunei- 
form inscriptions, being letters from the kings of Babylon and other 
Asiatic princes to the apostate Khu-en-aten (Amenhotep IV. ; 18th 
Dyn., about 1500 B.C.; comp. p. cviii). 

These tablets, which are of great historical importance, were discovered 
at Tell el-Amarna in 1888. In Nos. 10 and 19 Jerusalem is mentioned as 
a place of importance. A considerable number are also in London, Berlin, 
Paris, and St. Petersburg. 

Upper Floor. MUSEUM OF GlZEH. 6. Route. 115 

On the N. wall : 435. Tablet with cuneiform inscription ; 436. 
Sacrificial tablet, with Meroitic inscription. — E. wall : 437. Jewish 
cinerary urn. 

Cabinet D : 438. Limestone naos in the Persian-Egyptian style ; 
439. Bronze handle (?); 440. Small Persian sphinx; 441, 442. 
Phoenician and Aramaic papyri ; 443. Babylonian clay cylinder, with 
an inscription mentioning buildings of. King Nebuchadnezzar in 
Babylon ; 444. Slab of slate with designs resembling hieroglyphics ; 
445. Lord's Prayer inscribed on stone in Early-Syrian. 

"We now return through Gallery XL VI to RR. XLIV and XLIII, 
and thence by the N.W. door to Room L, with which the purely 
Egyptian section begins again. 

d. Egyptian Weights, Measures, Tools, Domestic Utensils, etc. 

Room L. 446. Liquid measure in alabaster holding almost half 
a litre , from the reign of Tutmes III. 447. Grey granite weight 
in form of a calf's head, with the cartouche of Seti I., found at 
Cairo ; the head has been purposely chipped so as to reduce it to 
the exact weight of 300 utes. 449-451. Stone-mason's square and 
plumb , of the 20th Dyn. ; 455. Small scale for an apothecary or 

Olass-Case B: Building-utensils. 456. Dove-tail from the temple 
of Abydos (period of the 19th Dyn.) ; 459. Wooden model of a temple 
or palace pylon ; 460, 461. Terracotta models of houses, showing 
that the natives of Kurna (Thebes) have not essentially improved 
upon the houses of their ancestors; 462. Window-grating (other 
specimens in Case C, Nos. 465, 466). 

Olass-Case C: 463, 464. Fragments of a unique limestone altar 
from Tell el-Yehudiyeh (p. 215), painted and enamelled, and orna- 
mented with lotus-flowers (20th Dyn.) ; 467. Wooden door from 
the tomb of Sennot'em at Thebes, with paintings of scenes from 
his life (No. 449 was also found in this tomb). 

Room LI. Cabinets A andD: Bronzes. — Cabinet B : Beads, 
enamels, mosaics; including 469. Fragment of an earthenware slab 
with flowers on a white ground, of delicate workmanship. — Cab- 
inet C: 463. Enamel from Tell el-Yehudiyeh ; 472. Border of lotus- 
plants; *475. Captive Negro; *475b. Asiatic in coloured garments 
(Tell el-Amarna). — Cabinet E: Stamped bricks. — The wooden 
apparatus in the corners of the room was used for moving sarcophagi. 

Room LII. Wooden bedsteads, seats, and footstools. 481-483. 
Sides of boxes, inlaid with ivory; 484-487. Feets of chairs and bed- 
steads, in limestone, granite, and enamelled earthenware. — Cabi- 
net C: 491, 492. Spindles and distaffs, in wood and bronze; 495. 
Spool, with two carved heads. 

Room LIII. Furniture. Cabinet D : 508. "Variegated basket, such as 
are still woven in Upper Egypt. — In Frame Q : Mountings of a door. 


1 1 6 Route 6. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Upper Floor. 

e. Drawing and Sculpture. 

Room LIV. Drawings on potsherds and limestone tablets. 524. 
Fine head of a Pharaoh; 526, 527. Ramses IV. as conqueroT of 
barbarians ; 533. Princess ; 539. Drawing exercises , to practise 
various motions and positions ; 550. Hathor-cow; 652. Two forms 
with water-plants on their heads, representing the two banks of the 

Room LV. Sculpture. Cabinets A, B, C: Sculptors' models for 
instruction in the decoration of temples and tombs. — Cabinet D: 
Models for pupils, etc. 

Cabinet E : Twenty-nine models to teach the art of representing 
a king's head; fifteen, found at Sakkara, form a regular series of 
progressive exercises. No. 563 shows the first indication of the pro- 
portions, and No. 569 the first treatment of the limestone. Nos. 571, 
572-575. Sketches and unfinished statues. 

Show-Case F: Moulds for sepulchral statuettes, incense-holders, 
and amulets. At Nos. 557-580 both the moulds and the finished 
casts are shown. Most of the moulds, made of a composition of lime 
or alabaster, produce figures of the bird Bennu, which was sacred 
to Osiris, and at a later date gave rise to the Greek legend of the 
Egyptian phoenix (p. cxlix) ; perhaps the moulds were used also for 
sacrificial cakes, thus visibly expressing the idea of the new birth. 

f. Manuscripts, etc. 

Room LVI. Ostraca with inscriptions. As papyrus was expens- 
ive , writings were frequently committed to wooden tablets (582, 
583), potsherds (584, 585), or limestone. No. 586, from the tomb 
of Sennot'em (comp. No. 467, p. 115), contains the beginning of 
the 'Adventures of Sinuhit', an early Egyptian romance, the end 
of which was found in a papyrus now at Berlin. 

Room LVII. Papyri. In the W. portion of the room are two note- 
worthy specimens found at Der el-Bahri in 1891 : viz. 587, with an 
attractive portrait of Herub, priestess of Amnion, and representations 
of life beyond the tomb; and 588, belonging to Shed-su-hori, chief 
priest at Karnak. 

In the N. part of the room : 590. Central portion of a large geo- 
graphical treatise on the Fayum, Lake Moeris, and its crocodile deity 
Sebek, written in a mystic style. 

E. part: Specimens of the Book of the Dead. 

Olass-Cases A-0 : 595-610. Writing and painting tools, with 
materials of all kinds. 

g. Worship of the Dead and Historical Objects. 
Room LVIII. Cabinets A- 1: 611-634. Mummy - coverings, 
masks, and ornaments; including 630, 631. Mystic Uza-eyes of 
Ra, the right eye symbolizing the sun, the left eye the moon ; 632, 

Upper Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 117 

633. Specimens of the so-called 'heart-scarabs', -with magic for- 
mulae, found in the bodies of mummies whence the hearts had been 
removed ; 634. Mummy belt. 

Boom LIX. Statuettes of very varied origin and date. — Cabi- 
net B: *640. Rare example of an Egyptian landscape, with re- 
presentations of several tombs of the shape usual under the New 
Empire , built on the edge of the fruitful belt in Egypt , with a 
sycamore (in front of which is a masked woman), two palms, and 
an altar with sacrificial offerings. — In the Stands K and L : 660, 
661. Two painted statues of Isis and Nephthys bewailing the dead 
Osiris (found at Der el-Bahri in 1891), of very rare occurrence in 
ancient Egypt (comp. Nos. 662, 663). — Glass-Case N.- 667. Small 
tombstone in black granite and white limestone , representing the 
reunion of the body and the soul, the latter represented by a hawk 
with human head and arms. — Glass-Case P: 669-671. Cult of Isis 
and Hathor (Venus). 

Room LX. Cabinet D : fourth row, Collection of tasteful statu- 
ettes (bearing the name of Amennuit-nakhtu). 

RoomLXI. Cabinet E: 678, 679. Fine Canopic vases of Oriental 
alabaster, dating from the Sa'ite period ; 680, 680b. Elegant boxes. 
— "We retrace our steps through RR. LX and. LXI to — 

Room LXII. Papyri relating to the dead. 682. Papyrus with 
remarkably significant drawings , in a sketchy style. — W. side : 
684. Papyrus 23 4 /2 ft- in length, with caricature vignettes. — Glass- 
Case R : 686. Papyrus of Nesi-Khunsu, with beautiful cursive writ- 
ing. — Glass-Case T: 687. Papyrus of Queen Makeri or Ramaka 
(No. 1192 ; p. 124), with delicate and vivid vignettes. 

Room LXIII. 688. Pedestal' and feet of a statue of King Ta- 
harko (25th Dyn.), in green basalt, with representations of 14 con- 
quered Asiatic tribes and 14 conquered African tribes ; *689. Fine 
head of a king; 694. Blue porcelain sistrum, with the name of Da- 
rius (from Memphis) ; 698. Fine limestone statue of Seti I. as Am- 
nion. — S.E. corner : 699. Grey granite pedestal, with an Ethiopian 
and a Syrian prince as captives (20th Dyn.). — Cabinet B: 704. 
Bronze figure of a queen in close-fitting garment and wig, from the 
Serapeum at Sakkara; *711. Limestone head of an Asiatic captive; 
715. Small flask in blue porcelain, for holding antimony powder 
used in darkening eyebrows ; 718. Limestone stele of the hierodule 
Nebu-a-u, with symbols of the boundary between the two spheres 
of existence; 721. Splendid bronze lion with the name of King 
Apries, believed by H. Brugsch to be a huge padlock. — Cabinet C: 
725. Fine limestone head of the Early Empire (Gizeh) ; 726. Statue 
in green basalt, dating perhaps from the 16th Dynasty. — Glass- 
Case G: 752. Fine lion's head in red jasper (18th Dyn.). — Glass- 
Cases fl-Jand L-O: Amulets and ornaments. 
Room LXIV contains nothing of importance. 

1 18 Route 6. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Upper Floor. 

Room LXV. Cabinet B: 790. Sailing -boat, of the Middle 
Monarchy. — Cabinets E-O: Mummies of animals. — We return 
through RR. LX1V and LXIII, and proceed towards the E. 

h. Domestic Utensils and Clothing. 

Rooms LXVI and LXVII contain nothing of importance. 

Room LXVIII. Cabinet A: 834, 834b. Enamelled earthenware 
flasks, with New Year's wishes ; cosmetic pots. 

Room LXIX. Cabinets A-C : Linen clothes of Ament, priestess 
of Hathor (11th Dyn. ; comp. No. 115); the delicate work on Nos. 
843 and 843b, in Cabinets B and D , should be observed. — Qlass- 
Cases H and /: Shoes. 

i. Ornaments, Fainted Portraits, Masks, etc. 

Room LXX. Cabinet A: Collection of mirrors. — Cabinet B: 
Musical instruments and children's toy (868. Dolls; 869. Jumping 

Cabinet D contains a selection of Graeco-Roman portraits, mostly 
painted in the encaustic style, and several stucco-masks, of which 
the second from the right is one of the best. The visitor should also 
notice the wooden house-altar, painted throughout, with the por- 
trait of a boy (below him a stylus with paper and writing-tablet). 

Cabinet E: 915, 915c. Mirrors ; 919. Bronze sacrificial table. 

Cabinet I: 940. Pincushion in the form of a tortoise (llthDyn.) ; 
941. Wooden fan, with holes in the centre for the feathers. 

Room LXXI. Glass-Cases A-D : Scarabs from tombs. — Olass- 
Case O : Granite and cornelian scarabs, including one of large size 
with a human head. — Glass- Case H : 993. Scarab of opalescent 
glass. — Olass-Cases I and J: Historical scarabs, with cartouches of 
kings from the 4th Dyn. onwards; 994, 995. Scarabs with car- 
touches of mythical kings before Menes. — Olass-Cases and P : 
Representations of kindred ideas : Transformation of the aged Horus 
into the youthful conqueror of monsters, sometimes identified with 
Bes-Hercules, as in No. 999, in which some authorities recognize 
the origin of the Greek legend of the labours of Hercules ; 1000. 
Necklace of small sepulchral figures and amulets. — Olass-Cases 
8-Y : Scarabs of various kinds, including one of green felspar 
(No. 1005). 

k. Worship of the Gods. 

Room LXXII. In the centre, beside glass-cases A andH: 
1006. Magnificent heart-shaped vase of dark granite, dedicated to 
the god Thoth by King Apries (26th Dyn.). 

Qlass-Case A: 1007. Bronze figure of Isis or Nephthys, of the 
Saite period; [then Ammon or Khnum, with the ram's head. — 
Qlass-Case B: Cynocephali, cats, hawks, sows (sacred to Typhon), 
rams, etc. The elephant seems to have been sacred to no god, so 

Upper Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 119 

that No. 1009 is noteworthy. — Olass-Case C: Fine pectOTals or 
ecclesiastical breast-ornaments ; amulets against the evil eye. 

Olass-Case D : Sceptres, the pattern of No. 1010 being the favour- 
ite ; most of them date from the Saite period and were found atZakazik. 

Olass-Cases E-H : Amulets of vitreous paste, enamel, and ob- 
sidian, found on the site of the Labyrinth and other spots in the 
Fayum. — To the E. of these cases — 

1015. Four fine bronze statues of the lion-headed goddess Sekhet 
(Bast) and one of the hawk-headed Horus (the eyes were inserted), 
found at Sal's. 

To the W. of Cases A-H : *1016. Thueris in the form of a hip- 
popotamus, from Thebes (green serpentine). Thueris was the guard- 
ian of the souls of the dead, and her terrible appearence served to 
scare away evil spirits. This specimen displays admirable technic- 
al workmanship. 

N. part of the room : 1017-1020. Fine works in green basalt and 
serpentine, dating from the 30th Dynasty. 

Olass-Case I: Thoth and Anubis (with head of the ibis and 
jackal). — Olass-Case J: Ptah and Sekhet; Imhotep (the Egyptian 

Cabinet K. Upper division : 1021. Bronze head of Hathor emerg- 
ing from a lotus-flower. — Second division : 1023. Bronze shield, 
earned on a pole in processions. 

Glass Case L: Bronzes of the Saite period : 1024. Apis Bull, on a 
sledge, used for transporting it at great festivals ; *1026. Nefer-tum, 
son of Sekhet, in bronze inlaid with gold and enamel; 1027. An- 
huri, god of war; 1028. Nile-god Hapi ; 1029. Apis, with human 
form and bull's head ; 1030. Osiris Sahu (constellation of Orion). 
Nos. 1026-1030 were all found in the Serapeum at Sakkara. 1031. 
Fighting Bes, of the Greek period (comp. No. 999). 

Olass-Case M: 1032-1045. Bronzes (except 1033. Oxyrhynchos- 
flsh, sacred to Hathor, and 1039. Thueris, comp. No. 1016): 1032. 
Neith; 1035. Selk, guardian of the viscera preserved in the Canopic 
vases ; 1038, 1040. Khnum ; 1042. Ma, goddess of Truth, with the 
ostrich-feather; 1043. Ammon-Ra: 1044. Muth ; 1045. Hathor- 

Olass-Case N: 1061. Thueris (comp. No. 1016), in serpentine; 
1067. Silver vulture. All the other specimens (1046-1072) are 
bronzes, most of them found in the Serapeum at Sakkara and dating 
from the Saite period. 1047. Apis Bull on the sledge ; 1048. Nile- 
god Hapi; 1049. Horus and Thoth pouring the water of regeneration 
on a deceased man kneeling between them ; 1050. Apis, with a Carian 
inscription on the base, in addition to the hieroglyphics ; 1051. Im- 
hotep (^Esculapius), son of Ptah ; 1052. Hathor; 1053. Thoth as a 
cynocephalus ; 1054. Fine statuette of Ammon ; 1055. Osiris, Isis, 
Nephthys; 1056. Isis; 1057. Goddess Mehit or Hat Mehit; 1058. 
Hathor; 1059. Anubis; 1060. Osiris (these two inlaid with gold); 

120 Routed. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Upper Floor. 

1061. Thueris; 1062. Horus; 1063. Ichneumon; 1064. Atef-diadem 
(headdress of the gods); 1065. Osiris group; 1066. Mentu, god of 
the burning sun and of victory. 1068. Osiris as a mummy between 
Isis and Horus; behind Osiris is a sceptre in the form of a lotus, 
with a eoiled snake. 1069. Sekhet with the sun-disk ; 1070. Two- 
headed god, a personification of creative power ; 1071. Bull's head ; 
1072. Jackal's head (Anubis); 1073. Selk-Isis, in white marble, 
protecting the Osiris-mummy ; 1074. Bes-Hercules. 

Cabinet P: Steles from the Apis-tombs at Sakkara ; beneath, 1078. 
Mourning for Apis. — Olass-Case Q : Statuettes of Osiris and Isis ; 
Isis suckling Horus. — Qlass-Case R : 1090-1092. Bronze statuettes 
of Horus ; 1093. Crocodile with hawk's head, in limestone. — Olass- 
Case S: Osiris and Isis in bronze (1094), diorite, and electrum. 

Cabinet T: Osiris, Horus (bronze), Ptah (blue enamelled earthen- 
ware). — Cabinet V : Sekhet-Bast, in enamelled clay. — Cabinet W : 
Bes. — Cabinet X: Thueris (comp. No. 1016). 

Cabinet Y : Statuettes of the gods above named, in bronze gilt, 
enamel, lapis-lazuli, and gold (1105. Ma), of the Saite period. 

Cabinet Z : 1112. Vulture, sacred to Muth, the symbol of mother- 
hood (in lapis-lazuli); 1113. Enamelled terracotta statuette of Min 
or Khem, god of generation, often united with Ammon (Greek per- 
iod) : 1114. Child Khunsu with Ammon and Muth, the Theban 
triad (comp. Baedeker's Upper Egypt). 

Cabinets AA-AE: Small statuettes of Isis, Nephthys, and Horus; 
1122 in chased opalescent glass, from the Saite period. — Cabinet 
AF: Small figures of a deformed dwarf, explained by Maspero as the 
symbol of the passage from death to the new life, also known as 
Ptah-Sokar (Sokar is the dead embalmed Osiris, Ptah the creative 
power awakening new life in the dead). 

1. Botanical and Mineralogical Division. 

Boom LXXIII. This small room, to the N.E. of R. LXXII, con- 
tains specimens of ancient plants, flowers, fruit, and seeds, found 
in tombs. The flowers in the large glass-case on the "W. side of the 
room were found at Der el-Bahri (comp. below), and have been 
prepared and named by Dr. G. Schweinfurth. 

Room LXXIV contains specimens of stone occurring in Egypt 
or in its monuments. 

Room LXXV (Gallery) is used as a corridor and contains no- 
thing but sarcophagi, of which some date from the 26th Dynasty. 
— The door to the right at the end of the gallery opens into R. 
LXXVII, on the other side of which (to the right) is R. LXXVI, in 
which the series of royal and priestly mummies begins. 

m. Mummies found at Der el-Bahri near Thebes in Upper Egypt. 

The expulsion of the Hyksos was the achievement of the kings and 
the energetic priesthood of Thebes. The originally Ethiopian deity Am- 

Upper Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 121 

mon, whom they worshipped, was elevated by them to the dignity of 
Ammon-Ra, or king of the gods ; and the glory of Thebes soon eclipsed the 
fame of the older centres of worship at Heliopolis, the shrine of Turn, 
and Memphis, the shrine of Ftah. The kings presented the treasures 
amassed in their successful campaigns to the temple of Ammon-Ra at 
Thebes, and the priests in return bestowed divine honours on the kings 
and celebrated their deeds on the temple-walls. Soon, however, the kings 
became suspicious of the power of the priests, and turned once more to 
the cults of Lower Egypt ; this opposition finding its most distinct ex- 
pression in the religious apostacy of Khu-en-Aten (Amenhotep I V. ; comp. 
p. cviii), who favoured Asiatic forms of worship, and even ordered the 
name of Ammon to be deleted from the monuments at Thebes. But in 
the contest, the priests finally secured the upper hand, maintaining their 
position even during the brilliant period of the Ramessides (19th and 
20th Dyn.), after whose fall they seized the throne for themselves, estab- 
lishing an ecclesiastical monarchy in Upper Egypt that existed for a hundred 
years alongside of the secular kingdom of the Tanites in Lower Egypt. Fin- 
ally, the Bubastide Shethenk (p. ex) established himself as sole ruler in 
Thebes, and the priests of Ammon fled to Ethiopia, where they remained 
until their triumphant return with Piankhi. 

The mummies of the priests and of the early kings were buried origin- 
ally at Bib&n el-Multik. It is exceedingly probable that before their flight 
to Ethiopia, the priests removed all these mummies to a safe place of 
concealment at Der el-Bahri, where they rested undisturbed for 27 centu- 
ries, only emerging to the light of day in our own time (see Baedeker's 
Upper Egypt). — The first suspicions of the existence of the royal tombs 
at Der el-Bahri date from 1871, but the Arabs of the neighbourhood care- 
fully concealed their knowledge of them and long baffled the curiosity 
of travellers. Statuettes of Osiris, rolls of papyrus, and other objects 
offered for sale at Luxor gradually put investigators on the right scent, 
and finally in 1881 the source of these antiquities was discovered by Brugsch- 
Bey, yielding a treasure that surpassed the most sanguine expectations. — 
The mummies of the priests of Ammon were not discovered until 1891. 

Rooms LXXVI-LXXXIII : Mummies of the Priests of Ammon. 

Room LXXVI. The sarcophagi of this period usually consist 
of an outer and an inner case, both with lids, while the mummy 
within is encased farther in a third envelope of a kind of papier- 
mache", known as the 'cartonnage'. The present collection embraces 
more than 300 cases, lids, and cartonnages. The titles, 'divine 
Ammon-father' and 'Singer of Ammon', which are usually found 
applied to the male and female mummies respectively, indicate 
merely membership of the priestly caste, without any inference as 
to office or rank. The latter will be specially mentioned below. • — 
1135. Cartonnage of Pameshon, chief priest of Ammon, with the 
painting of a ram's head emerging from a flower; 1136. Coffin of 
Khunsu-em-heb, scribe of the domains of Ammon (comp. p. 17). 

RoomLXXVII. 1137, 1138. Children's coffins; 1139. Coffin 
adapted for a child by the insertion of a partition; 1140. Coffin of 
the youthful Ankhesnisit; 1141. Coffin of the youthful Tanneferf. 

RoomLXXVIH. 1142. Sarcophagus of Nesinebtaui ; 1143. Coffin 
of Duamenmat, with curious figures of gods and genii in the interior. 

Room LXXIX. 1144. Coffin of Paduamen, a priest of high rank. 
1145. Coffin of Dirpu; the linen garments found with this mummy 
are of remarkably fine material and workmanship; the flowers when 

122 Route 6. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. Upper Floor. 

first found retained their natural bright/colours, but have faded since 
exposed to te light. 1146. Sarcophagus of the 'Ammon-father' Ankh- 
fenmaut, originally belonging to a certain Tamertira, whose name has 
been allowed to remain. 1147. Sarcophagus of another Ankhfen- 
maut , a scribe of the domain of Ammon and priest of Queen Aah- 
hotep ; on the lid of the inner coffin, Amenhotep I. appears as a god. 

Room L XXX. 1149. Inner coffin-lid of Paifutaro, chief clerk 
in the office of the domains of Ammon; the divine honours paid to 
Amenhotep I. and the queens Ahmes Nefertari and Aah-hotep are 
mentioned here also. 1150. Inner coffin-lid of the Syrian Pakhali, 
also named Kha-nefer-amon, i.e., brave soldier of Ammon. Pakhali 
seems to have been ambassador of King Sheshenk at Thebes, so long 
as that monarch was friendly with the priests of Ammon, and he 
had attained a high priestly rank, which entitled him to penetrate 
to the third hall of the temple, known as the 'Heaven of Karnak'. 
The scenes on the sides of the coffins 1151 and 1151b should be 
observed. 1152. Coffin of a priest, who was entitled to penetrate to 
the sanctuary (pp. clxxiv, clxxv). 

Room LXXXI. 1153. Coffin, 1155. Cartonnage of two priests, 
initiated as managers into the secrets of the smelting-house of Am- 
mon. — 1154. Coffin of the Ammon and Muth father Nespaneferhir, 
scribe of the boys of Neferu. These latter occupied a position re- 
sembling that of the Khenrit, who are supposed to have been the 
sacred prostitutes common in Asiatic cults. — 1156. Cartonnage of 
Meritamen, in which the curious arrangement of the hair and the 
unusual position of the hands, arms, and drapery should be noticed. 
1157, 1157b. Inner coffin-lids of No. 1156 and of the coffin of another 
'singer of Ammon'; the outline of the body is plainly seen beneath 
the drapery, from which the bare feet project, as in the coffin of Isit 
(p. 125). 1158. Sarcophagus of Nesiamenap, one of the highest arch- 
priests, who might enter the sanctuary along with the 'prophets'. 
1159. Inner coffin of Tetmaausankh, with a remarkable representation 
of the sky; the scarab-headed god, who supports the sky, is watching 
the exchange of the life-fluid between heaven and earth. 

Room LXXXII. The sarcophagi in this division exhibit a 
different kind of workmanship. The outer cases are white and rather 
more elaborately adorned ; the inner cases are of a beautiful light 
yellow; and most of the cartonnages are also interesting. — 1160. 
Cartonnages of Paduamen, who bore ten of the most imposing titles, 
including that of 'first priest of Heliopolis', a titular rank ascribed in 
Thebes to the third priest of Ammon, in order to express the suprem- 
acy of Thebes over the cults of the North. 1161. Coffin of Mashasebekt 
(perhaps wife of the preceding), bearing five titles; 1162, 1165. Cof- 
fins of two 'Ammon-fathers', the latter of whom was also a priest 
of Khunsu; 1164. Cartonnage of Khunsu-en-renp, with four titles. 

Room LXXXIII. Coffins belonging to Tanefer and his family, 
who seem to have been the owners of the place in which the mum- 

Upper Floor. MUSEUM OF GIZEH. 6, Route. 123 

mies were ooncealed (p. 121). These coffins were originally very 
gorgeously equipped, of which traces may still he discerned, in 
spite of the spoliation they have undergone (gilt faces and hands 
torn off, etc.). The style of decoration exhibits a considerable degree 
of art, and may be taken as characteristic of the style of the 21st 
Dynasty. — 1166. Sarcophagus of Tanefer, with ten titles (resem- 
bling No. 1160), among which is that of 'steward of the herds in the 
domain of the sun-god', recalling the Homeric 'cattle of Helios'. 
These cattle at Thebes stood under divine protection, and any in- 
jury done to them was visited with the heaviest punishment. — 
1167, 1167b. Sarcophagus and cartonnage of Makeri (Ramaka); the 
former (like No. 1168) has retained its gilding ; the latter (ereoted 
between the windows) shows u